按时间 按人气 按推荐

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  • 2021-09-01告诉你“人生何其短”Our society has taken to worshiping tech giants,我们的社会已经开始崇拜那些 and the people who have created some of the在近二十年里 greatest innovations of the last 20 years.创造了巨大变革的科技巨人 People like Elon Musk,例如埃隆•马斯克 Steve Jobs, and Jeff Bezos are all revered as incredible people史蒂夫•乔布斯和杰夫•贝佐斯都是令人尊敬的人物 who seem to accomplish more in a day他们似乎能在一天里 than most people do in their entire lifetimes.达到大部分人一生都不能达到的成就 The amount of projects these people take on seems insurmountable,这些人取得的事业似乎是不可超越的 but in reality, how much can even these brilliant minds accomplish?但实际上 就算是这些聪明的头脑又有多少时间来实现(这些成就)呢 The truth is, the average life expectancy in the United States is 79 years,真相是 美国的平均寿命是79年 but the universe has been around for 13.8 billion years.但宇宙已经存在138亿年了 Our lives are nothing but a blip, then, right?(相比之下) 我们的生命只是一瞬 不是吗 Even if that’s the case, it’s easy to find a moment即便如此 还是可以抽空 here and there to sit in a meadow,在草地上随便坐坐 enjoy the flowers, and feel like your life has infinite time.享受花朵 就像你的生命是无限的似的 79 years, after all, is quite a lot.毕竟 79年还是很长的 But—let’s be honest.但是——说实话 You don’t really get 79 years of free time, do you?你并没有真的拥有79年的自由时间 不是吗? We’ve all heard the age-old saying that it takes 10,000 hours我们都知道老话说的好 要成为某个领域的巨人 to become a master at something.就要花费一万个小时 Well,if you have 79 years, that should be pretty easy.如果你能活到79岁 这应该相当容易 But if you sleep about 8 hours a day,但如果你一天睡8个小时 you will only be left with about 53 years.你就只有53年的时间 Okay,53 years is still a lot of time不过53年也很长 —but those years get chopped and banished into oblivion very quickly.但那些岁月被分成片段并很快被忘掉 You ’ ll probably attend school, and then higher education,你也许要上学 受高等教育 which kicks another few years off your life.这样你生命中的时间又减少了 What about your chores.你要做的杂活 Not the things your Mom asked you to do when you were a kid,不是那些你小时候你妈妈叫你做的事情 although those take away from your time on Earth, too.尽管它们也会消耗你的时间 We ’ re talking about all the time you ’ ll spend cooking, cleaning,我们说的是你在煮饭 清理 taking care of your kids,照顾孩子 and making sure bills are paid.以及在确定是否付了账单上所花的时间 These tasks may seem innocuous,这些任务似乎无伤大雅 but you ’ re going to end up spending 8 years of your life但你会花上8年的时间 doing this stuff.做这些事情 Then there’s your phone—and TV, and the internet.然后就是你的手机 电视和网络 Which will probably take up most of your free time它们可能会占据 after you ’ re finished with your job.你工作后的大部分时间 Roughly amounting to 15 years if you ’ re using your phone,你花费在手机上的时间大约有15年 or if you ’ re not that modern,要么你就没那么时髦 7 years worth of watching TV.看电视会用上7年 Oh—and then you have to factor in your job.哦—你还要在工作上花费时间 Your civic duty, your source of income,你的公民义务 你的收入来源 and the place where you ’ ll likely spend about以及其它地方可能要花 100,000 hours of life.大约10万小时 You better find something that makes you happy,你最好找一些让你开心的事 or at least you don ’ t hate..或者至少你不讨厌的事 But the grass is greener on the other side, right?但是得不到的总是最好的 不是吗? Once you retire, you’re free.一旦你退休了 你就空闲了 Not exactly.并非如此 Let’s say you, like most average Americans, retire at 65.假设你像大多数美国人一样在65岁退休 Much of the time65到79岁的大部分时间 between 65 and 79 may be spent trying to quell symptoms of debilitating conditions—if not disease.你可能要用来试着减轻身体衰弱的症状 —除非不生病 It ’ s not the happiest time on earth,这终究不是生命中最快乐的时光 and it ’ s called “ old-age ” for a reason.它因此被称为“老年” So where are we?所以 我们还有多长时间? Well,if you minus all the time calculated for all the activities above嗯 如果减去以上所有活动花费的时间 —you ’ re left with negative time on the Earth; negative-three years to be exact.——最终你只剩负的时间了 准确点说 负三年 How is that possible?这怎么可能呢? Is your life really taken away from you before it begins?你的生命真的在它开始前就在减少吗? It ’ s easy to view it that way,以这种方式观察很容易 but there ’ s a more positive way to look at everything we’ve discussed.但是有更积极的方式来看待我们讨论过的事物 Remember,you have freedom of choice in life.记住 在生命中你拥有自由选择权 You don ’ t have to spend 15 years of your life on your phone,你不一定要花15年在你的手机上 or 7 years of your life watching TV.或者7年时间在看电视上 Part of the magic of spending all that time taking care of yourself for 8 years你可以从花费在它们上的这些年里 抽出8年来照顾自己的身体 of your life is that your “ old-age ” might当你到“老年”的时候 end up being a time where you can feel young again.你可能会在某个时刻再次感到年轻 If you mindlessly scroll on your phone through useless articles,如果你漫无目的地用手机浏览无用的文章 that’s 15 years of your life gone.那你生命里的15年就会被浪费掉 If you hate your job and you can ’ t wait for it to end,如果你讨厌你的工作 并且不能忍受到退休 then that’s going to cost you 12 years of your life.你生命里的12年将被浪费 The idea is not about how much time we spend这个想法并不是说我们花了多长时间 but instead to be mindful about how we spend it.而是要留意我们是怎样用掉它的 Embrace the brevity of life for what it is, and savor every moment.拥抱短暂的生命并享受每一刻 Those prolific tech giants like Elon, Jobs and Bezos—那些富有成就的科技巨头 例如埃隆 乔布斯以及贝索斯 Do you think they are spending 15 years of their time mindlessly scrolling on their phones?你认为他们花了15年愚蠢的玩手机吗? We consider them masters of what they do.我们根据他们的所为把他们当做大师 Now let’s get back to the 10,000 hour rule.现在 我们回到1万小时规则 If you spent that 15 years on your phone,如果你在手机上花费15年 let’s say learning about your passions and doing the things you love,了解你的热情 做你喜爱的事情 you could master over a dozen art forms, professions or skills.你可以在艺术领域 职场 或技能上成为大师 Just think about how effective you can become想想你会变得多么有效率 if you only start to spend your time carefully.如果你开始小心地使用你的时间 If you want to view your time on Earth, remember,如果你想要在生命中审视自己 the most important thing to do is view it positively.记得 最重要的事情是 积极地去观察 Life on earth has been around for 3.8 billion years,地球上的生命已经存在了38亿年 but the most current moment is yours.但当下是属于你的 Now,take yourself back to that open field filled想象一下自己回到 with flowers and the sun high above your head.布满鲜花 太阳高高悬挂在你头顶的户外 Each of those flowers represents another day of your life filled with opportunities.每一朵花代表着你生命中充满机会的一天 Seem huge? Great. Spend it wisely.看上去有很多? 太棒了 要明智地利用你的时间
  • 2021-09-01自我管理《自我管理》彼特·德鲁克著Managing Oneself by Peter Drucker 当今是拥有大量的 前所未有的机遇的时代Today is a time of immense and unprecedented opportunity 以前你被迫做着同父辈们一样工作 不过那个时代已经过去了Gone are the days where you are stuck having to do the same job that your father did 你可以通过努力奋斗 凭着天赋和雄心达到职业的巅峰You can rise to the top of your profession with drive, talent and ambition 达到事业的颠峰 与你的出身无关and it doesn’t matter where you’ve come from. However, to achieve this you must look 你得关注自己的职业 不要依赖公司为你制定的职业规划after your own career and not rely on a company to do so for you 你也必须亲自确保全心全意投入工作并且满有效率You must also personally make sure you’re engaged and productive. 彼特·杜拉克在这本书里解释如何在这个世界站住脚以及何时改变立场In this book, Peter Drucker explains how to carve out your place in the world and when to change course. 他通过一系列的问题作出了阐述 我的长处是什么He does so by asking a series of questions. What are my strengths? 你得了解你擅长的东西 因为一个人只能通过长处而出众You need to know what you’re good at as a person can only perform from strengths. 而不是因缺点而出众 反馈分析是了解你长处的方法之一Performance cannot be built on weaknesses. The way to identify your strengths is through feedback analysis. 为重要决定与行动写下期望的结果Write down your expected outcomes for your key decisions and actions 9到12个月之后 与成果相比较then 9-12 months later, compare them with the results. 以反馈为基础 你就能为行为做一个汇总计划表Based on this feedback you can put together a plan of action: 将自己置身于长处能达到的成果之上Place yourself where your strengths can produce results. 努力提升自己的长处 避免知识上的无知 获得必备技能Work to improve your strengths. Avoid intellectual arrogance and acquire skills as required. 改掉所有坏习惯 事实上一个缺点可能就是一个坏习惯Remedy any bad habits. A weakness may in fact just be a bad habit. 例如 效率不高这个缺点可能是因为花费太多时间浏览网页For example, a weakness of not being productive could be due to browsing the internet too much. 彻底根除这个坏习惯能够改掉这个缺点Eliminating that bad habit could remove the weakness. 通过确定一些无法胜任的不需要做的领域 然后回避它们Know what not to do by identifying areas of incompetence and then avoiding them. 我该怎么做呢?杜拉克详细描述了多数人要么是个读者要么是个聆听者How do I perform? Drucker defines most people as being a either “reader” or a “listener”. 美国总统肯尼迪就是个读者 他周围聚集着一群智囊团作家President John F. Kennedy was a reader who surrounded himself with a brilliant group of writers who assisted him by writing to him 在辩论开始前几个月就亲自写信帮助他before discussing months with him in person. 另一位美国总统 罗斯福是一位聆听者Another American , Franklin D. Roosevelt was a listener, 他喜欢没有提前准备问题的新闻发布会 大家可以自由发表意见preferring free-for-all press conferences with no advanced warning of the questions 所以他不是靠读和写来讨论问题 而是公开地和大众讨论问题so he could discuss the matter out loud rather than reading and writing. 你可以通过许多途径来学习比如 阅读书籍 写作 实地做某事 坊间传闻 或者与别人交谈You may learn through reading, writing, doing, listening or talking. 最重要的是掌握工作方法The important thing is to always employ the methods that work. 并非要你从根本上来改造自己 而是要努力改善你工作的方式方法Rather than trying to radically change yourself, work harder to improve the way you perform instead. 我的价值是什么 从道德伦理方面讲杜拉克提倡他所宣称的镜面测试What are my values? When it comes to ethics, Drucker advocates what he calls the “mirror test”. 每天早上看着镜子里的人问自己 我想成为什么样的人Ask yourself “what kind of person do I want to see in the mirror in the morning?”. 自我价值观肯定会和你所在公司价值体系相兼容Your personal value system should also be compatible with that of the company that you work for. 避免去那些与你价值观不相同的公司工作Avoid conflicts where your values differ. 例如 公司是注重短期目标还是长期目标 它符合你的价值追求吗For example, is the company’s emphasis on short term results or long term goals and do they match yours? 最根本的测试是看你是否能和老板公事 你的定位是什么This is the ultimate test to see if you’re compatible with your employer. Where do I belong? 仅有一小部分人很早就知道他们的定位Only a small minority know at a young age where they belong. 数学家 音乐家 厨师 大约在四五岁的时候知道自己的天赋 未来从事的行业mathematicians,musicians and cooks but usually mathematicians, musicians and cooks by the time they’re four or five years old. 然而大多数人直到他们浑浑噩噩到了二十多岁的时候才知道自己的定位Most people do not know where they belong until they’re well past their mid-20s. 那时 他们想要获得很大的成功By then though, if they want to be highly successful 他们应该知道自己适合做什么 不适合做什么 因为事业的成功离不开计划they should know where they belong or rather where they do not belong as successful careers are not planned. 只有人们为机遇做好了准备时 事业才可能迎来成功Successful careers develop when people are prepared for opportunities 因为他们清楚自己的长处 工作方式 自我价值观because they know their strenghs, their way of working and their values. 知道一个人的天赋可以让能干的努力工作的平凡人Knowing where one belongs can transform an ordinary person that’s competent and hardworking 而不是其他的平凡人变成一个出众的人but otherwise mediocre, into an outstanding performer. 我能做什么贡献What should I contribute? 对一个 的员工来说 做出贡献要考虑以下几个因素The quest on contribution for a knowledge worker involves several elements: a)目前形势要求做什么a) What does the situation require? b)列出自己长处 方式方法 价值观 对于要做的工作我能做的最大的贡献是什么b) Given my strengths, methods and values, what is the greatest contribution that I could make to what needs to be done? c)需要取得什么成果才能有所作为?c) What results have to be achieved to make a difference? 在这种情况下 几乎不可能太过超前It is rarely possible to look too far ahead in this situation. 一个18个月的计划应该a)实现有意义的结果 并产生影响An 18 month plan should: a) Achieve meaningful results and make a difference 树立一些有点难度却有可以达到的目标b) Set stretched and difficult, but reachable goals c)获得一个可见和可量化的结果c) Gain a visible and measurable outcome. 员工应根据行为准则知道自己应该做哪些事their emploee should define codes and actions by planning what to do, 什么时候怎么样开始 制定目标以及实现最后期限where and how to start and deciding what goals, objectives and deadlines to set. 责任关系Responsibility for relationships 自我管理要求划分责任关系 因为大多数人是与他人合作共事To manage oneself requires taking relationship responsibility as most people work with other 人与人之间相互影响people and are effective through other people. 工作关系和工作一样都是基于人的Working relationships are as much based on people as on work. 重要的一点就是要承担交流沟通责任减少个性冲突It is important to take responsibility of communicating how you perform to reduce personality conflicts. 人与人之间的信任是公司建立的基石Trust between people is what companies are built on. 这并不意味着 同事之间一定要互相喜欢 而是要彼此理解This doesn’t mean that colleagues necessarily like each other, but they understand one another. 杜拉克做出个结论 在当代工作职场中 自我管理要求个体中前所未有的东西Drucker concludes that in the modern working world, managing oneself requires unprecedented things from the individual. 实际上这意味这每个有知识员工 应该想CEO那样思考和做事This in effect means that each knowledge worker should think and behave like a CEO.
  • 2021-09-01轻松记住古代七大奇迹在这个视频中 我将会调动你的大脑In this video I’m going to hack your brain 以一种比你想象的更快更有效的方式and make you memorize the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World 记住来自远古世界的七大奇迹faster and more effectively than you ever thought possible. 高效记忆的关键是将事物呈现在脑海中以及学会联想The key to effective memorization is visualization and association. 我将会向你详细展示要在脑中想象出的形象I’ll show you exactly what to visualize in your mind, 以及如何将其和七大奇迹的名字联系在一起and how to link it to the name of each of the 7 Wonders. 专注于在头脑中描绘每一幅图画Focus on imagining each drawing in your head, 你会惊奇地发现很容易就能记住每件事and you’ll be stunned how easily you remember everything. 当你需要回想起七大奇迹的时候When you need to recall the 7 ancient wonders, 下面是你会想象出的画面here’s what you’ll visualize. 七个古代人满脸疑问的站在一起Seven ancient people are standing in a group, wondering. 他们中有的拄着步行手杖 有的扶着助行架Some have walking canes or walking frames, 有些坐着轮椅some are in wheelchairs. 他们都想了解某些事儿They’re all wondering about something 其中有些人挠着自己的脑袋或托着下巴some are scratching their head or chin, 他们顶着问号的头上 都有一个(表示)思考的气泡and they have thought bubbles above their heads with question marks. 现在 当你在想七大奇迹的时候Now, when you think of the 7 ancient wonders, 就会想到这群奇妙的 满脸疑惑的古人you’ll imagine this wonderful group of ancient people, wondering. 我们要记忆的第一个世界奇迹是埃及吉萨金字塔The first ancient wonder we’ll memorize is the Great Pyramid of Giza, 我们可以想象出一座巨大的鹅塔来记住它and we’ll remember that by imagining a grater pyramid of geese, 吉萨和鹅(英文)的发音相似which sounds similar. 想象着古人拖着双腿走向一个巨大的刨丝器(像干酪刨丝器)The ancient people begin to shuffle towards a giant grater (like a cheese grater) and 而且它是金字塔的形状it’s in the shape of a pyramid. 在刨丝器的顶上站着几只鹅Standing on the grater pyramid are a few geese. 当你想到这座站着鹅的刨丝器金字塔时When you picture this grater pyramid of geese, 就能想起吉萨金字塔了you’ll recall the Great Pyramid of Giza. 下一个是古巴比伦空中花园Next is the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, 听起来有点像婴儿润肤露空中花园which sounds a bit like hanging gardens of baby lotion. 想象其中一只鹅从刚刚的金字塔上飞下来One of the geese flies away from the grater pyramid, 撞到了悬放着植物的高塔but crashes into a tower of hanging plants. 植物上长满了婴儿润肤露的瓶子Growing from the plants are bottles of baby lotion. 这是一座婴儿润肤露空中花园It’s a hanging garden of baby lotion, 这幅图可以帮你记住古巴比伦空中花园and it’s going to make you remember the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. 接下来是奥林匹亚宙斯神像The Statue of Zeus at Olympia is the next ancient wonder 我们要用到的联想是“奥林匹克运动会动物园神像”so we’ll use ‘statue of zoos at the Olympics’. 一个婴儿润肤露的瓶子从空中花园掉下来A bottle of baby lotion falls from the hanging garden 落在了其中一座雕像上and lands on one of a number of statues. 这是一些动物园里的动物雕像The statues are of zoo animals 但它们都站在奥运会赛道上but they’re in the middle of the Olympics. 几名跑步运动员已蓄势待发There are runners lined up ready to race, 背景是某位运动员在跳高and someone’s high jumping in the background. 一想到奥运会上的动物雕像Picture the zoo statues at the Olympics 你就能想起奥林匹亚宙斯神像and you’ll recall the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. 下一个古代奇迹是位于以弗所的阿尔忒弥斯神殿The next ancient wonder is the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 这次我们要联想的是位于F&S的一座文艺老鼠庙This time we’ll go with temple of art mouse at F&S. 有一座动物雕像掉了下来 砸中了庙里的一只老鼠One of the zoo statues falls over and hits a mouse on the temple, 正中头部the side of its head, 肿起了一个大块giving him a large bump. 这只老鼠是一只文艺老鼠The mouse is an art mouse, 它戴着贝雷帽 穿着罩衫 像位法国艺术家he’s dressed like a French artist, with a beret and smock 它拿着调色板和画笔and he’s holding a paint palette and brush. 站在庙里 在它正画着的F&S字母跟前He’s standing in front of the letters F&S which he’s been painting. 满脑子里都是头上的肿块Focus on that bump on his temple, 想到位于F&S的文艺老鼠庙think of the temple of the art mouse at F&S 你就能想起位于以弗所的阿尔忒弥斯神殿and that will prompt you to recall the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 下一个是哈利卡尔那索斯陵墓The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus is next, 你可以想象汽车拉力赛边上的老鼠博物馆来记住它and you’ll remember that by picturing a mouse museum at rally car races. 那只被雕像砸中的文艺老鼠画够了之后The art mouse has had enough of painting after being hit by the statue, 决定去参观老鼠博物馆so he decides to go visit a mouse museum. 博物馆外有一些小老鼠There are small mice on the outside of the museum 但我不确定里面有啥but I’m not sure what’s inside 可能是奶酪吧– maybe cheese. 老鼠博物馆位于汽车拉力赛赛道的右侧The mouse museum is located right next to a rally car race track 有许多赛车经过and there are rally cars racing straight past. 联想一下汽车拉力赛边上的老鼠博物馆Create a mental picture of the mouse museum at the rally car races 你就会记得哈利卡尔那索斯陵墓了and you’ll remember the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. 下一个古代奇迹是罗兹岛巨像The next ancient wonder is the Colossus of Rhodes. 听起来有点像公路上的煤炭绿洲That sounds a bit like coal oasis of roads. 想象一下 其中一辆赛车冲出赛道Imagine one of the rally cars goes off the track 撞上绿洲边上的棕榈树and crashes into a palm tree at the side of an oasis. 绿洲里面到处都是煤而不是水 所以称为煤炭绿洲Instead of water, the oasis is filled with dark coal, it’s a coal oasis. 四条公路从绿洲里延伸而出Stretching out from the oasis are four paved roads, 所以它被称为公路上的煤炭绿洲so it’s known as the coal oasis of roads. 一想到那个场景你就会想起罗兹岛巨像Picture that scene and you’ll recall the Colossus of Rhodes. 最后一个古代奇迹是亚历山大港灯塔The final ancient wonder is the Lighthouse of Alexandria. 这个比较难 但是我们可以想像一座底部有人手持麦芽酒的灯塔That’s a tough one, but let’s go with lighthouse of ale hand rear. 煤炭绿洲的中间屹立着一座灯塔Out of the middle of the coal oasis, a lighthouse rises up. 灯塔的底部有一只手 拿着一大杯冰麦芽酒Painted on the rear of the lighthouse is a hand holding a large frosty glass of ale, 这是一种啤酒which is a type of beer . 想象一座灯塔 底部有只手拿着麦芽酒Clearly picture that lighthouse with an ale in a hand, on its rear, 会让你联想到亚历山大港灯塔and that will link straight away in your mind to the Lighthouse of Alexandria. 就这样 你已经记住古代七大奇迹了And that’s it, you’ve just memorized the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World! 现在 当你想起七大古代奇迹时Now, when you think of the 7 ancient wonders 要先想象七个满脸疑惑地 站着的古人you’ll picture those 7 ancient people standing around wondering. 有人慢吞吞地走向上面有鹅的刨丝器塔Some of them shuffle over to the grater pyramid of geese 即吉萨金字塔The Great Pyramid of Giza. 其中一只鹅飞进婴儿润肤露花园One of the geese flies into the hanging garden of baby lotion 即古巴比伦空中花园The Hanging Gardens of Babylon. 一些婴儿润肤露掉到了奥运会赛场上的动物园雕像上Some baby lotion falls onto a zoo statue at the Olympics 即奥林匹亚宙斯神像the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. 一座雕像倒了并砸中位于F&S的文艺老鼠庙A statue falls and hits the temple of an art mouse at F&S 即阿尔忒弥斯神殿the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 老鼠走进了汽车拉力赛边的老鼠博物馆The mouse goes to a mouse museum at the rally car races 即哈利卡尔那索斯陵墓the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. 一辆赛车撞上煤炭绿洲公路上的树A rally car crashes into a tree at the coal oasis of roads 即罗兹岛巨像the Colossus of Rhodes. 屹立于绿洲的灯塔的底部有一只拿着麦芽酒的手And a lighthouse rises out of the oasis with an ale in a hand on its rear 即亚历山大港灯塔the Lighthouse of Alexandria. 记住古代七大奇迹是不是又快又简单呢The 7 Wonders of the Ancient World, how quick and easy was that? 如果你想在学习的时候Imagine if you could memorize this easily, 能一直这样轻松地记忆when you study, all the time. 如果你想掌握快速记忆的方法 欢迎访问Memorize Academy网站If you’d like to learn how, visit the Memorize Academy website, 登录即可获得免费的教学视频register for the free video training, 你会学到一些最佳的记忆技巧and you’ll learn some foundation best-practice memorization techniques with 我的独一无二的教学视频将会改变你的学习方法my one-of-a-kind video training that will transform the way you study and learn. 帮你战胜考试and help you crush your exams. 请给本视频点赞或分享Please give this video a like and share, 欢迎在评论区告诉我们and please leave a comment below and tell me if 现在 你已经记住古代七大奇迹了you can recall the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World, right now. 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  • 2021-09-01孙子兵法•第三•谋攻篇第一点Lesson number 1. 孙子曰:夫用兵之法 全国为上Sun Tzu said: In the practical art of war, the best thing of all is to take the enemy’s 破国次之;country whole and intact; to shatter and destroy it is not so good. 全军为上 破军次之;全旅为上 破旅次之;全卒为上 破卒次之;So, too, it is better to capture an entire army, a regiment or company 全伍为上 破伍次之rather than to destroy it. 阿拉伯的劳伦斯在第一次世界大战Lawrence of Arabia led an army in a revolt 对抗土耳其时带领过一支军队against the Turkish in the First World War. 一边 土耳其枪炮对海而设Huge Turkish guns faced the sea on one side 另一边 广袤的沙漠不可逾越and a vast desert deemed uncrossable was on the other. 土耳其人并没意识到后方会受到威胁 他们的枪支不可能转向后方Expecting no threat from behind, their guns could not be turned around. 劳伦斯带领他的战士们穿过沙漠 进攻并占领了土军的城市Lawrence led his men across the desert, attacking and capturing the city, 使得敌方的枪炮形同虚设rendering the guns useless. 劳伦斯的突击击败了土耳其的驻守 俘虏了大部分士兵Lawrence’s surprise attack defeated the Turkish garrison, most of whom were captured 并没有杀戮他们 城市保持完整instead of killed and the city remained intact. 攻击敌人的弱点将会赢得整个战争Attack your enemy’s weaknesses and win the battle whole. 在没必要进行旷日持久的战争行动的时候去攻击敌人Harming people when it is not necessary creates enduring hostility. 如果你不战而胜就会令人生畏If you show superiority without fighting, it invokes awe. 第二点Lesson number 2. 故上兵伐谋 其次伐交To fight and conquer in all your battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence 其次伐兵 其下攻城consists in breaking the enemy’s resistance without fighting. 赫尔莫特·冯·毛奇长老最大的胜利就是Helmuth von Moltke the Elder’s greatest triumph was the victory over the huge French 在普法战争中 用相对不太血腥的方式打败了强大的法国军队army in the Franco-Prussian war, won with relatively little bloodshed. 毛奇包围了法国人撤退所至的堡垒Moltke surrounded the fortress the French had retreated to. 他请求援军 封锁了所有可能的逃跑路线Calling for reinforcements he sealed off all possible escape routes. 意识到战况不可逆转拿破仑二世举起白旗投降Realising the position was hopeless, Napoleon II raised the white flag and surrendered. 所有活着的敌军均被俘虏All surviving troops were captured. 如果敌人意识到你可以轻松打败他们那么就几乎没人愿意轻易发动战争If the enemy sees that you can defeat them with ease, then few will seek simply to fight 耻辱赴死to a predictable and humiliating death. 第三点Lesson number 3. 攻城之法 为不得已The rule is not to besiege walled cities if it can possibly be avoided. 修橹 具器械The preparation of siege engines and other various implements of war, 三月而后成will take up three whole months; 距堙 又三月而后已and the building of ram parts over the walls will take three months more. 在南非的布尔战争初期At the start of the Boer War in South Africa, 英国人准备不足且盲目自大the British were not prepared and overconfident. 布尔人全副武装 首先出击 包围城镇The Boers were well armed and struck first, besieging towns. 尽管准备不足 英国人通过建造防御工事Despite not being ready, the British defended the town by building fortifications, 枪炮和瞭望塔进行防卫guns and watch towers. 然后他们引进庞大援军 进行回击They then brought in heavy reinforcements and fought back. 布尔人失去优势 给了对手恢复的时间The Boers had lost their advantage, giving their opponents time to recover 接着他们败了战争and they went on to lose the war. 包围一个严防死守之地很难Laying siege to a strongly defended location is hard work, 很可能要花费很长时间并且需要大量资源will probably take a long time and takes much resource. 敌暗我明Your troops are exposed while theirs are hidden. 第四点Lesson number 4. 将不胜其忿The general, unable to control his irritation 而蚁附之will launch his men to the assault like swarming ants, 杀士卒三分之一and the result that one-third of his men are slain, 而城不拔者while the town still remains untaken. 此攻之灾也Such are the perils of a siege. 日本上将乃木希典 发动军队包围The Japanese general Nogi Maresuke, sent his troops to lay siege 俄军占领的亚瑟港on the Russian-held Port Arthur. 尽管最终取得胜利Despite eventually being victorious, 木希典用人身抵挡大炮枪支Maresuke used human wave attacks on artillery and guns 导致了大量伤亡leading to massive losses. 直面攻不可破的军队时的挫折感Frustration in the face of an impenetrable enemy 对任何将领来说都是危险的存在is a dangerous companion for any leader, 如同扰乱判断力的其他情感as is any emotion that clouds judgement. 第五点Lesson number 5. 故善用兵者 屈人之兵而非战也The skilful leader subdues the enemy’s troops without any fighting; 拔人之城而非攻也he captures their cities without laying siege to them; 毁人之国而非久也he overthrows their kingdom without lengthy operations in the field. 拿破仑·波拿马用他的战略之识 以最小的损失 打败澳大利亚上将卡尔·马克·冯·莱贝锡Napoleon Bonaparte used his strategic knowledge to defeat Austrian general Karl Mack von Leiberich 和他的军队and his troops with minimal losses to his own army. 波拿马的军力是马克预料中的三倍 包围了敌方的部队Bonaparte surrounded Mack’s forces with an army three times the size Mack was expecting, 切断了所有逃跑路线cutting off any escape routes. 由于最初马克拒绝投降 他的副将意识到战况无望Initially refusing to submit, Mack’s deputies realised the position was futile 而发动了叛变and started a mutiny. 投降随之而来Surrender soon followed. 战之上策为不战The best way of fighting is to avoid fighting. 赢之上策The best way to win a war is with a greater strategy 以用出其不意精心谋划之策that out-plans and out-manoeuvres the enemy, 如此 敌人方可投降 以免耻辱战败so that they are forced to concede or else suffer a humiliating defeat. 第六点Lesson number 6. 必以全争于天下With his forces intact he will dispute the mastery of the Empire, 故兵不顿 而利可全and thus, without losing a man, his triumph will be complete. 此谋攻之法也This is the method of attacking by stratagem. 波拿马也曾用此英勇之策击败敌军Bonaparte also used bold manoeuvres to defeat his rivals. 当尽力抢占一至关重要却布满陷阱的桥时When trying to capture a crucial but booby-trapped bridge, 他的两名军官踱步至澳营two of his officers strolled up to the Austrian guards 宣称已签订休战协定and said that a truce had been signed. 随后 法军抛去行军之阵 漫步桥上 肆意玩笑French soldiers soon causally walked and joked over the bridge rather than marching. 一过桥 却抓住守卫 不费一兵一卒夺得该桥Once they crossed the bridge, the guards were seized and the bridge was taken undamaged. 打仗削弱兵力 兵力限制上将发动战争Fighting wars diminishes forces which limits the number of wars a commander can wage. 假使兵力未损 军需所耗甚少If, however, soldiers are not lost and few munitions are used, 则军队可以极少额外之需 战无不胜 所向披靡then the army may march and defeat all in its path with little additional cost. 第七点Lesson number 7. 将乃国之护墙Now the general is the protective wall of the State; 墙若稳固 则国稳固if the wall is complete at all points; the State will be strong; 墙若飘摇 则国之不保if the wall is defective, the State will be weak. 二战之前Prior to the Second World War, 英国总理内维尔·张伯伦在澳大利亚被侵时British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was not prepared to intervene 并无干涉之意 想借以绥靖政策做出让步 避免矛盾when Austria was invaded and preferred appeasement and making concessions to avoid conflict. 外交官和政治家们 如同玩扑克游戏一般使用技巧和精力去追击Diplomats and politicians pursued this with skill and nerve like a game of poker, 但是敌人并不是在玩扑克牌but the enemy wasn’t playing poker. 尽管张伯伦声明和平已经到来Despite Chamberlain claiming to have brought peace, 但是德国人还是继续侵略 欧洲国家the Germans continued to invade European countries. 随着张伯伦的支持减少 他辞了职 随后便有新的领袖被选出来With Chamberlain’s support dwindling, he resigned and a new leader was chosen. 如果领袖态度软弱的话 那么他们的决策和命令的执行力也会很弱If leaders are weak then their decisions and orders will be weak. 因此 委派一个一贯强硬的领袖对国家来说至关重要Therefore, it is vital for the state to appoint consistently strong leaders. 第八点Lesson number 8. 知可以战与不可以战者胜He will win who knows when to fight and when not to fight. 哈普斯堡皇室公爵利奥波德二世开始镇压瑞士反叛The Habsburg Duke Leopold II set out to suppress a revolt by the Swiss. 在他与他的军队 包括重装铠甲骑士攀登山坡时Ascending a mountainside with his army including heavily armoured knights, 他们发现自己在一条小径上被敌人封锁they found themselves hemmed in on a path blocked by the enemy 并且被紧紧包围在狭小空间里and became crammed in together in the narrow space. 而瑞士军队 则隐藏在森林繁茂的山坡上Swiss infantry, hidden on the wooded hillside above, 放开原木滚石将哈普斯堡部队rolled tree trunks and boulders down onto the Habsburg force, 的士兵砸的掉入山下的湖中knocking men off the cliff into Lake below. 挑选合适的时间和地点去攻击敌人Pick the right time and place to fight. 对地势和战况的认识有助于战斗An understanding of geography and the situation is useful. 意识到敌人的力量Beware of an enemy who have strength in either. 第九点Lesson number 9. 识众寡之用者胜He will win who knows how to handle both superior and inferior forces. 在阿金库尔战役中 亨利五世对战法国军队In the Battle of Agincourt, Henry V took on his French opponents, 尽管英军只有法军人数的四分之一despite having only one quarter of the amount of troops they had. 亨利五世的胜利部分归功于那块狭小的麦田He was victorious in part due to the small, narrow field 也就是展开战斗的地方where the battle took place, 他让弓箭手在较远的距离开始射箭allowing his archers firing arrows over a much longer distance 最前面有他们扎下的木桩来起保护作用to be protected by his men armed with stakes on the front line. 你不一定总能拥有最强的军队You will not always have the greatest army. 可你还是能取胜的Yet you can win. 重要的是要懂得正确的战略It is important to know the right fighting strategy. 第十点Lesson number 10. 上下同欲者胜He will win whose army is animated by the same spirit throughout all its ranks. 葛底斯堡战役中 约书亚·张伯伦上校是北方联邦军的将领Colonel Joshua Chamberlain was commanding the Union troops in the Battle of Gettysburg. 当时他们的兵力远低于对方 而且无力抵抗下一次攻击They were outnumbered and unable to hold off another attack. 绝望中 张伯伦率领士兵端着刺刀冲向As a desperate measure Chamberlain had his soldiers 配备着步枪的敌军charge into the enemy rifles with their bayonets. 这样一名中尉叫喊着 挥动着自己的佩剑一马当先地冲在前面A Lieutenant ran forward, waving his sword and shouting. 为别的士兵树立了榜样 跟着他一起英勇战斗The other troops followed his courageous example. 他们粉碎了两队南方的联盟军 拯救了北方联邦They shattered two lines of Confederate troops, and saved the Union. 具有坚定的目标并且明白将领的意愿A constant purpose and knowing the commander’s intent 可以使军队团结一致 志向明确地凝结在一起keeps an army together with a clear, cohesive focus. 第11点Lesson number 11. 攻而必取者 攻其所不守也He will win who has prepared himself and waits to take the enemy unprepared. 一战期间的加里波利之战对于英军来说是一场巨大的灾难The British campaign in Gallipoli during the First World War was a huge disaster 部分原因在于协约国没有对艰险的地势做出充分的准备partly due to how unprepared the allies were for the difficult and rugged terrain. 英军也没有准备好应对土耳其军队的抵抗力量They also weren’t ready for the strength of the Turkish resistance 他们事先布下地雷阵 取得显著成效who used land mines to great effect. 一个军队 真正用于战斗的时间相当少An army will spend very little time actually fighting, 可是在不战的时候 就要为战斗做准备but when it is not in combat, it should be preparing. 准备不足就是准备失败Failing to prepare is preparing to fail. 如果你准备充分而敌方准备不充分If you’re prepared but your enemy isn’t, 那你就拥有了巨大的优势then you have huge advantage. 第12点Lesson number 12. 将能而君不御者胜He will win who has the military capacity and the sovereign does not interfere in his command. 拿破仑·波拿巴是军队最高指挥者之一Napoleon Bonaparte was one of the great military leaders. 他在战场上所向披靡As well as ruling on the battlefield, 同样 他也成功地策划了一场政变he also successfully engineered a coup 来取得法国政权 加冕称皇to gain political power in France, crowning himself Emperor. 拿破仑的非凡成就He owed much of his extraordinary success 归功于他不会被任何中央集权左右to the fact that he was then not hampered by any other central authority. 统治者知道如何统治国民Rulers know how to rule civilians. 将帅知道如何打仗Generals know how to fight. 统治者的目标是重要的The intent of the ruler is important, 而战略战术要由最精通的人去制定but tactics and strategy should be left to those who understand them the best. 第13点Lesson number 13. 知己知彼If you know the enemy and know yourself, 百战不殆you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. 不知彼而知己If you know yourself but not the enemy, 一胜一负for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. 不知彼 不知己If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, 每战必殆you will succumb in every battle. 一位中国皇帝苻坚Fu Chien, the Chinese Emperor 在公元383年与敌军进行大规模交战marched with a vast force against rival armies in 383 A.D. 尽管有大臣以兵力不精良为由 警告皇帝停止交战Despite being warned by advisors not to continue due to having poorly trained soldiers, 苻坚却说:“朕今有近百万大军 兵多将广 人多势众he said: “I have the population of eight provinces at my back, 投鞭于江 足断其流they could dam up the Yangtsze River by merely throwing their whips into the stream. 岂惧天险?”What danger have I to fear?” 果然 他的军队很快战败His forces were soon decisively beaten in battle 并不得不匆忙撤退and he was forced to make a hasty retreat. 自信而不自知是危险的Self-belief without self-knowledge is dangerous. 知己而不知彼同样危险Knowing yourself without knowing the opposition is also dangerous. 知己知彼 胜乃不殆With full knowledge, you can always win. 不知己不知彼 每战必败With weak knowledge you can always fail. 坦然面对自己 了解敌人胜过他自己Be honest with yourself and know the opponent better than he knows himself.
  • 2021-09-01互联网可以悄悄改善你生活的7种方式大家好 我是来自《财务早餐》的Chelsea 本周的视频由wikibuy赞助播出 我们都知道自己很容易关注到 互联网对生活产生的不良影响 从引战行为以及评论区…… 就像本支视频下面的评论区 到虚假信息的大量传播 还有可能正给我们的眼睛和上背 带来各种问题的超长屏幕使用时间 但是对于包括我在内的很多人来说 互联网是迄今为止出现过的最重要的工具之一 坦白讲 如果不是互联网 也不会有《财务早餐》 并且不论是工作上的还是私人的 我生命中的很多重要的人际关系都 来自互联网 但除了让你能够认识很多志趣相投的人 而不是非得局限于活动范围内 互联网还有很多鲜为人知的使用方法 可以让你的生活得到显著改善 当然前提是你得正确使用它 言归正传 以下是互联网可以悄悄改善你生活的7种方式 第1种 在手机上轻松记录你每天的活动水平 如果你用智能手机 那它上面很可能已经预装了一个应用 来记录你的步数 爬了几层楼 或者基础活动水平等等 比如苹果健康 Google Fit等 不过你也可以选择很多更高级的专门应用 来实现各种健康目标 你可以开始设置自己的目标 不一定要局限于那些随意的 人气很高的目标 也就是有名的“一万步”之类的目标 仅仅是了解自己的健康水平 并且知晓它一整天都在被记录 也会让你更加意识到自己想要进步的意愿 因为即便活动水平只提高一点点 也会对你的健康大有益处 哈佛大学T.H. Chan公共卫生学院的一项研究显示 基本上 对于老年女性来说 低至每天2000步的运动量提升 即不到1英里的步行 也是有利于健康的 但即便你不是老年女性 我们经常面临的最严重的问题之一 是在ins上学习健身知识的同时 完全不爱活动 除了记录基础日常活动 还有大量不可思议的习惯养成应用 有助于确保你为自己设定的目标负责 我们该想想智能手机之类的东西 能怎样在非使用时间帮助我们 因为我们想找到 既不增加屏幕使用时间 又能让它们成为生活添加剂的方式 后台运行来追踪记录 或者只需一天更新一次 意味着你无需黏在手机上 就可以获得益处 我们的内容负责人Holi使用“循环习惯跟踪器” 每晚8点提醒她 记录当天是否运动了 她只需要简单地选择“是”或“不是” 该应用就会自动记录 她能在多大程度上坚持该目标 很长时间以后 她就可以回顾这些记录 并看看有何规律 第2种 使用wikibuy 在日常消费中省钱 如果你大部分时间在家 那么网购的时候 你可能会比平常买得更多 为了在这些无论如何都会进行的网购中省钱 你应该试试wikibuy wikibuy是可用于很多浏览器的免费程序 它瞬间便能从数千个零售网站寻找到众包优惠码 放入你的购物车中 wikibuy提供亚马逊 沃尔玛的会员积分 以及数千种其他零售商的会员积分 而这些积分可以兑换礼品卡 当你浏览亚马逊 塔吉特 家得宝或其他零售商的网站时 在付款前 如果一个商品在其他某地方更便宜的话 浏览器会弹出一个带有按钮的友好小弹窗来提醒你 无需浪费时间寻找优惠码 或是在不同零售网站比较价格 wikibuy将为您代劳 点击我们简介里的链接 试试wikibuy吧 第3种 找到传统的大学和研究生院之外 更多可能的教育途径 对于可能突然面临 未来一段时间都接受线上课程情况的人来说 请放心 研究表明这些课程实际上对帮助学生保持进度 非常有益 根据亚利桑那州立大学的一项研究 线上课程实际上可能有助于增加 学生毕业的可能性 研究发现 3/4提供面授和线上课程两种课程的机构 参加过线上课程的学生 留校率和毕业率更高 以休斯敦社区学院为例 完全线上授课或混合授课大一新生留校率 至少高出9个百分点 在中佛罗里达大学 40%至60%课程采用线上授课的学生 比不接受线上课程的学生更早完成学位课程 他们完成学位课程的时间为3.9年 相比之下 只接受面授课程的学生需要4.3年 这很好理解 只要你考虑一下 参与面授课程时 为了每次课按时出勤 可能会遇到多少困难 对于我们中的很多人而言 高等教育的代价是 不得不半工半读 哪怕是兼职 所有课程全部面授 没有任何灵活性 带来的不便 意味着比起调整课程安排适应需求 最终你可能不得不逃课 我最近在听纽约大学Scott Galloway教授的播客 我会把链接放在简介中 在播客中 这个教授谈论了这次新冠疫情 可能怎样改变未来的教育 他预测 很多大学最终会倒闭 由于不再能够通过面授课程 及老师学生间的线下交流抬高价格 人们会发现 适应性更强的虚拟/在线驱动教育 甚至不强制要求待在家里 实际上更好 还要注意 在线学习确实为各种残疾学生 拓展了学习的可能途径 无论是情感上 心理上 还是身体上 这些残障人士很少提起自己学习 或擅长某一学科的能力 但是可能常提起 他们缺乏接受常规面授课程所要求的能力 即使一个身体状况足以到达教室的人 面对这种课程结构也可能遇到很多困难 如果他患有某些疾病 例如严重焦虑 或注意力不集中症(ADHD) 他可能会发现 面授课程 能让参加考试这样简单的事 变得几乎不可能 通过增加受教育的途径 我们本质上是让更多不同群体能够接受教育 第4种 简化存储 分类照片的方式 关于智能手机和摄影 这里有一种悖论 随心所欲地拍照 比以往任何时候都更加容易 但这也使我们很少欣赏这些照片 很难真正记住重要的事情 很难有条理地储存照片 让自己能以希望的方式回看与浏览它们 我想大家都有这种非常尴尬的时刻 在图片库中向上滚动 寻找某位朋友的婚礼照片时 会滑过一片一片令人窒息的蹩脚自拍 但很多人甚至都没有意识到 大部分智能手机内置 对照片进行分类 导航 以及筛选的功能 例如 你可以利用苹果手机或安卓手机的搜索功能 来查找“海滩”或者“猫咪” 实际上手机自己就可以识别这些事物 你也可为相册中的人添加标签 然后当他们出现在其他照片中时 手机就会自动为其加标签 你可以用地图特写 通过位置来为照片分类 就可以快速地找到诸如 “去年的米诺卡岛(Minorca)之旅”之类的照片 在云服务中 例如Amazon Drive Google Drive Dropbox 以及其他免费或便宜的线上存储设施 几乎有无数种方法能将照片移出你的手机 放入精致 整洁 分类精细的相册 从而确保你不会因为手机里乱糟糟地堆满许多照片 而意外删除真正想保存的那些 第5种 更容易地支持你的社区 录制这期视频时 在纽约市 我们仍然处于社交距离限制中 与新冠疫情作斗争 这意味着 我们比以往任何时候 都离周边人 商户 组织等距离更远 我们《财务早餐》的所有人 以及你们中的很大一部分 都非常关心 如何支持身边的人 商户 组织 同时不必破坏任何这些重要的规定 我们这样想是对的 因为为当地社区花钱具有非常多好处 一项研究发现 在收入相同的情况下 平均每个个体零售商创造的工作岗位 是亚马逊的两倍 很多人可能已经在ins之类的平台上 关注自己最喜欢的一些商店和餐厅了 如果你还没有 现在就去吧 因为我确信大部分商家 疫情期间会在社交平台上 提供清晰 简单 且最能支持他们的方法 仅仅增加他们在社交平台上的曝光量 也是一个巨大的帮助 对于本地组织来说 从数据上看 很多组织现在比之前更活跃 我所在的本地社区联盟 已将会议次数由每月一次增加为每月两次 因为对于大部分成员来说 现在能更容易地通过Zoom参加会议 很多地方现在也出现着很多脸书小组 帮助邻里团结起来 寻找互相帮助的方法 无论你现在能提供时间 金钱 帮助无法自行前往杂货店的人 或者只是一个电话 让别人不那么孤独 利用网上资源 与他人保持联系 关注当地经济 最终可能让我们感觉比原来联结更紧密 因为我们有认真了解正在发生什么 而不是视若无睹 说到这 第6种是感到联系更紧密 更不孤单 这点很特别 说到这点 不得不再次提到现在的情况 在我录制这期视频时 纽约仍然是强制社交距离/暂停状态 世界各地的大家也可能以某种方式体验着 视频会议和社交媒体 成了我们仅有的与他人保持联络的方法 可能几周之前 我们还与这些朋友上街闲逛 但是 不是因为这种形式对于你我来说很陌生 就意味着 不得不依赖数字资源与他人保持联系 对每个人来说都很新鲜 根据密歇根大学2016年的一项研究 使用技术对于老年人来说有很多好处 研究发现 “更多地使用技术 与更好的自测健康状况 更少的慢性疾病 更高的幸福感 以及更少的抑郁情绪有关系“ 网络社区对很多团体来说非常重要 例如 长期患病 线下见面困难的人 在《财务早餐》我们的媒体经理Rachel 其实患有囊肿性纤维化(Cystic Fibrosis CF) 患有这种病让她无法与其他同样的患者见面 就像Rachel所说 社交媒体经常因缺乏深度受到指责 但实际上它丰富了我的生活 也让我能与他人交流 囊肿性纤维化是一种呼吸系统疾病 靠近这种疾病的患者很危险 因为有感染风险 很像新冠肺炎 患有这种疾病 让建立一个网络社区对我的生活来说非常有帮助 包括私下的脸书小组和囊肿性纤维化(CF)讨论会 在那里我们可以做任何事 从分享应对症状的小诀窍 到举行有研究CF的科学家以及医生参与的虚拟座谈会 因为现实生活中见面时 我们会面临一定的风险 所以网络社区非常健康 也使我们建立了真正的友谊 语言无法表达我的生活因这些人改善了多少 虽然我从未见过他们 因为他们拥有着独特的经历 能理解我正经历着什么 而这甚至是我最好的朋友 最深爱的人都无法做到的 在这里打个小广告 我们《财务早餐》建立了一个叫做“谈钱”的私人脸书小组 在这里有很多女人和一些男人 聚在一起 谈论他们与金钱作斗争 成功获得金钱的方式 他们对金钱好奇 或只是想要 用在现实世界中可能不太合适的方式抱怨金钱 在社交媒体上 人们很容易关注事物的消极面 但是我觉得 我们现在比以往任何时候都清晰地认识到 如果以一种建设性的方式利用这些数字工具 它们可能产生好的效果 也可能产生坏的效果 取决于我们如何利用它们 第7种 使用地图应用追踪你去过的和想去的地方 尤其是在旅游期间 寻找独特又有趣 值得一去的景点 又不用总是默认前往Yelp和TripAdvisor推荐的那些 是非常困难的 一项尼尔森的一项研究表明 相比起广告 92%的人更信任朋友与家人的推荐 显然 这是好事 了解我们的人 可以根据我们的喜好做出个性推荐 但是问题在于如何记录这些建议 即使是在我们自己的城市里 这里有一个关于“新颖地记录景点”的建议 每当某人向你建议某个景点时 无论它是在你居住的城市 还是在你未来可能会去的某个城市 只要花费1秒将它记录在你的地图软件上 你可以用“喜欢”或“星标”来标记 取决于你的手机类型 这样一来 任何时候你到一个新城市旅行 或是某个无聊的周末想在自己的城市做些有趣的事 你的地图软件中都有一个定制推荐清单 随时供你查看 这当然比依赖网上陌生人的建议私人得多 而且也提供了一个非常好的与他人保持亲密的方法 当你告诉别人 “我去了你去年建议的那个地方 也做了你说的那件事” 他们会说:“你真的听了我的建议?” “你记得这是我去年说的事!真是我的好朋友!” 这是我们之间的秘密 眨眼 我不会眨眼 不要忘了 未来某一天 如果你要网购 试试wikibuy 链接在我们的简介中 像往常一样 朋友们 感谢观看 别忘了点击“订阅”按钮 每周一 二 四来看看新鲜有趣的视频 拜拜
  • 2021-09-01阅读的好处完善药丸 千里之行始于足下 著名美国企业家吉米•罗恩曾经说过Famous American entrepreneur Jim Rohn once said, “You’re the average of the five people “你周围的五个人平均下来就成为你”you surround yourself with.” 有许多事实可以证明And there’s a lot of truth to this. 如果你最亲近的五人都喜欢在外狂欢Chances are if the five people closest to you all like to go out partying and they don’t 不注意身体 你可能也这样take care of themselves, you probably don’t either. 如果他们都喜欢熬夜打游戏并且成绩不好If they all enjoy playing video games all night and have terrible grades, your grades 那你的成绩也不会足以使你骄傲are probably not something your proud of too. 但是 若他们喜欢每天健身并且注重饮食But, if your friends love hitting the gym on a daily basis and they watch what they eat, 那么你很有可能比普通人健康there’s a high chance you’re healthier than the average joe. 当然其中也有例外 但是人们普遍认为Of course there are exceptions to this, but the general consensus is that there is some 这个观点的确有道理truth to this idea. 我们是向周围环境学习的人We as human beings learn from our surroundings. 我们是擅长互相模仿的高级动物We’re sophisticated animals that excel at copying each other. 这是大部分文化 俚语 口音甚至传统的由来This is largely where things like culture, slang, accents, and even traditions come from. 人和人相处久了后 了解了彼此的习惯People learn each others habits and adopt each others mindsets after spending large 适应了彼此的思维模式amounts of time with each other. 我屡次注意到仅仅在和别人相处一会儿后I frequently catch myself using other people’s catchphrases after hanging out with them for 就会用别人的口头禅just a short period of time. 这就是为什么绝大数成功人士证实And that’s why it’s to no surprise that a large majority of the most successful people 他们的成功来源于他们的导师也不足为奇on this planet have attested a lot of their success to their mentors. 甘地影响了马丁·路德·金Martin Luther King had Gandhi. 乔布斯影响了马克·扎克伯格Mark Zuckerberg had Steve Jobs. 李尔·韦恩影响了德雷克Drake had Lil’ Wayne. 巴菲特影响了比尔·盖茨And Bill Gates had Warren Buffet. 成功的人几乎至少都是在一个People who become successful almost always have at least one person in their sphere of 已经取得巨大成功的人的影响下influence who was already massively successful. 从这些人身上采纳能使他们成功的It’s from them that they adopted the mindset and habits that they needed to eventually 思维方式和习惯bring them to success. 但是 你可能说“我不知道谁是成功的However, you might say,”Well, I don’t know anyone who is successful. 我朋友只是普通人”My friends are just average people.” 但这就是阅读的好处所在But this is where the benefit of reading comes into play. 书是将一个人的话 想法 思维 建议 甚至经验A book is literally the words, the ideas, the mindsets, the advice, and even the experience 文字化 打包成便于获得且携带的纸张of another person wrapped into a convenient, portable, always available collection of papers. 这几乎等同于那人站在你对面跟你说话It’s almost equivalent to having that person there speaking to you. 75%白手起家的百万富翁一个月至少读两本书75% of self-made millionaires have even reporting reading at least 2 books a month. 阅读真正的好处是你可以选择影响你的人The true benefits of reading is that you can pick and choose who you want to add to your 那个你想成为且最后能成为的人inner group of influence, that will eventually affect who you become as a person. 当你阅读时 你可以了解点作者的思想When you read you get a glimpse into the mind of the author. 在各地 有很多不同领域的成功人士There’re so many books out there that are written by people who are already massively successful 写的书in different fields. 他们的想法思维和话语都等待着被分享Their ideas and mindsets and words are all waiting to be shared. 如果你想和甘地冥想静思 与马丁·路德·金讨论政治If you wanted to go on a meditation retreat with Gandhi, talk politics with Martin Luther 与小韦恩建立工作室 甚至向巴菲特讨教商业建议King, hit the studio with Lil’ Wayne, or even get business advice from Warren Buffet, all 你要做的就是钻研他们的话 就能一窥其you have to do is submerge yourself by reading their words and you’ll get a glimpse into 精神世界 了解其思维方式their world and their way of thinking. 你的朋友圈将会增加一位新的友人You will have essentially added a new friend to your group of friends. 一位很可能更年长 睿智 成功的友人A friend who is most likely older, and wiser, on top of being significantly more successful. 当你那样做时 就开始采纳其思维方式和习惯And when you do that, you start adopting some of their mindsets and their habits. 因为这是人类的习惯Because that’s what we do as humans. 我们相互借鉴We copy each other. 而这终会使我们更接近成功And this is what eventually brings you closer to success. 所以接受阅读的挑战吧So challenge yourself to read. 我今年的新年目标是一周至少读一本书My personal New Year’s Resolution this year is to read at least 1 book a week. 期待关于我遇到的伟大观点的视频吧So expect some videos about big concepts that I may come across. 即将发布
  • 2021-09-01不再做完美主义者[music][音乐] People always say that you are your own worst critic,人们总说 你是自己的最差评论师 but critic is just another word for judge.评论师就是裁判员的同义词 And when you are your own biggest judge如果你是自己的最高裁判员 you can become your own jailer.你也就成了自己的禁锢者 For the past year I have felt imprisoned in my own head.去年 我感觉我的大脑被封印了一样 As an artist, I’ve been stuck,作为一名艺术家 我深陷困境 and no amount of inspiration has been able to give me the freedom to create.没有任何灵感能让我自由创作 This feeling led me to abandon my personal projects这种感觉让我放弃了个人计划 and instead help others bring their visions to life.转而去帮助别人实现梦想 It’s not that I didn’t have ideas or want to create这并不是说我没有创作的点子或意愿 It’s just when it’s not your own story,而仅仅是 如果事不关己 it isn’t as scary to put into the world.投身世界就没那么可怕 [music][音乐] For nearly six months近六个月 I’ve worked all around the world helping others.我都在世界各地帮助别人 I thought that letting go off the creative decisions我以为只要放弃创作设想 would allow me to breathe as an artist.就能让作为艺术家的我喘口气 It hasn’t worked out,然而并未奏效 I mean sure I’ve made some money尽管我确实赚了些钱 but at the end of the day但到最后 the goals and the dreams I had for myself never went anywhere.我的目标和梦想还是没有远去 I just chose to ignore them我只是选择忽略它们 because I wasn’t able to move forward因为我没有办法 with my ideas with any confidence.自信地去践行我的设想 [music][音乐] I’ve let the pressure of an audience我任由观众的压力 influence my creative process.影响我的创作进程 I stopped viewing my work as an artist我不再以艺术家 and just began viewing it as a judge.而是以裁判员的眼光审视我的作品 Over time I realized时光推移 我意识到 that the thing holding me back was perfectionism.是完美主义在阻碍我 The dictionary defines perfectionism as a disposition完美主义的字典上的释义是 to regard anything short of perfection as unacceptable.不接受任何不够完美的东西 You hear a lot of people call themselves perfectionists你会听到很多人自称完美主义者 and usually it’s said as some sort of like a humble brag,他们往往是在做某种低调地吹嘘 but for me perfectionism was an anchor.但对我来说 完美主义是一个锚 The thought of making mistakes was paralyzing.一想到犯错就像瘫痪一样无能为力 Everything had to be perfect or it wasn’t even worth trying.只有完美的事值得尝试 Or so I thought.我就是这么想的 One simple realization was able to break一个简单的认识打破了 these binds holding me back.这些阻碍我的束缚 When you look at yourself in a mirror当你在镜子里看自己 you don’t see what everyone else sees.你不会去看别人看到的东西 You’re overly critical of every detail.而是对所有细节过于挑剔 We all wish we could change something we see我们都希望能够改变我们看到的瑕疵 but the reality is that those changes are但现实是 那些改变是 things almost no one else would notice.几乎没人会注意到的改变 What I realized is that my art is no different.我意识到我的艺术也是一样的道理 I was criticizing my work so heavily我对自己的作品过度苛求了 because I was viewing it in a mirror.就像在镜子里看它 I knew what I wanted to see我深知我想看到什么 and if I couldn’t make it exactly that,如果我无法精准地做到 I didn’t see any point in trying.我就认为没有尝试的意义 But when you view your work like that但是当你这样审视自己的作品时 you’ll never be happy.你永远不会快乐 There’s always a change that can be made.总有一些改变是可以做到的 It’s an endless cycle of judgment and abandonment.这是一个判断和放弃的无尽循环 Perfectionism in my mind is a measure of我心目中的完美主义 how well something does what it is intended to do.是衡量一件事应该做得多好的一个标准 I create art to express myself sure,我创作诚然是为了表达自我 but the real goal is to create something但真正的目标是创作一些 that evokes emotion from my audience, from all of you.能够激发你们 我的观众的情感的东西 And if my work does that假如我的作品做到了 then it’s as perfect as it needs to be.那就是作品应有的完美 [music][音乐] Scott Adams said,斯科特·亚当斯说: “creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes,“创造是允许自己犯错 art is knowing which ones to keep.”艺术是知道该保留哪些” I’ll never be able to show you exactly我永远无法向你精准呈现 what I see in my head.我脑海里浮现的东西 At best, it’ll be an approximation with some flaws,充其量 它会是带着一些瑕疵的近似作品 but that’s okay,但是也还好 because those flaws will be the mistakes因为这些瑕疵是 I will learn to accept and choose to keep.我要学会接受并选择保留的 [music][音乐]
  • 2021-09-01这5本书值得一读:来自比尔·盖茨的推荐[盖茨笔记][gatesnotes] 由比尔·盖茨推出的《2019夏季推荐书目》Summer 2019 Reading by Bill Gates 这个夏季想读好书的话 不妨试试以下五本For a good read this summer, try these five books. 埃默·托尔斯的《莫斯科绅士》A Gentlemen in Moscow by Amor Towles 《莫斯科绅士》这本书很妙You know, A Gentleman in Moscow is just so clever. 其中包含了很多俄罗斯文学和历史的典故There’s lot of allusions to Russian literature and history. 这是个神奇的故事 因为它设法包罗万象It’s an amazing story because it manages to be a little bit of everything. 它是种奇幻的浪漫It’s kind of a fantastical romance. 但也是现实的世界But it’s kind of the real world, too. 迈克尔·贝斯克劳斯的《战时总统》Presidents of War by Michael Beschloss 公众真的不想卷入战争The public really does not want to go to war. 但真到那时 我们愿意捍卫自己的荣誉吗?But then, are we willing to defend our honor? 这就意味着有位好总统的重要性It means that having a good president is very important. 当你进入战争时 你最好盼着有位好领袖You better hope that you have some good leaders when you get into war. 保罗·克利尔的《资本主义的未来》The Future of Capitalism by Paul Collier 资本主义面临危机There’s a crisis for capitalism. 个人主义已经走到尽头Individualism has been taken too far. 作者介绍了道德家庭He introduces this notion of an ethical family, 道德企业和道德政府的概念an ethical company, and an ethical government. 我们需要忠于某事We have to be loyal to something. 我们需要有集体We have to have a group thing 而在集体里 我们不仅仅力求个人利益where we’re not just out for ourselves. 贾里德·戴蒙德的《剧变》Upheaval by Jared Diamond 作者以一些国家为例He took examples of countries 它们都曾实际处理过问题 走出困境 越来越好that actually had dealt with a problem and come out of it better off. 他应用到了类似心理学的框架He uses kind of a psychological framework. 实际效果很好It actually works pretty well. 他并没有强加给你负面的He doesn’t force you to have a negative 或正面的观点or a positive point of view. 它适用于美国面临的问题吗Will it work for what the U.S. is facing 比如两极分化in terms of polarization. 作者只是提出了这一质疑And just even by raising the question, 至少他承认我们有可能解决这些问题he at least admits the possibility that we’ll solve these problems. 罗斯·乔治的《九品脱》Nine Pints by Rose George 她主要想给你科普关于血液的知识She mostly wants to educate you about blood 及其重要又有趣的历史and what an important and interesting history there has been about it. 包括血液供给的历史The history of the blood supply, 收集血样的各种方式the different ways of gathering blood. 像水蛭类的生物具有吸血能力的优势Things like leeches where their ability to suck blood out is advantageous. 我相信人们会发现其魅力所在I’m sure people will find that fascinating. 血液如此神奇Blood is so magical. 这是件值得了解的趣事It’s an interesting thing to know about. 因此 无论你只读其中一本So whether you read just one of these, 还是全读下来or you read them all, 希望你能找到真正喜欢的内容I hope you find something you really enjoy.
  • 2021-08-30质疑的福音我们就在那儿There we were, 灵魂和身体挤在德克萨斯州的一间教堂里souls and bodies packed into a Texas church 那是我们人生的最后一个夜晚on the last night of our lives. 我们就挤在一个像现在这样的房间里Packed into a room just like this, 只不过那里都是吱呀响的长木凳 上面盖着破烂的红布but with creaky wooden pews draped in worn-down red fabric, 管风琴在我的左边 唱诗班在我的背后with an organ to my left and a choir at my back 还有个洗礼池建在他们后面的墙上and a baptism pool built into the wall behind them. 总之 就是一个像这样的房间A room like this, nonetheless. 有着同样强烈的焦虑之感With the same great feelings of suspense, 同样对救赎的深刻渴望the same deep hopes for salvation, 掌心里同样的汗水the same sweat in the palms 还有后排同样是一帮心不在焉的人and the same people in the back not paying attention. (笑声)(Laughter) 那是1999年12月31日This was December 31, 1999, 就我所知 那天晚上基督将复临人间 世界将迎来末日the night of the Second Coming of Christ, and the end of the world as I knew it. 那年我12岁I had turned 12 that year 已经到了要负责任的年龄and had reached the age of accountability. 一旦我不再抱怨And once I stopped complaining 上帝是多么的不公平about how unfair it was that 因为一到我要为自己的行为负责的时候 他就回来了Jesus would return as soon as I had to be accountable for all that I had done, 我想我最好赶紧把家里收拾整齐了I figured I had better get my house in order very quickly. 所以我尽可能多的去教堂So I went to church as often as I could. 我紧张地注意四周的寂静 就像有人时刻注意周围的响声一样I listened for silence as anxiously as one might listen for noise, 以努力确认上帝没有耍我to try to be sure that the Lord hadn’t pulled a fast one on me 不会心血来潮提早回来and decided to come back early. 但是万一他真的早来了And just in case he did, 我也有个后备方案I built a backup plan, 是从风靡一时的《末日迷踪》书里读到的by reading the “Left Behind” books that were all the rage at the time. 我在书中看到And I found in their pages 假如过了午夜的狂欢 我却没有被带走that if I was not taken in the rapture at midnight, 那还有另外一次机会I had another shot. 我只需要不被冠以异教徒之名All I had to do was avoid taking the mark of the beast, 击败恶魔 克服瘟疫 并打倒反基督者fight off demons, plagues and the Antichrist himself. 这会相当难——It would be hard — (笑声)(Laughter) 但是我相信自己能做到but I knew I could do it. (笑声)(Laughter) 但是做准备的时间早过了But planning time was over now. 那已经是晚上11:50It was 11:50pm. 我们只剩10分钟We had 10 minutes left, 牧师让我们从长凳上起身 走到下面的圣坛and my pastor called us out of the pews and down to the altar 因为他想让我们在午夜来临的一刻一起祈祷because he wanted to be praying when midnight struck. 于是会众分成几批So every faction of the congregation 到了指定位置took its place. 唱诗班还在小舞台上The choir stayed in the choir stand, 教堂执事和他们的妻子——the deacons and their wives — 其实我更喜欢叫他们 “浸礼会资产阶级”or the Baptist Bourgeoisie as I like to call them — (笑声)(Laughter) 在圣坛前的显眼位置took first position in front of the altar. 你们知道 在美国You see, in America, 即使是基督复临之夜 也是有VIP专座的even the Second Coming of Christ has a VIP section. (笑声)(Laughter) (掌声)(Applause) 而在“浸礼会资产阶级”正后面的And right behind the Baptist Bourgeoisie 是年纪大的人——were the elderly — 这些男人和女人 他们那曾年轻的背脊已经佝偻these men and women ,whose young backs had been bent under hot suns 在烈日下的东德州的棉花田里in the cotton fields of East Texas, 他们的皮肤被灼成了高贵的棕色 且满是皱纹and whose skin seemed to be burnt a creaseless noble brown, 就像东德州的陶土一样just like the clay of East Texas, 他们毕生的希望和梦想是and whose hopes and dreams for what life might become 离开东德州outside of East Texas 但是这些已经被压弯破碎了had sometimes been bent and broken 甚至比他们的背脊还要弯even further than their backs. 是的 这些男人和女人 对我来说才是这场“秀”的明星Yes, these men and women were the stars of the show for me. 他们为了这一刻等了一辈子They had waited their whole lives for this moment, 就像他们中世纪的先人们渴盼世界末日just as their medieval predecessors had longed for the end of the world, 就像我的祖母渴盼《奥普拉脱口秀》and just as my grandmother waited for the Oprah Winfrey Show 每天四点在第八频道准时播出to come on Channel 8 every day at 4 o’clock. 当她走向圣坛时And as she made her way to the altar, 我悄悄溜在她身后I snuck right in behind her, 因为我非常确信because I knew for sure 我的祖母是要去天堂了that my grandmother was going to heaven. 而且我想如果我在这次祷告中一直握着她的手And I thought that if I held on to her hand during this prayer, 我可能可以跟她一起走I might go right on with her. 于是我抓紧了So I held on 我合上双眼and I closed my eyes 倾听to listen, 等待to wait. 祷告声更大了And the prayers got louder. 回应祷告声的叫喊And the shouts of response to the call of the prayer 同样的更大了went up higher even still. 风琴声响起 与挽歌交织And the organ rolled on in to add the dirge. 热浪袭来 汗流甚嚣And the heat came on to add to the sweat. 我把手攥得更紧了And my hand gripped firmer, 我不想成为被留下的那一个so I wouldn’t be the one left in the field. 我将眼睛闭得更紧My eyes clenched tighter 我不想看到骨肉分离的场景so I wouldn’t see the wheat being separated from the chaff. 突然一个声音在头顶回响:And then a voice rang out above us: “阿门”“Amen.” 结束了It was over. 我看了看时钟I looked at the clock. 已经过了午夜It was after midnight. 然后我看着年长的信徒们I looked at the elder believers 他们的救世主没来whose savior had not come, 他们太骄傲 不允许自己展现哪怕一丁点的失落who were too proud to show any signs of disappointment, 他们笃信得太深 太久who had believed too much and for too long 现在开始怀疑已经太迟了to start doubting now. 但是我为他们感到气愤But I was upset on their behalf. 他们被愚弄了They had been duped, 被哄骗了 被迷惑了hoodwinked, bamboozled, 而且我也跟着他们一起受骗and I had gone right along with them. 和他们一起祷告I had prayed their prayers, 我拼尽全力抑制自己的欲望I had yielded not to temptation as best I could. 我不是一次 而是两次I had dipped my head not once, but twice 一头栽到那个让人感冒的洗礼池里in that snot-inducing baptism pool. 我曾相信过I had believed. 现在怎么办?Now what? 我回家打开电视I got home just in time to turn on the television 刚好赶上彼得·詹宁斯宣布新千年and watch Peter Jennings announce the new millennium 全世界都在欢庆as it rolled in around the world. 我突然发觉 无论怎么想都很奇怪It struck me that it would have been strange anyway, 耶稣要一次又一次复临人间for Jesus to come back again and again 只是因为各地的时区不一样based on the different time zones. (笑声)(Laughter) 这让我觉得更加可笑And this made me feel even more ridiculous — 挺受伤的 真的hurt, really. 但即使在那一夜 我也没有停止相信But there on that night, I did not stop believing. 我只是又相信了另一件新的事:I just believed a new thing: 就是“不相信也是可能的”that it was possible not to believe. 很可能我所知的答案都是错的It was possible the answers I had were wrong, 很可能问题本身就是错的that the questions themselves were wrong. 现在 曾经耸立着的信仰之山And now, where there was once a mountain of certitude, 有一股泉水一直流到山脚there was, running right down to its foundation, 一股质疑的清泉a spring of doubt, 它注定会成为大江大河a spring that promised rivers. 我人生中所有的戏剧性故事I can trace the whole drama of my life 都可以回溯到那个教堂里的那一晚back to that night in that church 那晚我的救世主没有为我而来when my savior did not come for me; 那晚我意识到我曾无比确信的事物when the thing I believed most certainly 如果不是“谎言”的话turned out to be, if not a lie, 至少也不是什么真理then not quite the truth. 虽然你们中的大部分人是以截然不同的方式迎接千禧年的And even though most of you prepared for Y2K in a very different way, 但是我相信你们之所以在这里I’m convinced that you are here 就是因为你们中的一些人曾做过和我一样的事情because some part of you has done the same thing that I have done 从新世纪到来开始since the dawn of this new century, 从我的母亲去世 父亲离家since my mother left and my father stayed away 而我的救世主拒绝救我开始and my Lord refused to come. 我伸出双手And I held out my hand, 想要搜寻到可以去相信的东西(以作为精神寄托)reaching for something to believe in. 当我18岁到了耶鲁大学时 我依然坚持I held on when I arrived at Yale at 18, 因为我相信那些在德州奥克利夫的成长经历with the faith that my journey from Oak Cliff, Texas 使我有可能克服一切我所知的挑战was a chance to leave behind all the challenges I had known, 见过了那些破碎的梦想 伤残的躯体(我什么都不怕了)the broken dreams and broken bodies I had seen. 但有一次寒假我回到家乡But when I found myself back home one winter break, 我的头被摁在地上with my face planted in the floor, 双手被紧缚在身后my hands tied behind my back 强盗的手枪顶着我的脑袋and a burglar’s gun pressed to my head, 我知道 即使是最好的教育也救不了我I knew that even the best education couldn’t save me. 当我2008年到雷曼兄弟实习时 我仍继续坚持I held on when I showed up at Lehman Brothers as an intern in 2008. (笑声)(Laughter) 并充满希望——So hopeful — (笑声)(Laughter) 我兴奋地打电话给家人that I called home to inform my family 说我们永远不会再贫穷了that we’d never be poor again. (笑声)(Laughter) 但当我亲眼目睹这座金融圣殿But as I witnessed this temple of finance 在我面前崩塌come crashing down before my eyes, 我知道 即使是最好的工作也救不了我I knew that even the best job couldn’t save me. 当我在华盛顿特区成为一名年轻的记者时 我还在继续坚持I held on when I showed up in Washington DC as a young staffer, 我听见一个来自伊利诺伊州的声音: (指奥巴马竞选演说)who had heard a voice call out from Illinois, “这一刻我们已等了很久saying, “It’s been a long time coming, 但就在这次选举 美国将迎来变革”but in this election, change has come to America.” 但当议会工作完全停滞But as the Congress ground to a halt 国家几乎分崩离析and the country ripped at the seams 希望和变革开始像个残酷的笑话and hope and change began to feel like a cruel joke, 我知道 即使是政治复兴也救不了我I knew that even the political second coming could not save me 我曾在美国梦的圣坛前虔诚地跪拜I had knelt faithfully at the altar of the American Dream, 向当代的神祈祷praying to the gods of my time 祈求成功of success, 祈求金钱and money, 祈求权势and power. 但是一次又一次But over and over again, 当午夜的钟声响起 我睁开双眼midnight struck, and I opened my eyes 看见这些神全都死去了to see that all of these gods were dead. 从这片坟墓里And from that graveyard, 我再一次开始搜寻I began the search once more, 不是因为我很勇敢not because I was brave, 而是因为我知道 要么相信but because I knew that I would either believe 要么死亡or I would die. 所以我又到了另一处圣地去朝拜So I took a pilgrimage to yet another mecca, 哈佛商学院——Harvard Business School — (笑声)(Laughter) 这一次 我知道我不能仅仅只等待援助this time, knowing that I could not simply accept the salvation 而是要施以援助that it claimed to offer. 不 我当然知道施予时需要做的事情更多No, I knew there’d be more work to do. 一切始于一个拥挤的派对上的一个黑暗角落The work began in the dark corner of a crowded party, 那是在剑桥的一个惨淡的初冬的深夜in the late night of an early, miserable Cambridge winter, 我和三个朋友问了一个问题when three friends and I asked a question 那是有真正追求的年轻人that young folks searching for something real have asked 长久以来都会问的一个问题for a very long time: “我们来次公路旅行怎样?”“What if we took a road trip?” (笑声)(Laughter) 我们不知道要去哪儿 怎么去We didn’t know where’d we go or how we’d get there, 但我们知道我们必须启程but we knew we had to do it. 因为我们一生都在渴求的 就像杰克·凯鲁亚克写的Because all our lives we yearned, as Jack Kerouac wrote, 是“潜入无尽的暗夜 消失在遥远的天际”to “sneak out into the night and disappear somewhere,” 出去看看全国各地的人们都在干些什么and go find out what everybody was doing all over the country. 所以即使有反对的声音So even though there were other voices who said 说风险太大 理由太牵强that the risk was too great and the proof too thin, 我们还是启程了we went on anyhow. 在2013年夏天 我们跨美国旅行了800英里We went on 8,000 miles across America in the summer of 2013, 我们走过蒙大拿的奶牛牧场 走过底特律的废弃都市through the cow pastures of Montana, through the desolation of Detroit, 走过新奥尔良的沼泽湿地through the swamps of New Orleans, 我们在那些地方遇见一些人 为他们打工where we found and worked with men and women 他们经营着小生意who were building small businesses 勉强度日that made purpose their bottom line. (这些就像是)在资本主义的“西点军校”训练And having been trained at the West Point of capitalism, 我们发觉这个想法简直是革命性的this struck us as a revolutionary idea. (笑声)(Laughter) 而且这个想法传播开去And this idea spread, 发展成为一个非营利组织 名叫“工管硕士走遍美国”growing into a nonprofit called MBAs Across America, 这也是我今天能够站在台上的原因a movement that landed me here on this stage today. 它能传播是因为我们发现我们这代人都有强烈的渴望It spread because we found a great hunger in our generation 渴望实现目标 渴望实现人生价值for purpose, for meaning. 它能传播是因为我们在美国的旮旯角落里 发现了无数的创业者It spread because we found countless entrepreneurs in the nooks and crannies of America 他们创造工作岗位 改变他人命运who were creating jobs and changing lives 而且他们还需要一点帮助and who needed a little help. 但是说实话 它能够传播But if I’m being honest, it also spread 还因为我拼命地去传播because I fought to spread it. 我愿意到任何地方宣讲福音There was no length to which I would not go to preach this gospel, 以使更多人相信to get more people to believe 我们可以治愈这个破碎国度的伤口that we could bind the wounds of a broken country, 一次帮助一家社会企业(最后治愈整个社会)one social business at a time. 但就是这个福音传道的过程But it was this journey of evangelism 引导我获得了一个很不一样的福音that led me to the rather different gospel 今天我来与大家一起分享that I’ve come to share with you today. 那大概始于一年前的一个晚上It began one evening almost a year ago 我们在纽约的自然科学博物馆at the Museum of Natural History in New York City, 参加哈佛商学院的校友晚宴at a gala for alumni of Harvard Business School. 在一头鲸鱼的全尺寸模型底下Under a full-size replica of a whale, 我与这个时代的巨擘并排而坐I sat with the titans of our time 他们歌颂着他们的同伴 以及他们自己的伟业as they celebrated their peers and their good deeds. 房间里满是自豪的气息There was pride in a room 这些人管理的资产总额where net worth and assets under management 加起来超过了五千亿美金surpassed half a trillion dollars. 我们俯看我们创造的一切We looked over all that we had made, 感觉很好and it was good. (笑声)(Laughter) 然而事情就这样发生了But it just so happened, 两天之后two days later, 我去到纽约哈林区I had to travel up the road to Harlem, 坐在一个城市农场里where I found myself sitting in an urban farm 那里曾是一片空地that had once been a vacant lot, 我坐着听一个叫托尼的人讲一些关于孩子的事listening to a man named Tony tell me of the kids 那些孩子每天都会到他那儿去that showed up there every day. 他们所有人都在贫困线以下All of them lived below the poverty line. 很多人把自己所有的东西都装在一个背包里Many of them carried all of their belongings in a backpack 生怕在收容所被别人偷走了to avoid losing them in a homeless shelter. 他们中一些人来到托尼的农场Some of them came to Tony’s program, 农场名叫“哈林成长”called Harlem Grown, 来领取他们每天唯一的一餐饭to get the only meal they had each day. 托尼告诉我 他发起“哈林成长” 靠的都是自己的养老金Tony told me that he started Harlem Grown with money from his pension, 他当了20年的出租车司机after 20 years as a cab driver. 他说他没给自己留一分钱He told me that he didn’t give himself a salary, 因为项目虽然算是成功 但资源还是极其匮乏because despite success, the program struggled for resources. 他说他会接受任何能获得的帮助He told me that he would take any help that he could get. 而我就是去帮助他的And I was there as that help. 但当我离开托尼 眼睛里却涌出刺疼湿咸的泪水But as I left Tony, I felt the sting and salt of tears welling up in my eyes. 我感受到了天启的重量I felt the weight of revelation 在之前的一个晚上 我可以坐在一个房间里that I could sit in one room on one night, 与价值五千亿美金的几百人畅谈美好世界where a few hundred people had half a trillion dollars, 然而两天后在另一个房间里and another room, two days later, 只有50个街区的距离just 50 blocks up the road, 看着一个没有薪水的男人where a man was going without a salary 要为孩子们提供他们每天唯一的一餐饭to get a child her only meal of the day. 然而不是这种刺眼的社会不平等令我热泪盈眶And it wasn’t the glaring inequality that made me want to cry, 也并不是这些饥饿 无家可归的孩子们it wasn’t the thought of hungry, homeless kids, 也不是对于1%的人的怒火it wasn’t rage toward the one percent 或是对99%的人的怜悯or pity toward the 99. 不 我心中不能平静是因为我终于意识到No, I was disturbed because I had finally realized 这个国家需要一次彻底变革 而我之前做的只是小修小补that I was the dialysis for a country that needed a kidney transplant. 我意识到 我的故事所代表是所有那些I realized that my story stood in for all those 人们希望他们自力更生的人who were expected to pick themselves up by their bootstraps, 即使他们一无所有even if they didn’t have any boots; 而我的组织所代表的that my organization stood in 一切基础性的 系统性的帮助 却从未到达哈林区for all the structural, systemic help that never went to Harlem 或阿巴拉契亚山区 或新奥尔良下九区or Appalachia or the Lower 9th Ward; 我的呐喊所代表的是所有那些that my voice stood in for all those voices 听起来毫无内涵 未加修饰 不合时宜的声音that seemed too unlearned, too unwashed, too unaccommodated. 这给我带来羞耻感And the shame of that, 那些羞耻感笼罩着我that shame washed over me 就像那时坐在电视机前like the shame of sitting in front of the television, 看彼得·詹宁斯宣布新千年时的羞耻感watching Peter Jennings announce the new millennium 一遍again 一遍and again 又一遍and again. 我被愚弄了I had been duped, 被哄骗了hoodwinked, 被迷惑了bamboozled. 但是这次 虚伪的救世主却是我自己But this time, the false savior was me. 你们知道 我从那个圣坛一路走来You see, I’ve come a long way from that altar 那个晚上我以为世界要走向终点了on the night I thought the world would end, 从那个人们无比虔诚的信仰上帝的世界一路走来from a world where people spoke in tongues 他们认为苦难是上帝给人类的必不可少的考验and saw suffering as a necessary act of God 并把它当作信条 当作永恒的真理and took a text to be infallible truth. 是的 我走得太远了Yes, I’ve come so far 以至于我一路兜回了原点that I’m right back where I started. 因为我们不能简单概括Because it simply is not true to say 说这个时代没有信仰that we live in an age of disbelief — 不 我们与以往任何时候一样 都在相信一些东西no, we believe today just as much as any time that came before. 一些人可能相信布芮尼•布朗的预言Some of us may believe in the prophecy of Brené Brown 或是托尼•罗宾斯的or Tony Robbins. 我们可能相信《纽约客》We may believe in the bible of The New Yorker 或《哈佛商业评论》or the Harvard Business Review. 我们可能无比的相信We may believe most deeply 我们在TED的教堂里所崇拜的事物when we worship right here at the church of TED, 因为我们极度地想得要信仰but we desperately want to believe, 我们需要信仰we need to believe. 我们举手投足像魅力四射的领导者We speak in the tongues of charismatic leaders 承诺解决人类的一切问题that promise to solve all our problems. 我们觉得苦难是资本主义“上帝”给我们的恩赐We see suffering as a necessary act of the capitalism that is our god, 我们把科技发展当作信条we take the text of technological progress 当作永恒的真理to be infallible truth. 但是我们几乎没意识到我们所付出的人道代价And we hardly realize the human price we pay 当我们甚至不敢质疑一块砖头when we fail to question one brick, 只是因为我们害怕那也许会动摇整座大厦的根基because we fear it might shake our whole foundation. 但是如果你们对那些不合理的事情感到困惑But if you are disturbed by the unconscionable things 而又不得不接受that we have come to accept, 那时请必须提出质疑then it must be questioning time. 所以我传布的福音 不是什么突破 创新So I have not a gospel of disruption or innovation 或是“三重底线”(资本主义的“三重底线”:人民 利润 环境)or a triple bottom line. 事实上 我也没有什么关于信仰的福音要与大家分享I do not have a gospel of faith to share with you today, in fact. 我有的和我要分享的是质疑的福音I have and I offer a gospel of doubt. 质疑的福音不是让你停止相信The gospel of doubt does not ask that you stop believing, 它是让你相信一个新东西it asks that you believe a new thing: “不相信也是可能的”that it is possible not to believe. 很可能我们所知的答案都是错的It is possible the answers we have are wrong, 很可能问题本身就是错的it is possible the questions themselves are wrong. 是的 质疑的福音意味着有可能Yes, the gospel of doubt means that it is possible that we, 这个舞台上的 这间屋子里面的我们on this stage, in this room, 都是错的are wrong. 因为它引出了一个问题: “为什么?”Because it raises the question, “Why?” 我们手上拥有如此强大的力量With all the power that we hold in our hands, 为什么人们还在水深火热之中?why are people still suffering so bad? 这种质疑引导我去分享This doubt leads me to share 所以我们决定注销“工管硕士走遍美国”that we are putting my organization, MBAs Across America, out of business. 我们已经解散了员工 关门大吉了We have shed our staff and closed our doors 我们把这种模式向所有人免费开放and we will share our model freely 只要他们觉得自己有能力去做就可以with anyone who sees their power to do this work 不需要经过我们的批准without waiting for our permission. 这种质疑迫使我This doubt compels me 放弃救世主的角色to renounce the role of savior 某些人赋予了我这个角色that some have placed on me, 因为我们的人生太短 逆境太长because our time is too short and our odds are too long 根本等不到基督复临to wait for second comings, 而且事实就是 世上没有奇迹when the truth is that there will be no miracles here. 而这种质疑给我动力And this doubt, it fuels me, 给我希望it gives me hope 当困难要压垮我们that when our troubles overwhelm us, 当命运的道路看似是将我们引向死亡when the paths laid out for us seem to lead to our demise, 当我们的信仰无法治愈我们的创伤when our healers bring no comfort to our wounds, 但这绝不是让我们盲目地去质疑一切it will not be our blind faith — 不 这种质疑是谦逊的no, it will be our humble doubt 它会在我们生命和世界的黑暗中that shines a little light into the darkness of our lives 洒下一点光明and of our world 让我们轻轻的说and lets us raise our voice to whisper 呐喊也行or to shout 或是简单的说or to say simply, 非常简单的说:very simply, “一定 还有另一条路”“There must be another way.” 谢谢Thank you. (掌声)(Applause)
  • 2021-08-30战俘营里孕育的爱国主义我是进取号星际飞船的老兵I’m a veteran of the starship Enterprise. 我在银河系间遨游I soared through the galaxy 驾驶着巨型的星际飞船driving a huge starship 带领着来自世界各地的船员with a crew made up of people from all over this world, 很多不同种族 不同文化many different races, many different cultures, 不同传统的人many different heritages, 同心协力all working together, 共同探索未知的新世界and our mission was to explore strange new worlds, 寻找新的生命和文明to seek out new life and new civilizations, 向着宇宙洪荒大胆前进to boldly go where no one has gone before. 好了—Well — [掌声][Applause] — 我是日本移民的子孙I am the grandson of immigrants from Japan 我的祖父母来到美国who went to America, 勇敢地闯入一个陌生的新世界boldly going to a strange new world, 寻找新的机会seeking new opportunities. 我的母亲出生在加利福尼亚州萨格拉门托市My mother was born in Sacramento, California. 我的父亲是旧金山人My father was a San Franciscan. 他们在洛杉矶相遇并结婚They met and married in Los Angeles, 我就在那里出生and I was born there. 在我4岁的那年I was four years old 也就是1941年的12月7日 日本轰炸了珍珠港when Pearl Harbor was bombed on December 7, 1941 by Japan, 一夜之间 全世界陷入世界大战and overnight, the world was plunged into a world war. 突然之间 愤怒的气氛在美国席卷开来America suddenly was swept up by hysteria. 日裔美国人Japanese-Americans, 日本人后裔的美国公民American citizens of Japanese ancestry, 遭受着怀疑和恐惧were looked on with suspicion and fear 以及赤裸裸的仇恨and with outright hatred 只是因为我们碰巧长得像simply because we happened to look like 轰炸珍珠港的那些人the people that bombed Pearl Harbor. 愤怒的情绪在不断增长And the hysteria grew and grew 直到1942年2月until in February 1942, 美国总统 富兰克林·德拉诺·罗斯福the president of the United States,Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 下令将所有美国西海岸的日裔美国人ordered all Japanese-Americans on the West Coast of America 抓捕并集中看守to be summarily rounded up 没有罪名 没有审判with no charges, with no trial, 未经正当程序with no due process. 正当程序 是我们司法体制的核心Due process, this is a core pillar of our justice system. 而这些都消失了That all disappeared. 我们被集中起来We were to be rounded up 被监禁在10个铁丝网围绕的战俘集中营and imprisoned in 10 barbed-wire prison camps 它们都位于美国最偏远的地区in some of the most desolate places in America: 亚利桑那州酷热的沙漠the blistering hot desert of Arizona, 阿肯色州潮湿的沼泽the sultry swamps of Arkansas, 怀俄明 爱达荷 犹他和科罗拉多州的不毛之地the wastelands of Wyoming, Idaho, Utah, Colorado, 还有两个位于加利福尼亚州最荒凉的地带and two of the most desolate places in California. 4月20日 是我5周岁的生日On April 20th, I celebrated my fifth birthday, 过完生日的几周后and just a few weeks after my birthday, 我的父母把我弟弟 妹妹和我my parents got my younger brother, my baby sister and me 很早就叫起来up very early one morning, 匆忙给我们穿上衣服and they dressed us hurriedly. 我和弟弟坐在客厅里 从窗户向外看My brother and I were in the living roomlooking out the front window, 我们看到两名士兵走到门前的车道and we saw two soldiers marching up our driveway. 他们的步枪上装着刺刀They carried bayonets on their rifles. 他们走过门廊They stomped up the front porch 大力地敲门and banged on the door. 我的父亲打开门My father answered it, 士兵命令我们离开家and the soldiers ordered us out of our home. 父亲给我和弟弟一人一个小箱子My father gave my brother and me small luggages to carry, 我们走出来 站在车道上and we walked out and stood on the driveway 等着妈妈出来waiting for our mother to come out, 最终当我的母亲走出来的时候and when my mother finally came out, 她一只手抱着妹妹she had our baby sister in one arm, 另一只手拿着一个大袋子a huge duffel bag in the other, 脸颊上挂满了眼泪and tears were streaming down both her cheeks. 我永远忘不了那一幕I will never be able to forget that scene. 它深深地烙印在我的记忆中It is burned into my memory. 我们被从家里带走We were taken from our home 上了一列火车and loaded on to train cars 车上还有其他日裔美国人家庭with other Japanese-American families. 每节车厢两端都有士兵把守There were guards stationed at both ends of each car, 好像我们是罪犯似的as if we were criminals. 我们被带着横跨了这个国家三分之二的距离We were taken two thirds ofthe way across the country, 在摇摇晃晃的车厢中度过了四天三夜rocking on that train for four days and three nights, 最终来到阿肯色州的沼泽地带to the swamps of Arkansas. 我依然记得环绕四周的铁丝网I still remember the barbed wirefence that confined me. 我依旧记得高高的哨兵塔I remember the tall sentry tower 上面架设的机枪瞄准着我们with the machine guns pointed at us. 我依旧记得晚上我从兵营跑到厕所时I remember the searchlight that followed me 探照灯始终照射着我when I made the night runs from my barrack to the latrine. 但是对于5岁的我来说But to five-year-old me, 我觉得这还挺不错的I thought it was kind of nice 因为他们在我去尿尿时 还帮我照亮前面的路that they’d lit the way for me to pee. 当时我只是个孩子 还不能理解我周围的环境I was a child, too young to understand the circumstances of my being there. 孩子们的适应能力惊人Children are amazingly adaptable. 这些极为反常的安排What would be grotesquely abnormal 反倒成为我在战俘营中became my normality 习以为常的日常生活in the prisoner of war camps. 我习惯了每天三次的列队It became routine for me to line up three times a day 习惯了在嘈杂的食堂中吃恶心的食物to eat lousy food in a noisy mess hall. 习惯了和父亲一起在大澡堂里集体洗澡It became normal for me to go with my fatherto bathe in a mass shower. 在一个监狱中 一个铁丝网环绕的战俘集中营里Being in a prison, a barbed-wire prison camp, 这都是我的日常生活became my normality. 当战争结束的时候 我们也被释放了When the war ended, we were released, 每个人领到一张单程车票and given a one-way ticket 可以前往美国的任何地方to anywhere in the United States. 我的父母决定回到洛杉矶的家My parents decided to go back home to Los Angeles, 当那时的洛杉矶并不友好but Los Angeles was not a welcoming place. 我们身无分文We were penniless. 我们的一切都被抢走了Everything had been taken from us, 周围的敌意还非常明显and the hostility was intense. 我们第一个落脚地是Our first home was on Skid Row 城市最下层的贫民窟in the lowest part of our city, 与流浪汉 醉鬼living with derelicts, 和疯子们住在一起drunkards and crazy people, 街道 小巷和走廊中the stench of urine all over, 到处弥漫着排泄物的臭气on the street, in the alley, in the hallway. 那是一段恐怖的经历It was a horrible experience, 对我们孩子来说 更是恐怖至极and for us kids, it was terrorizing. 我记得有一次I remember once 一个醉汉踉踉跄跄地走过来a drunkard came staggering down, 就在我们眼前跌倒 吐了一地fell down right in front of us, and threw up. 我的妹妹说 妈妈 我们回家吧My baby sister said,”Mama, let’s go back home.” 因为她觉得铁丝网里 才是为我们的家because behind barbed wires was for us, home. 我的父母辛苦劳作来养活一家人My parents worked hard to get back on their feet. 我们已经失去了一切We had lost everything. 他们在中年时期They were at the middle of their lives 一切重新开始and starting all over. 他们拼命地工作They worked their fingers to the bone, 最终and ultimately 我们挣够足够的钱they were able to get the capital together 在一个不错的街区to buy a three-bedroom home 买下一间有三个卧室的房子in a nice neighborhood. 那时候我十几岁And I was a teenager, 对童年时的监禁生活仍旧非常好奇and I became very curious about my childhood imprisonment. 我阅读了公民教育手册I had read civics books that told me about 其中提到美国民主的理念the ideals of American democracy. 人人生而平等All men are created equal, 我们有不可剥夺的we have an inalienable right 生活 自由和追求幸福的权利to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, 这与我童年监禁生活的经历判若云泥and I couldn’t quite make that fit with what I knew to be my childhood imprisonment. 我遍阅历史书籍I read history books, 却找不到关于这件事的任何叙述and I couldn’t find anything about it. 于是我在晚饭后找到父亲And so I engaged my father after dinner 与他进行长时间的 有时甚至是激烈的讨论in long, sometimes heated conversations. 我们进行过很多很多这样的讨论We had many, many conversations like that, 从中我收获了and what I got from them 父亲的智慧was my father’s wisdom. 他在监禁期间He was the one that suffered the most 遭受的苦难最深under those conditions of imprisonment, 但他依然理解美国的民主and yet he understood American democracy. 他告诉我 我们的民主是人民的民主He told me that our democracy is a people’s democracy, 人民有多强大 它就有多强大and it can be as great as the people can be, 但它也会像人一样会犯错误but it is also as fallible as people are. 他告诉我 美国的民主He told me that American democracy 主要取决于那些善良的人is vitally dependent on good people 他们珍视我们体制的理念who cherish the ideals of our system 积极地推动民主的发展and actively engage in the process of making our democracy work. 他把我带到一个竞选总部And he took me to a campaign headquarters 伊利诺伊州长正在竞选总统the governor of Illinois was running for the presidency 让我开始接触美国选举政治and introduced me to American electoral politics. 他还告诉我And he also told me about 年轻的日裔美国人在二战中的故事young Japanese-Americans during the Second World War. 珍珠港遭到轰炸之后When Pearl Harbor was bombed, 日裔美国青年像其他美国青年一样young Japanese-Americans, like all young Americans, 纷纷前往征兵处rushed to their draft board 志愿为祖国而战to volunteer to fight for our country. 这股爱国的热情That act of patriotism 却遭到了当头一棒was answered with a slap in the face. 我们被拒绝入伍We were denied service, 我们被划分为为非外籍敌人and categorized as enemy, non-alien. 当你志愿为祖国而战时It was outrageous to be called an “enemy” “敌人”这个称呼让人愤怒when you’re volunteering to fight for your country, 然而和它一起的还有“非外籍”but that was compounded with the word “non-alien”, 这个词的含义恰恰是which is a word that means “公民”的对立面“citizen” in the negative. 他们甚至连“公民”这个词都从我们这夺走了They even took the word “citizen” away from us, 还监禁了我们一年and imprisoned them for a whole year. 之后 政府意识到战争期间人手匮乏And then the government realized that there’s a wartime manpower shortage, 然后他们就像当初突然把我们抓起来一样and as suddenly as they’d rounded us up, 现在又突然向日裔美国青年敞开了入伍的大门they opened up the military for service by young Japanese-Americans. 多么荒谬可笑It was totally irrational, 但神奇的but the amazing thing, 令人震惊的是the astounding thing, 成千上万的日裔美国青年男女is that thousands of young Japanese-American men and women 再从铁丝网后走出again went from behind those barbed-wire fences, 穿上与守卫同样的制服put on the same uniform as that of our guards, 离开还在被监禁的家人leaving their families in imprisonment, 为祖国而战to fight for this country. 他们说 他们参与战斗They said that they were going to fight 不仅仅是为了让家人走出铁丝网not only to get their families out from behind those barbed-wire fences, 还因为他们坚信政府所要捍卫的理念but because they cherished the very ideal of what our government stands for, 政府应该捍卫却一度因目前行为而抛弃的理念should stand for, and that was being abrogated by what was being done. 人人生而平等All men are created equal. 于是他们挺身而出 为祖国而战And they went to fight for this country. 他们被安排在一个完全由日裔美国人组成的部队They were put into a segregated all Japanese-American unit 然后被送往欧洲战场and sent to the battlefields of Europe, 他们投身战争and they threw themselves into it. 以异乎寻常的勇气和毅力作战They fought with amazing,incredible courage and valor. 他们被派往执行最危险的任务They were sent out on the most dangerous missions 他们的伤亡率在各作战部队中位居第一and they sustained the highest combat casualty rate of any unit proportionally. 有一场战役证明了这一点There is one battle that illustrates that. 那是哥特防线的一场战役It was a battle for the Gothic Line. 德国人驻扎在一个山坡的一侧The Germans were embedded in this mountain hillside, 一面是高耸的峭壁 一面是坚不可摧的山洞rocky hillside, in impregnable caves, 三个盟军营and three allied battalions 已经连续进攻了6个月had been pounding away at it for six months, 双方陷入僵局 and they were stalemated. 442营得到命令加入这场战斗The 442nd was called in to add to the fight, 442营的士兵想出了一个独特的but the men of the 442nd came up with a unique 而又极为危险的策略but dangerous idea: 山的后面是岩石峭壁The backside of the mountain was a sheer rock cliff. 德国人认为对方绝不可能从后面发动进攻The Germans thought an attack from the backside would be impossible. 442营的士兵决定把不可能变成可能The men of the 442nd decided to do the impossible. 在一个伸手不见五指的夜晚On a dark, moonless night, 他们开始攀登峭壁they began scaling that rock wall, 峭壁的高度超过1000英尺a drop of more than 1,000 feet, 全副武装的士兵in full combat gear. 花了整整一晚They climbed all night long 攀登这座峭壁on that sheer cliff. 在黑暗中 一些人由于失手In the darkness, some lost their handhold 或者失足跌入下面的深渊坠亡or their footing and they fell to their deathsin the ravine below. 他们寂静无声地坠落They all fell silently. 没有一声叫喊Not a single one cried out, 以免暴露行踪so as not to give their position away. 士兵们足足攀爬了8个小时The men climbed for eight hours straight, 那些到达顶部的人and those who made it to the top 等待着清晨的第一缕阳光stayed there until the first break of light, 破晓时分and as soon as light broke, 他们发动了进攻they attacked. 德国人惊呆了The Germans were surprised, 他们占领了山头 突破了哥特防线and they took the hill and broke the Gothic Line. 6个月的僵局A six-month stalemate 被442营在32分钟内打破was broken by the 442nd in 32 minutes. 这是一次极为成功的行动It was an amazing act, 战争结束后and when the war ended, 442营回到美国the 442nd returned to the United States 他们是二战中as the most decorated unit 功勋最为显著的部队of the entire Second World War. 他们在白宫前 得到杜鲁门总统的接见They were greeted back on the White House Lawn by President Truman, 他说:who said to them, “你们不仅打败了敌人 更是战胜了世俗的偏见。”“You fought not only the enemy, but prejudice, and you won.” 他们是我心目中的英雄They are my heroes. 他们为了这个国家闪亮的理念They clung to their belief 爬上了峭壁in the shining ideals of this country, 他们证明 美国人的称号and they proved that being an American 不仅仅属于某部分人is not just for some people, 美国人并不是一个种族的名称that race is not how we define being an American. 他们重新定义了美国人的概念They expanded what it means to be an American, 其中也包括了那些被人怀疑和仇恨的日裔美国人including Japanese-Americans that were feared and suspected and hated. 他们促成了未来的变化They were change agents, 他们给我留下了丰厚的精神财富and they left for me a legacy. 他们是我的英雄 我的父亲是我的英雄They are my heroes and my father is my hero, 那些了解民主含义的英雄们引导我走出迷惘who understood democracy and guided me through it. 他们留给我的宝贵精神财富They gave me a legacy, 让我形成了一种责任感and with that legacy comes a responsibility, 我下定决心and I am dedicated 我要让我的国家成为更好的美国to making my country an even better America, 要让我们的政府to making our government 变得真正民主an even truer democracy, 这一信念来自于我的英雄们and because of the heroes that I have 以及我们经历的那些苦难and the struggles that we’ve gone through, 我可以作为一个日裔美国同胞站在你们的面前I can stand before you as a gay Japanese-American, 更重要的是but even more than that, 我是一个自豪的美国人I am a proud American. 非常感谢Thank you very much. [掌声][Applause]
  • 2021-08-30无知的追求有句古老的谚语说There is an ancient proverb that says 在暗室里很难it’s very difficult to find 找到黑猫a black cat in a dark room, 特别是里面根本没有猫的时候especially when there is no cat. 我认为用这句话来描述科学I find this a particularly apt description of science 和科研方法特别恰当and how science works — 在暗室里胡乱摸索bumbling around in a dark room, bumping into things, 磕磕碰碰想弄清楚不同东西的形状trying to figure out what shape this might be, 猜想这些东西是什么what that might be, 有报道说有只猫在暗室的某处了there are reports of a cat somewhere around, 也许这个报道不可靠 也许可靠they may not be reliable, they may be, 等等and so forth and so on. 等等我知道我现在所说的和大多数人 对科学的看法是不同的Now I know this is different than the way most people think about science. Science, 我们对科学的普遍认识是we generally are told, is a very well-ordered mechanism for 它是一个用来了解世界、 获得事实和数据的非常有序有理的机制understanding the world, for gaining facts, for gaining data, 就是说科学是以各种原理为基础的that it’s rule-based, 这些原理被称为科学方法that scientists use this thing called the scientific method 我们这样做科学研究已经大约14个世代了and we’ve been doing this for 14 generations or so now, 科研方法被认为是一系列and the scientific method is a set of rules 用来从数据中得到事实真相的准则for getting hard, cold facts out of the data. 我现在想告诉你 我们并不是这样搞科学的I’d like to tell you that’s not the case. 确实是有一些科研方法So there’s the scientific method, 但是我们真正在做的就象是这样but what’s really going on is this. (Laughter) (笑声)[科研方法Vs.四处排气][The Scientific Method vs. Farting Around] 真的是有点象And it’s going on kind of like that. [… […在黑暗中四处排气](笑声)那么in the dark] (Laughter) 我所相信的So what is the difference, then, 对科学的追求方式between the way I believe science is pursued 和传统意义上的科学追求有什么不同呢?and the way it seems to be perceived? 我第一次认识到这个差别是So this difference first came to me in some ways 在哥伦比亚大学担任两份工作的时候在哥大in my dual role at Columbia University, 我是一名神经科学教授 同时也要掌管运作一个实验室where I’m both a professor and run a laboratory in neuroscience 我们的实验室研究大脑如何运作where we try to figure out how the brain works. 我们通过研究嗅觉We do this by studying the sense of smell, 来做到这一点the sense of olfaction, and in the laboratory, 这是一个令人愉悦和振奋的工作it’s a great pleasure and fascinating work 我很高兴能与我的研究生和博士后们一起工作and exciting to work with graduate students and post-docs 想出一些很酷的实验来研究and think up cool experiments to understand how this 嗅觉系统甚至是大脑是如何运作的确实sense of smell works and how the brain might be working, and, 这样的科学实验令人心情振奋well, frankly, it’s kind of exhilarating. 但在同时But at the same time, it’s my responsibility 我担负着给本科生讲授神经科学的教职to teach a large course to undergraduates on the brain, 这是个很重要的任务and that’s a big subject, 我需要花费很长时间来组织讲课内容and it takes quite a while to organize that, 授课是非常有挑战性和非常有趣的工作and it’s quite challenging and it’s quite interesting, 但我不得不说 对我来说 它不是那么令人振奋but I have to say, it’s not so exhilarating. 那么这其中的区别是什么呢?So what was the difference? Well, 我的授课程内容the course I was and am teaching 叫“细胞和分子神经科学(第一部分)”(笑声)is called Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience – I. (Laughs) 它分为二十五讲 充满了各种各样的事实It’s 25 lectures full of all sorts of facts, 使用的教科书是《神经科学原理》这本it uses this giant book called”Principles of Neural Science” 由三个著名的神经学家写就的鸿篇巨制一共有by three famous neuroscientists. 1 414This book comes in at 1,414 pages, 页重达7.5磅it weighs a hefty seven and a half pounds. 要是换个角度来衡量Just to put that in some perspective, 这本书相当于两个正常人类大脑的重量that’s the weight of two normal human brains. (笑声)(Laughter) 所以我开始意识到 这门课结束后So I began to realize, by the end of this course, 学生们也许会觉得that the students maybe were getting the idea 我们要想认识大脑 就必须要掌握这本书提供的所有知识that we must know everything there is to know about the brain. 这显然是不对的我想That’s clearly not true. 他们一定也有这个想法And they must also have this idea, I suppose, 科学家们做的就是收集数据that what scientists do is collect data and collect facts 整理出事实然后把他们订在这样的厚重教科书里and stick them in these big books. 这同样也不是事实And that’s not really the case either. 我去参加学术会议的时候When I go to a meeting, 在会议结束后after the meeting day is over 我和我的同事们and we collect in the bar 聚在酒吧里喝上几瓶啤酒over a couple of beers with my colleagues, 我们从来不谈论我们已经知道的东西we never talk about what we know. 我们谈论的是我们不知道的东西We talk about what we don’t know. 我们谈论还有什么是需要被研究的We talk about what still has to get done, 什么是实验室下一步的重点工作事实上what’s so critical to get done in the lab. Indeed, 我认为 玛丽 · 居里给出了最好的诠释:this was, I think, best said by Marie Curie 她说 一个科学家不在意已经落实的东西who said that one never notices what has been done 而是在意那些还没有落实的东西but only what remains to be done. 这是她在取得第二个研究生学位后This was in a letter to her brother after obtaining 在给她弟弟的信里这样说的her second graduate degree, I should say. 告诉大家 这一直是我最喜爱的玛丽I have to point out this has always been one · 居里照片之一我相信of my favorite pictures of Marie Curie, 在她身后的光芒because I am convinced that that glow behind her 绝对不是摄影棚的特效is not a photographic effect. (Laughter) (笑声)那一定是真的光芒That’s the real thing. 她所撰写的论文现在It is true that her papers are, to this day, 珍藏在法国国家图书馆的stored in a basement room in the Bibliothèque Française 一个有含铅内墙的混凝土地下室里in a concrete room that’s lead-lined, 如果你是一个学者and if you’re a scholar 想要看看这些笔记本and you want access to these notebooks, 你必须穿上一整套辐射防护服you have to put on a full radiation hazmat suit, 那是相当可怕的事儿so it’s pretty scary business. Nonetheless, 尽管如此 我认为我们的课程遗漏了(居里夫人所说的)this is what I think we were leaving out 没有教给学生of our courses and leaving out 作为科学家 在与公众的互动中of the interaction that we have 也省略了告诉他们 什么是未被发现的with the public as scientists, the what-remains-to-be-done. 这是令人振奋和有趣的东西This is the stuff that’s exhilarating and interesting. 如果你愿意 你可以叫它无知It is, if you will, the ignorance. 这正是我们没注意到的方面That’s what was missing. 所以我想 嗯 也许我应该开一门课So I thought, well, maybe I should teach a course 这门课讲的是“无知” 这也许就是我真正擅长的on ignorance, something I can finally excel at, perhaps, for example. 后来我真的就开设了这门关于无知的课So I did start teaching this course on ignorance, 它真的是个相当有趣的课 我会告诉你们and it’s been quite interesting and I’d like 这门课程的网址to tell you to go to the website. 你可以在那里找到各种各样的信息 它完全是对外开放的You can find all sorts of information there. It’s wide open. 对我来说 教这门课的那段时间是段美妙时光And it’s been really quite an interesting time for me 我得以见到其他来参与的科学家to meet up with other scientists who come 和他们讨论他们所不知道的事情in and talk about what it is they don’t know. 当然 我现在使用”无知”这个词Now I use this word”ignorance,” of course, 听起来好像有些恶意挑衅的意味to be at least in part intentionally provocative, 因为无知有很多贬义的内涵because ignorance has a lot of bad connotations 我说的当然不是那样的意思and I clearly don’t mean any of those. 我不是说愚蠢 我也不是说对事实、原因和数据的So I don’t mean stupidity, I don’t mean a callow indifference 那种没心没肺的幼稚无知to fact or reason or data. 我说的无知是 未被启蒙的The ignorant are clearly unenlightened, unaware, uninformed, 没意识到的不了解的 除了占用自己的公司and present company today excepted, 还经常占用选举办公室often occupy elected offices, it seems to me. 在我看来这也许是另一个故事That’s another story, perhaps. 我这里指得的是另一种无知I mean a different kind of ignorance. 我所说的无知可没那么多贬义I mean a kind of ignorance that’s less pejorative, 我所说的无知是说我们a kind of ignorance that comes 在知识上共同的差距from a communal gap in our knowledge, 一些我们还没有了解的东西something that’s just not there to be known 或者了解得还不够得东西or isn’t known well enough 或者我们无法预知的东西yet or we can’t make predictions from, 这种无知在the kind of ignorance that’s maybe best summed up 詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦发表的声明中有最好的诠释:in a statement by James Clerk Maxwell, 也许是最伟大的物理学家牛顿或者爱因斯坦说过perhaps the greatest physicist between Newton and Einstein, “完全自觉自醒的无知who said,”Thoroughly conscious ignorance 是每一次科学进步的前奏is the prelude to every real advance in science.” “我认为这句话说得非常好 完全自觉自醒的无知I think it’s a wonderful idea: thoroughly conscious ignorance. 这正是我今天所要So that’s the kind of ignorance 讲的无知但当然that I want to talk about today, 首先我们要搞清楚but of course the first thing we have to clear 我们该如何利用我们已经掌握的事实?up is what are we going to do with all those facts? 科学发现正以惊人的速度积累着So it is true that science piles up at an alarming rate. 我们知道科学发现就是We all have this sense that 这些堆积如山的事实science is this mountain of facts, 科学的这种积累模式 就象很多人说的this accumulation model of science, as many have called it, 它看似坚不可摧 它看似毫无可能and it seems impregnable, it seems impossible. 你怎么可能掌握这一切呢?How can you ever know all of this? 事实上 科学文献在以惊人的速度增长在And indeed, the scientific literature grows at an alarming rate. 2006 年 共有一百三十万篇论文得以发表In 2006, there were 1.3 million papers published. 那是大约 2.5%的年增长率There’s about a two-and-a-half-percent yearly growth rate, 去年一年呢and so last year we saw 有一百五十万篇论文被发表over one and a half million papers being published. 这个数值除以一年的总分钟数Divide that by the number of minutes in a year, 就意味着每一分钟就有三篇论文发表出来and you wind up with three new papers per minute. 我在这儿已经讲了十多分钟了So I’ve been up here a little over 10 minutes, 就是说我已经失去了三篇论文I’ve already lost three papers. 我需要离开这儿I have to get out of here actually. 赶紧去读那些论文呢I have to go read. 我们怎么利用这些已经发表的论文呢?嗯So what do we do about this? Well, the fact is 事实是科学家在做的就是所谓that what scientists do about it is a kind 的可控的忽略就是说of a controlled neglect, if you will. 我们不需要对我们操心那些发表的论文We just don’t worry about it, in a way. 事实当然是重要的The facts are important. 为了成为科学家You have to know a lot of stuff 你要知道很多东西to be a scientist. That’s true. 这是事实但知识多并不会让你成为科学家But knowing a lot of stuff doesn’t make you a scientist. 要成为一名律师You need to know a lot 你要掌握很多知识of stuff to be a lawyer 要成为会计师、电工或者木工 你要掌握很多知识or an accountant or an electrician or a carpenter. 但在科学方面 掌握很多知识并不是重点But in science, knowing a lot of stuff is not the point. 掌握得知识多可以帮助你更好地Knowing a lot of stuff is there to help you get 了解你的无知to more ignorance. 所以掌握知识是很重要的So knowledge is a big subject, but I would say 但我会说知道自己的无知更重要ignorance is a bigger one. 这就让我们去思考So this leads us to maybe think about, a little bit about, 我们通常想采用some of the models 的一些科学模式of science that we tend to use, 在这里我要纠正你们对科学研究模式的一些偏见and I’d like to disabuse you of some of them. 其中一个很常见的科学研究模式So one of them, a popular one, is that scientists 就是科学家们在耐心地把拼图上的小图块一张一张地拼在一起are patiently putting the pieces of a puzzle together 去揭示一个又一个重大的发现to reveal some grand scheme or another. 这显然不是那么回事 因为This is clearly not true. For one, with puzzles, 说到拼图厂家能保证你一定能做出完整的拼图the manufacturer has guaranteed that there’s a solution. 但我们对科学研究却没法打保票实际上We don’t have any such guarantee. Indeed, 我们中的there are many 很多人对制造商也不是那么有信心of us who aren’t so sure about the manufacturer. (笑声)(Laughter) 所以我觉得科学研究并不遵循拼图模式So I think the puzzle model doesn’t work. 另一种普遍的模式是科学研究是需要一层层解开的难题Another popular model is that science is busy unraveling things 就象你拨开一层层的洋葱皮the way you unravel the peels of an onion. 一层一层地So peel by peel, 你一点点剥开洋葱的外皮you take away the layers of the onion 去了解其中的核心真相to get at some fundamental kernel of truth. 我同样不觉得这个模式是正确的另一种I don’t think that’s the way it works either. 也是很普遍的一个 就是冰山模式Another one, a kind of popular one, is the iceberg idea, 我们只能看到水面上的冰山尖that we only see the tip of the iceberg but underneath 但是水面下才是隐藏着的大部分的冰山is where most of the iceberg is hidden. 所有这些上述模式都是基于我们掌握But all of these models are based on the idea 的事实基础上的of a large body of facts 那些我们已经部分或者全部了解的事实that we can somehow or another get completed. 我们可以铲开We can chip away 冰山去了解它是怎么回事at this iceberg and figure out what it is, 或者象现在的气候or we could just wait for it to melt, 我们等着它融化了就行了I suppose, these days, 不管怎么说我们最终会知道冰山到底什么样but one way or another we could get to the whole iceberg. Right? 对吧? 这都是可控的Or make it manageable. 但我认为科学研究与此不同But I don’t think that’s the case. 我觉得真正的科学研究模式I think what really happens in science 更像是个魔力井is a model more like the magic well, where 不管你捞出多少桶水no matter how many buckets you take out, there 井里总有另桶水着你去捞‘s always another bucket of water to be had, 还有一个我特别喜欢的说法or my particularly favorite one, 科学研究就象池塘上的一圈圈涟漪with the effect and everything, the ripples on a pond. 科学研究就So if you think 象是池塘里那不断扩展的一圈圈涟漪一样of knowledge being this ever-expanding ripple on a pond, 重要的是我们要意识到我们的无知和the important thing to realize is that our ignorance, 知识的边界 是和我们所掌握的知识同时增长的the circumference of this knowledge, also grows with knowledge. 所以说知识造就无知So the knowledge generates ignorance. 我觉得这句话真是说得太好 这是乔治 ·This is really well said, I thought, by George Bernard Shaw. 萧伯纳在庆祝爱因斯坦工作成绩的晚宴上This is actually part of a toast that he delivered 所说的祝酒词中的一句话他认为:to celebrate Einstein at a dinner celebrating Einstein’s work, 科学in which he claims that science 只会创造出比答案更多的问题 [“科学总是错误的 不创造出十个问题科学就没法解决任何一个问题just creates more questions than it answers.[“Science is always wrong. It never solves a problem without creating 10 more.”] “]我觉得这真是至理名言了I find that kind of glorious, 他说的一点没错and I think he’s precisely right, 不过这也算是给科学界职业安全感结果呢plus it’s a kind of job security. 他可能是抄袭了As it turns out, he kind of cribbed that 哲学家康德from the philosopher Immanuel Kant who a hundred 早在一百年多年前 康德就有了同样的years earlier had come up with this idea 问题繁殖的想法 就是说 每一个答案都会产生更多的问题of question propagation, that every answer begets more questions. 我喜欢”问题繁殖”这个词的意思I love that term,”question propagation,” 把问题不断繁殖下去this idea of questions propagating out there. 所以我说搞科研的模式不是说So I’d say the model we want to take is not 我们从无知that we start out kind 开始找到事实答案of ignorant and we get some facts together 然后我们获得知识这样的步骤and then we gain knowledge. 其实真的正好相反It’s rather kind of the other way around, really. 我们会自问 我们用我们掌握的知识做什么好?What do we use this knowledge for? 我们用我们收集到的事实来证明什么?What are we using this collection of facts for? 我们正是用知识和事实来推出更好的无知We’re using it to make better ignorance, 如果可能 推出更高质的无知因为to come up with, if you will, higher-quality ignorance. Because, 你知道有低质量的无知 也有高质量的无知you know, there’s low-quality ignorance and there’s high-quality ignorance. 这两个可不是一样的It’s not all the same. 科学家总是为这个话题辩论Scientists argue about this all the time. 有时我们叫它牛市会议Sometimes we call them bull sessions. 有时我们叫它研究提案Sometimes we call them grant proposals. 不管怎么说 它就是关于无知的讨论But nonetheless, it’s what the argument is about. 它是我们的无知 它是我们所不知道的It’s the ignorance. It’s the what we don’t know. 它也是一个好的提问It’s what makes a good question. 那么我们怎么考虑这些问题呢?So how do we think about these questions? 这里我给你们看一个图表 这个图表经常I’m going to show you a graph that shows up quite a bit 被各个科学部门用来做聚会的海报on happy hour posters in various science departments. 这张图表关于你的科学兴趣This graph asks the relationship between what you know 和你掌握知识多少的关系and how much you know about it. 你的科学兴趣So what you know, 可能是从什么都不想知道到想掌握一切you can know anywhere from nothing to everything, of course, 当然你掌握知识的多少可以在and how much you know about it can be anywhere 或少或多的任何地方from a little to a lot. 所以我来举个例子 有一个本科生So let’s put a point on the graph. There’s an undergraduate. 他知道的不多 但他有很多兴趣Doesn’t know much but they have a lot of interest. 他们几乎对所有的东西感兴趣They’re interested in almost everything. 现在来看一个硕士生Now you look at a master’s student, 因为他受教育的时间更长a little further along in their education, 你看他知道得更多and you see they know a bit more, 但是他的兴趣却有点儿减少了but it’s been narrowed somewhat. 最后你来看看博士生And finally you get your Ph. D., where it turns out 你会发现他们感兴趣的东西几乎都没了you know a tremendous amount about almost nothing. (Laughter) (笑声)在你沿着图表的线条在看下去的话 真正让人不安的是What’s really disturbing is the trend line that goes through that because, 在零点的下方的一个点of course, when it dips below the zero axis, there, 它是在负值区域的it gets into a negative area. 恐怕你们可以找到的就是像我这样的人了That’s where you find people like me, I’m afraid. 但重要的是这些是可以改变的So the important thing here is that this can all be changed. 仅仅是改变X轴上的某个标记 就可以改变整个视角因此This whole view can be changed by just changing the label on the x-axis. 与其问你知道多少So instead of how much you know about it, 我们不如问 “你想问的问题是什么?we could say,”What can you ask about it?” “所以可以肯定So yes, you do need to know a lot 你确实需要掌握很多科学知识of stuff as a scientist, 但是掌握这些知识的目的but the purpose of knowing a lot of stuff 不仅仅是为了了解这些知识is not just to know a lot of stuff. 那只能让你变成一个科学怪人That just makes you a geek, right? 对吧? 掌握很多知识的目的是Knowing a lot of stuff, the purpose is 为了能够 提出更多的问题to be able to ask lots of questions, 是为了能够提出细致、to be able to frame thoughtful, interesting questions, 有趣的问题那才是科学工作的重点because that’s where the real work is. 让我给你讲讲两个诸如此类的Let me give you a quick idea of a couple 问题of these sorts of questions. 我是一个神经科学家 那么我们如何提出I’m a neuroscientist, so how would we come up 神经科学领域里的问题呢?with a question in neuroscience? 因为这些问题并不总是那么直接Because it’s not always quite so straightforward. So, 那么比如说for example, we could say, 我们可以问 大脑是干嘛用的?well what is it that the brain does? Well, 嗯 大脑可以做到的一件事就是它能让我们移动one thing the brain does, it moves us around. 它能让我们用双腿行走We walk around on two legs. 这似乎有点太简单That seems kind of simple, somehow or another. 是不是?我的意思是 几乎每个都超过 10I mean, virtually everybody over 10 months of age 个月龄的人都可以用双腿走路walks around on two legs, right? 对吧?所以说这个问题没什么意思So that maybe is not that interesting. 所以我们可能会选择提出一些So instead maybe we want to choose something 更复杂些的问题去研究a little more complicated to look at. 视觉系统怎么样?How about the visual system? 对 就是视觉系统了我是说There it is, the visual system. 我们喜欢研究视觉系统I mean, we love our visual systems. 可以搞很酷的研究事实上We do all kinds of cool stuff. Indeed, 超过 一万两千位神经科学家there are over 12,000 neuroscientists 是研究视觉系统的who work on the visual system, 从视网膜到视觉皮层的from the retina to the visual cortex, 这些科研不仅仅是局限在视觉系统in an attempt to understand not just the visual system 还包括如何通过视觉系统研究去了解but to also understand how general principles 大脑是如何运作的普遍原理of how the brain might work. 目前的情况是:But now here’s the thing: 我们现在拥有很好的Our technology has actually been pretty good 复制视觉系统的技术at replicating what the visual system does. 我们有电视We have TV, we have movies, 我们有电影我们有动画we have animation, we have photography, 我们有摄影、我们有模型识别技术 很多其他的这一类技术we have pattern recognition, all of these sorts of things. 有些视觉技术的工作原理和视觉系统不大一样They work differently than our visual systems in some cases, 尽管如此 我们现有的视觉技术but nonetheless we’ve been pretty good 已经与视觉系统非常近似了但是at making a technology work like our visual system. 机器人技术的发展已经有一百年了Somehow or another, a hundred years of robotics, 你还没见过一个用两条腿走路的机器人you never saw a robot walk on two legs, 因为机器人不是用两条腿走路的because robots don’t walk on two legs 这可不是一件很容易做到的事because it’s not such an easy thing to do. 一百年的机器人技术A hundred years of robotics, 我们甚至不能让机器人and we can’t get a robot that can move more 走上一步或者两步than a couple steps one way or the other. 你让机器人走个斜面试试 它们肯定会摔倒You ask them to go up an inclined plane, and they fall over. 让它们转身 它们也会摔倒了 这是个科技上的难题那么Turn around, and they fall over. It’s a serious problem. 对大脑来说 什么是最难完成So what is it that’s the most difficult thing 的任务呢?for a brain to do? 我们应该学着研究什么呢?What ought we to be studying? 也许应该研究用两腿行走是怎么完成的 研究运动系统Perhaps it ought to be walking on two legs, or the motor system. 我给你们举个我自己实验室的例子I’ll give you an example from my own lab, 我们对嗅觉问题特别感兴趣my own particularly smelly question, since 我们研究嗅觉we work on the sense of smell. 这里是五个分子构图But here’s a diagram of five molecules 和他们的化学排序and sort of a chemical notation. 这都是些最普通的分子了These are just plain old molecules, 但如果你用你脸上那两个鼻梁下的小洞洞but if you sniff those molecules 来闻闻那些分子的话up these two little holes in the front of your face, 你会在脑海记住那个印象非常深刻的“玫瑰”you will have in your mind the distinct impression of a rose. 如果说真的有玫瑰的话If there’s a real rose there, 那些分子就是“玫瑰”those molecules will be the ones, 但即使没有玫瑰but even if there’s no rose there, 你也会有关于这些分子的记忆you’ll have the memory of a molecule. 我们是如何把一些分子转变成脑海里的印象的?How do we turn molecules into perceptions? 这个怎样的一个过程呢?What’s the process by which that could happen? 还有另一个例子: 两个非常简单的分子结构 带着这些化学符号Here’s another example: two very simple molecules, again in this kind of chemical notation. 也许这样看着它们的分子式更容易It might be easier to visualize them this way, 灰色的圈圈是碳原子so the gray circles are carbon atoms, the white ones 白色的是氢原子 红色的是氧原子are hydrogen atoms and the red ones are oxygen atoms. 那么这两个分子式的差别就在于一个碳原子Now these two molecules differ by only one carbon atom 和两个与碳原子相连的氢原子and two little hydrogen atoms that ride along with it, 其中的一个分子叫乙酸庚酯and yet one of them, heptyl acetate, 带着特殊的梨味儿has the distinct odor of a pear, 但是醋酸己酯却带来一种很明显的香蕉味儿and hexyl acetate is unmistakably banana. 我就想问两个非常有趣的问题So there are two really interesting questions here, it seems to me. 其中一个是 一个如此简单的小分子One is, how can a simple little molecule like that 是如何在你的脑海里建立起如此清晰的认识create a perception in your brain that’s so clear 让你轻松辨别出一只梨或是一个香蕉的呢?as a pear or a banana? 第二 我们到底是怎样辨别出这个差异的呢?And secondly, how the hell can we tell the difference 两个分子仅仅只有一个碳原子键的不同而已between two molecules that differ by a single carbon atom? 我的意思是 这样的问题对我来说简直是太有趣了I mean, that’s remarkable to me, 我们每个人都拥有这个星球上最优质的化学探测器呀!clearly the best chemical detector on the face of the planet. 你甚至从来都没想过这些And you don’t even think about it, do you? 对吧?让我们再回来谈谈无知和设问So this is a favorite quote of mine that takes us 这是我最喜欢讲给大家的一句名言back to the ignorance and the idea of questions. 我喜欢引用名言是因为我想既使是死人I like to quote because I think dead people 也应该参与这样的讨论shouldn’t be excluded from the conversation. 我认为(关于无知的)And I also think it’s important to 谈论其实已经进行很久了realize that the conversation’s been going on 埃尔温for a while, by the way. · 薛定谔是伟大的量子物理学家So Erwin Schrodinger, a great quantum physicist and, 我认为他也是哲学家 他指出你需要不懈地I think, philosopher, points out how you have to “保持永久无限期的无知”“abide by ignorance for an indefinite period” of time. 正是这种如何持久And it’s this abiding 得保持无知 我认为 正是我们需要学会的by ignorance that I think we have to learn how to do. 这是件很不容易的事情This is a tricky thing. 可没有那么简单This is not such an easy business. 现在我该讲讲我们的教育系统了I guess it comes down to our education system, 我要讲讲so I’m going to talk 无知和教育a little bit about ignorance and education, 因为我觉得教育系统需要重视“无知”because I think that’s where it really has to play out. 那么现在让我们正视现实吧So for one, let’s face it, 这个时代有谷歌 维基百科这样的网站in the age of Google and Wikipedia, 大学的运营模式the business model of the university and probably 甚至是我们的中学 真的都需要一些实质的改变secondary schools is simply going to have to change. 我们真的不能光靠贩卖“事实”为生了We just can’t sell facts for a living anymore. 你只要轻松的点击鼠标就可以找到事实的They’re available with a click of the mouse, 如果你想or if you want to, 在现在这样的年代 你甚至可能仅仅对着墙提问you could probably just ask the wall 墙里面藏着one of these days, 的机器就可能 回答你所有的问题wherever they’re going to hide the things that tell us all this stuff. 我们要做的是什么?So what do we have to do? 我们必须让我们的学生We have to give our students 尝到探索的滋味 去了解事实以外的世界a taste for the boundaries, for what’s outside that circumference, 事实之外还有什么 除了事实还有什么for what’s outside the facts, what’s just beyond the facts. 我们应该怎么做?How do we do that? Well, 是呀 现在有个问题one of the problems, of course, 很难解决 那就是–考试目前turns out to be testing. 我们的教育制度We currently have an educational system 是非常高效的 但是非常高效地干了件坏事which is very efficient but is very efficient at a rather bad thing. 在二年级时 几乎所有的孩子都对科学感兴趣So in second grade, all the kids are interested in science, 无论女孩还是男孩the girls and the boys. 他们喜欢把东西拆开 他们有很强的好奇心They like to take stuff apart. They have great curiosity. 他们喜欢做调查 他们喜欢去科学博物馆They like to investigate things. They go to science museums. 他们喜欢四处玩耍They like to play around. 他们是小学二年级的学生They’re in second grade. 他们对什么都感兴趣They’re interested. 等到了第 11 或 12 年级(高中) 只有But by 11th or 12th grade, fewer than 10 percent 不到10%的学生对科学感兴趣of them have any interest in science whatsoever, 更别说想把科学探索作为自己的职业了let alone a desire to go into science as a career. 所以我说 我们有这个极其高效的系统So we have this remarkably efficient system 很善于打击这些孩子们心里的科学兴趣for beating any interest in science out of everybody’s head. 这真的是我们想要的吗?Is this what we want? 我的一位大学老师同事把这样的现象I think this comes from what a teacher colleague of mine 叫做”填鸭式教育”calls”the bulimic method of education.” 你知道吧?你可以想象出来的You know. You can imagine what it is. 我们只是把一大勺的We just jam a whole bunch “事实”塞进他们的喉咙里of facts down their throats over here 然后他们在考试的时候再把它吐出来and then they puke it up on an exam over here 每个回家的孩子从学校里没得到什么有益的收获and everybody goes home with no added intellectual heft whatsoever. 我们不能这样继续下去了那么This can’t possibly continue to go on. 我们该怎么办?So what do we do? 那些遗传学家Well the geneticists, I have to say, 我不得不说他们中流传着很有趣的格言have an interesting maxim they live by. 遗传学家经常说 你总能得到你想要筛选出的东西Geneticists always say, you always get what you screen for. 我们可以把这句话当成警告And that’s meant as a warning. 我们总能得到我们想要筛选出的东西So we always will get what we screen for, 测评方法是非常重要的and part of what we screen for is in our testing methods. Well, 我们已经听过太多的测试呀we hear a lot about testing and evaluation, 评价呀我们需要认真考虑我们在进行测试的时候and we have to think carefully when we’re testing 我们在评分还是在除草whether we’re evaluating or whether we’re weeding, 我们是不是要把一些人排除掉 我们是不是在裁掉一部分人whether we’re weeding people out, whether we’re making some cut. 评价是一回事 你在教育学类文献中Evaluation is one thing. You hear a lot about evaluation 可以阅读到很多有关如何做测试的书in the literature these days, in the educational literature, 测评其实相当于反馈but evaluation really amounts to feedback and it amounts 测评为试验和错误提供机会to an opportunity for trial and error. 测评提供It amounts to a chance to 的这些反馈work over a longer period of time 应该是为了以后的长期工作提供帮助with this kind of feedback. 这就和除草不同 但我要告诉你们That’s different than weeding, and usually, I have to tell you, 通常情况下当人们谈论到评价when people talk about evaluation, evaluating students, 评价学生评价教师evaluating teachers, evaluating schools, 评价学校评价项目 他们谈论的实际上就是除草evaluating programs, that they’re really talking about weeding. 这就不是什么好事了And that’s a bad thing, 因为你会得到你想选择的because then you will get what you select for, 结果呢我们真的得到了我们想要的(不到10%的高中生想搞科学)which is what we’ve gotten so far. 我觉得我们需要有这样的测验问 “某某是什么?So I’d say what we need is a test that says,”What is x?” “答案可以是”我不知道 因为没有人知道 ”and the answers are”I don’t know, because no one does,” 或者更好的答案是”你的问题是什么?or”What’s the question?” Even better. “或者 回答 “好的 我会查一下Or,”You know what, I’ll look it up, I’ll ask someone, 我会问别人我会打电话给别人问 我的找到答案”I’ll phone someone. I’ll find out.” 这才是我们需要的反应Because that’s what we want people to do, 这才是我们评价的方式and that’s how you evaluate them. 对一些优等生班And maybe for the advanced placement classes, 答案可能是 “这就是答案 接下来的问题是什么?it could be,”Here’s the answer. What’s the next question?” “这是我特别喜欢的答案That’s the one I like in particular. 让我引述威廉 · 巴特勒 · 叶芝的话来结束我的演讲So let me end with a quote from William Butler Yeats, 他说”教育不是把桶填满 ;who said”Education is not about filling buckets; 而是点亮火苗it is lighting fires.” “所以我建议So I’d say, let’s get out the matches. 让我们拿出火柴来谢谢Thank you. (掌声)(Applause) 谢谢大家 (掌声)Thank you. (Applause)
  • 2021-08-30蚊子嗡嗡叫的真实原因 | DIY神经科学系列翻译:约瑟夫•杰妮校验:克里斯汀•阿帕嗒Translator: Joseph GeniReviewer: Krystian Aparta [蚊子嗡嗡声](Mosquito buzzing) 我们都听过蚊子讨厌的嗡嗡声We’ve all heard the annoying sound of a mosquito, 而且会不惜一切代价将它赶走and we will stop at nothing to make it go away. 虽然这声音会让我们抓狂While this sound may be maddening to us, 也许对蚊子来说 那却是悦耳之音perhaps it’s music to a mosquito’s ears. 蚊子的神经系统具有The mosquito’s nervous system has almost 几乎和我们一样多的听觉细胞as many sensory auditory cells as we do. 但为何如此小的体积 有那么多听觉细胞But why would they have so many in such a small body, 它们又为何对声音如此敏感?and why would they need to be so sensitive to sounds? 答案是 爱情The answer is love. [DIY神经系统科学][DIY Neuroscience] [音乐播放中](Music playing) 人类会做很多事 吸引彼此As humans, we do a lot to attract each other. 一些是有意识的 如化妆 让自己很好闻Some are conscious, we put on makeup and make sure we smell nice. 而有些是下意识的And some are unconscious, 你会下意识转向喜欢的人或甚至坐得更近you may unconsciously point your body or even sit closer to someone you like. 这些就是求偶行为 许多动物都有These are courtship behaviors,and a lot of animals have them. 蚊子也一样And mosquitoes are no different. 哈利整个暑期都在勇敢地听蚊子嗡嗡声So Haley’s been spending her summerbravely listening to mosquitoes, 她所观察到的 可能会使你很惊讶and what she observed may surprise you. 我们想调查蚊子是如何发出声音的So we want to investigatehow the mosquitoes make their song. 哈利那我们怎么录蚊子翅膀拍打声呢?So Haley, how do we record their wing beats? 我们得把它们拴住 方法就是We need to tether them, and the way to do that is 首先把蚊子放在电冰箱里或冰上麻醉它们first, we anesthetize them in a fridge or a bed of ice. 然后把蚊子放到培养皿里And then I transfer them to this petri dish of ice, 只是为了让它们深度麻醉just to get them even more anesthetized. 下一步 我用一个昆虫针Next, I take an insect pin, 我要做的是 在针上涂and what I do is put a tiny little dab 一点强力胶of superglue on this pin. 我要确保I want to make sure 把它放在翅膀上方的胸腔上that I get it on his thorax above his wings 这样它吊着的时候 翅膀仍然可自由拍动so that when he is suspended, his wings are still free to move. 就这样 这只拿下了So here’s one down. 在野外很难抓住雄蚊子It’s really hard to catch male mosquitoes in the wild 因为只有雌蚊子才会被人类吸引because females are the only mosquitoesthat are attracted to humans, 它们才食人血they feed on human blood. 现在 我们可以试着给它们录音And now, we can try to get some recordings from them. 这是我用来放它们的小台子So this is the stand that I use to hold them. 我喜欢让它正对着话筒I like to place it right over the microphone 这样我就能录下大家听到的嗡嗡声so that I can get a recording of the buzzing that you hear. 那种声音是由它们拍打翅膀的频率产生的That sound is generated by how fast they’re beating their wings. 这是一只雄蚊子This is a male. 雄蚊子有很浓密的触须 看似羽毛状The males have very bushy antennae, and they look kind of feathery. 而且 体形也小很多And they are also much smaller. —它以600赫兹左右的频率振翅—对!– So he’s flying around 600 hertz.- Yeah! 我们能用一只雌性蚊子试试吗?Can we try a female mosquito? 当然 我们开始吧Sure, here we go. [蚊子较低的嗡嗡声](Mosquito buzzing, lower pitch) 天啊Wow. 这是一个比雄性低很多的频率This is a much lower frequency than the male. 是的 听起来与另一个家伙完全不同Yeah, it sounds completely different than the other guy. [蚊子嗡嗡声](Mosquito buzzing) [蚊子较低音的嗡嗡声](Mosquito buzzing, lower pitch) 这是因为它们是两只不同的蚊子So is it because they’re two different mosquitoes, 还是因为它们的性别不同?or because they’re male and female? 因为性别不同It’s because they’re male and female. 我们来找出答案 证明一下Let’s find out, let’s verify that. 你能用另一只雌蚊子 看看它的声音Can you bring in another female and see if she sounds 是像蚊子A还是蚊子B吗?like mosquito A or mosquito B? 好的Yeah. [蚊子较低音的嗡嗡声](Mosquito buzzing, lower pitch) 它还是比雄性蚊子低很多And again, she is much lowerthan the male. 是的 雌蚊子听起来不同Yeah, she sounds different. [蚊子较低的嗡嗡声](Mosquito buzzing, lower pitch) Yeah, 她恰好在400赫兹she’s spot-on 400. HS: 女:的确如此GG:确实很奇特She really is.GG: That’s really bizarre. HS:雌性蚊子声音要低得多HS:The females are at a much lower pitch. —它们在400赫兹左右—我明白了– They were around 400 hertz.- I get you. 所有雌性蚊子也都大概在那个频率And all of the females were around that, too. 我注意到它们比雄性蚊子大很多I noticed that they were much larger than the males, 所以不用为保持自由飞行而快速拍打翅膀so they didn’t have to flap their wings as fast to stay in free flight. —所以它们有较大的翅膀 拍打较慢—对!– So they have larger wings,so they’re flapping slower. – Yeah! 你注意到所有雌蚊子的频率大概都相同?And you noticed that all the females have the same frequency, roughly? 雄性蚊子也是如此 真有趣And the males do, too. That’s kind of interesting. 那这肯定意味着什么So that must mean something. 让我们看看把雄性和雌性放一起会怎样let’s see what happens when we put the male and the female together. 蚊子嗡嗡声 音高不同[Mosquitoes buzzing; pitch varies] 当我把它们放在同一听力范围时When I put them into the same hearing range, 我注意到它们在改变音调I noticed that they were kind of changing their tones. 几乎像是更沉闷It was kind of more dull, almost. [蚊子嗡嗡声][Mosquitoes buzzing] 当我把声音And when I put it back 放在声谱图里 观察它们的互动in my spectrogram to see their interaction, 它们的声音在同一声调汇合they were meeting at the same tone. OK 暂停OK, pause. 雄性和雌性在唱二重唱The males and females are singing a duet, 意思是它们调整翅膀以产生一种共同声调meaning that they adjust their wings to be able to produce a common tone. 这只雄蚊子高唱到G音You have the male singing up here at G, 而这只雌蚊子在低唱D音and you have the female singing down here at D, 当它们合在一起and when they get together, 你是说它们改变翅膀拍打频率you’re saying that they change the frequency of their wings 这样一起合唱的?such that they come together? —是啊 的确如此—它们像在唱二重唱– Yeah, exactly.- And they sort of sing a duet. (蚊子在逐渐调整到同一音高)[Mosquitoes graduallyadjusting to identical pitch] 它们在交流 让彼此知道They’re communicating to let each other know 它们基本上已经找到了潜在的伴侣that they’ve basically found a potential mate. 那么 换句话说So in other words, 雌性倾向选择与自己唱二重唱最好的雄性the female tends to choose a male that best sings her duet. 研究发现 如果雌性蚊子怀了孕And studies have found that if she’s pregnant, 她便根本不在乎了she doesn’t even bother. 所以如果我们能理解蚊子交配行为So if we can understand the mosquito mating behavior, 我们也许能在野外阻止它we may be able to disrupt it in the wild 预防类似疟疾的疾病and prevent diseases like malaria. 但就目前来讲 你下次听到蚊子嗡嗡声时But for now, the next time you hear a mosquito buzzing, 就停下 记住 她可能正沉溺在爱情里just pause and remember she may be in love 她可能在唱歌 找寻完美伴侣and she may be singing her song, and she may be looking for her perfect match. [啪][Smack]
  • 2021-08-30长期休业后如何重返职业有些人经过离职长假之后 重新投入到工作中来People returning to work after a career break: 我称他们为“再从业者”I call them “relaunchers.” 这些人选择休离职长假, 是因为要照顾老人These are people who have taken career breaks for elder care, 照顾孩子for childcare reasons, 追求个人爱好pursuing a personal interest, 或是个人健康问题or a personal health issue. 这类人涉及各行各业:Closely related are career transitioners of all kinds: 退伍军人、军嫂veterans, military spouses, 退休返聘的人retirees coming out of retirement, 或遣返回国者or repatriating expats. 离职长假后重返工作 不简单Returning to work after a career break is hard, 因为雇主和再从业者之间because of a disconnect between the employers 有了隔阂。and the relaunchers. 雇主们认为,雇佣这些 简历上工作时间不连贯的人Employers can view hiring people with a gap on their resume 是一个高风险的决定as a high-risk proposition, 另外对于这些处于事业休假期的个体我们会质疑他们and individuals on career break can have doubts about their abilities 是否可以再次成功步入工作生活to relaunch their careers. 特别是那些离职时间较长者Especially if they’ve been out for a long time. 雇主和再从业者之间缺乏的联系 是我在尝试解决的问题。This disconnect is a problem that I’m trying to help solve. 如今,我们在各行各业 都能见到成功的再从业者Now, successful relaunchers are everywhere and in every field. 这位是萨米·科法拉This is Sami Kafala. 他是英国的一位核物理学家He’s a nuclear physicist in the UK, 因为要在家照顾五个孩子 而度过了五年的离职长假who took a five-year career break to be home with his five children. 新加坡新闻最近报道了有关保姆The Singapore press recently wrote about nurses returning to work 长时间休假后重新工作的消息after long career breaks. 提到长时间的离职假期And speaking of long career breaks. 这位是米米·卡恩This is Mimi Kahn, 她是加州奥兰治县的一位社工she’s a social worker in Orange County, California 在度过25年的离职长假后who returned to work in a social services organization 回到了一个社会服务组织工作after a 25-year career break. 这是据我见过最长的离职假期That’s the longest career break that I’m aware of. 最高法院法官桑德拉·戴·奥康纳Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor 在其职业生涯早期 度过了五年离职长假took a five-year career break early in her career. 这位是特蕾西·莎碧罗, 她度过了13年的离职长假And this is Tracy Shapiro, who took a 13-year career break. 特蕾西接了从“今日秀”节目观众打来的电话Tracy answered a call for essays by the Today Show 他们想要重返工作from people who were trying to return to work, 却发现很难做到but having a difficult time of it. 特蕾西写道:自己是五个孩子的母亲, 也很享受居家的时间Tracy wrote in that she was a mom of five who loved her time at home, 但是她历经了一次离婚并且急需回到工作状态but she had gone through a divorce and needed to return to work, 另外,她很想把工作 带回她的生活中plus she really wanted to bring work back into her life 因为她享受工作because she loved working. 特蕾西也曾做过 我们很多人所做的事Tracy was doing what so many of us do 每天不停的搜寻合适的工作when we feel like we’ve put in a good day in the job search. 她找过财经、会计领域的职位She was looking for a finance or accounting role 她在那之前花掉了九个月时间and she had just spent the last nine months 很努力地调查网上的公司very diligently researching companies online 然后投放简历,却一无所获and applying for jobs with no results. 我在2011年六月见到了特蕾西I met Tracy in June of 2011 那时“今日秀”节目 问我可否与她合作when the Today Show asked me if I could work with her 看我能不能帮她走出困境to see if I could help her turn things around. 我告诉特蕾西的第一件事, 就是她必须走出家门The first thing I told Tracy was she had to get out of the house. 我告诉她,她必须 公开自己求职的想法I told her she had to go public with her job search 然后告诉她认识的所有人, 自己再从业的强烈意愿and tell everyone she knew about her interest in returning to work. 我还告诉她, “有很多你参与的对话I also told her, “You are going to have a lot of conversations 是对你完全没有帮助的that don’t go anywhere. 你要做好心理准备, 别因为那些而灰心丧气Expect that, and don’t be discouraged by it. 找到工作之前There will be a handful 确实要经历很多琐事。”that ultimately lead to a job opportunity.” 我稍后再告诉你们 特蕾西是如何处理的I’ll tell you what happened with Tracy in a little bit 我想先跟大家分享 我的一个发现but I want to share with you a discovery that I made 那时我刚刚回到工作中when I was returning to work 结束了自己离开全职工作大军 11年的长假after my own career break of 11 years out of the full-time workforce. 这个发现就是, 人们对你的印象凝固在过去And that is, that people’s view of you is frozen in time. 我的意思是, 当你再次开始与人打交道What I mean by this is,when you start to get in touch with people 与曾经合作过的人重新接触and you get back in touch with those people from the past 例如跟你一起上学、工作过的人the people with whom you worked or went to school 他们对你的印象是they are going to remember you as you were 离职长假之前的你before your career break. 我们的自我意识 随着时间推移逐渐淡化And that’s even if your sense of self has diminished over time 我们很多人都会这样as happens with so many of us 我们距离自己的职业身份 也就越来越远the farther removed we are from our professional identities. 所以就好比说,在你眼里So for example, you might think of yourself 自己是这样的人as someone who looks like this. 这就是我,开了一天小面包车, 整个人感觉很疯狂This is me, crazy after a day of driving around in my minivan. 这是我在厨房里的样子Or here I am in the kitchen. 但是从前的那些人But those people from the past 他们对这些一无所知they don’t know about any of this 他们只记得你过去的样子They only remember you as you were. 当你重新与这些人沟通时, 真是大大的增强了自信心And it’s a great confidence boost to be back in touch with these people, 而且他们对你有再从业的兴趣 感到非常的开心and hear their enthusiasm about your interest in returning to work. 我还清晰地记得发生在 我离职长假中的一件事There’s one more thing I remember vividly from my own career break. 那时我几乎完全不关注经济新闻And that was that I hardly kept up with the business news. 我曾是财经行业出身My background is in finance 然而我在家照顾四个孩子时and I hardly kept up with any news 我几乎不关注任何的新闻when I was home caring for my four young children. 所以我很害怕, 自己去参加面试的时候So I was afraid I’d go into an interview 会讲出一个不复存在的公司and start talking about a company that didn’t exist anymore. 所以我重新订阅了华尔街日报So I had to resubscribe to the Wall Street Journal 然后连续看了六个月and read it for a good six months cover to cover before I felt 之后我才觉得自己对经济 又有了点解了like I had a handle on what was going on in the business world again. 我相信再从业者是 劳动大军中的精英I believe relaunchers are a gem of the workforce 原因如下and here’s why. 想想我们人生的阶段:Think about our life stage: 对于那些因为要照顾孩子 而休离职假期的人for those of us who took career breaks for childcare reasons 大都没有产假,或是产假很短we have fewer or no maternity leaves. 我们早就经历过这些了We did that already. 我们 很少因伴侣而调整工作We have fewer spousal or partner job relocations. 我们的生活更稳定We’re in a more settled time of life. 我们有更好的工作经历We have great work experience. 更成熟的眼光We have a more mature perspective. 我们不需要牺牲雇主以认知自我We’re not trying to find ourselves at an employer’s expense. 此外,我们有一种能量 – 重返岗位的热情Plus we have an energy, an enthusiasm about returning to work. 正是因为我们离职一段时间了precisely because we’ve been away from it for a while. 另外,我也跟雇主讨论On the flip side, I speak with employers 雇主主要有两方面的担心and here are two concerns that employers have 关于聘请再从业者about hiring relaunchers. 其一,雇主担心这些再从业者The first one is, employers are worried that relaunchers 技术方面比较落后are technologically obsolete. 现在我可以告诉各位Now, I can tell you 虽然有段时间我的专业知识确实跟不上having been technologically obsolete myself at one point 但那只是暂时的that it’s a temporary condition. 很早以前我用“莲花123”软件 来做财经分析I had done my financial analysis so long ago that I used Lotus 1-2-3. 我不知道有没有人还记得 那么早以前的事了I don’t know if anyone can even remember back that far 这些技能我得从表格制作重新学起but I had to relearn it on Excel. 其实这并并非难事, 很多的操作指令是一样的It actually wasn’t that hard. A lot of the commands are the same. 我发现幻灯片制作更具挑战性I found PowerPoint much more challenging 但现在我对幻灯片驾轻就熟but now I use PowerPoint all the time. 我告诉再从业者们, 雇主希望找工作的人I tell relaunchers that employers expect them to come to the table 对基本的办公管理软件 有实践经验with a working knowledge of basic office management software. 如果他们操作速度不够快And if they’re not up to speed 那他们就必须变得更高效then it’s their responsibility to get there. 而他们确实做得到And they do. 雇主对再从业者的第二种忧虑The second area of concern that employers have about relaunchers 就是他们担心再从业者 不清楚他们想要做什么is they’re worried that relaunchers don’t know what they want to do. 我告诉再从业者, 他们必须仔细研究I tell relaunchers that they need to do the hard work 了解自己的爱好或者技能to figure out whether their interests and skills have changed 在离职长假的过程中or have not changed 是否发生了变化while they have been on career break. 这不是雇主的职责That’s not the employer’s job. 这个是再从业者的责任, 把自己展现给雇主It’s the relauncher’s responsibility to demonstrate to the employer 来充分展示自己可创造的价值where they can add the most value. 2010年,我开始注意到一件事Back in 2010 I started noticing something, 我从2008年开始追踪 人们重返岗位的情况I had been tracking return to work programs since 2008 然而在2010年,我开始注意到and in 2010, I started noticing 一种短期、带薪的工作机会开始出现the use of a short-term paid work opportunity, 不论它是不是名叫“实习”whether it was called an internship or not, 但总之是一个很像实习的经历but an internship-like experience 这为重回岗位的专业人士 开辟了一条道路as a way for professionals to return to work. 我看到高盛和莎莉集团I saw Goldman Sachs and Sara Lee 都开始了此类 二次从业的实习项目start corporate reentry internship programs. 我看到一个再从业的工程师, 算是不太传统的再从业人士I saw a returning engineer, a nontraditional reentry candidate 申请了一个 军方的初级实习项目apply for an entry-level internship program in the military 后来他获得了一个长期的工作and then get a permanent job afterward. 我看到两所大学把实习整合成I saw two universities integrate internships 中段职业行政考试项目into mid-career executive education programs. 于是,就我所观察到的现象, 我写了一篇报告So I wrote a report about what I was seeing 后来它发表在了 《哈佛商业评论》中and it became this article for Harvard Business Review 名字叫《40岁的实习生》called “The 40-Year-Old Intern.” 我必须得感谢编者拟的标题I have to thank the editors there for that title 还有这个很棒的配图and also for this artwork 你们可以看到那个40岁的实习生 出现在一群大学实习生中where you can see the 40-year-old intern in the midst of all the college interns. 后来,还得感谢福克斯商业新闻And then, courtesy of Fox Business News 他们把这个概念称为 “50岁的实习生”they called the concept “The 50-Year-Old Intern.” (笑声)(Laughter) 五家最大的金融服务公司So five of the biggest financial services companies 都设立了再从业实习项目, 专为重回岗位的金融精英have reentry internship programs for returning finance professionals. 截至目前,数百人参与了这些项目And at this point, hundreds of people have participated 这些实习项目是带薪的These internships are paid 而且那些晋升到永久岗位的人and the people who move on to permanent roles 都有极具竞争力的薪资are commanding competitive salaries. 现在,七家最大的工程公司And now, seven of the biggest engineering companies 也在推行再从业实习项目, 来帮助重返岗位的工程师are piloting reentry internship programs for returning engineers 这也是女性工程师协会 新方案的一部分as part of an initiative with the Society of Women Engineers. 那么,为什么这些企业 大力支持再从业实习呢?Now, why are companies embracing the reentry internship? 因为这种实习可以让雇主Because the internship allows the employer 基于参与者实际工作成效 来做出雇佣决策to base their hiring decision on an actual work sample 而非一系列的面试instead of a series of interviews 而且雇主不必在实习结束之前and the employer does not have to make that permanent hiring decision 就做出长期聘请的决定until the internship period is over. 这段试验期消除了一定的风险This testing out period removes the perceived risk 有关某些经理对雇佣再从业者的担忧that some managers attach to hiring relaunchers 同时,这也吸引了大量再从业人士and they are attracting excellent candidates 他们借此成为了出色的雇佣对象who are turning into great hires. 各位,想一想我们所取得的进步Think about how far we have come. 在这个项目之前,大部分的雇主都不考虑Before this, most employers were not interested 聘请再就业者in engaging with relaunchers at all. 但现在,不仅这些项目在发展起来But now, not only are programs being developed 特别是针对再从业者的项目specifically with relaunchers in mind 如果简历上没有一段空档期but you can’t even apply for these programs 你根本不能申请这些项目unless you have a gap on your resume. 这标志着一种实质变化This is the mark of real change 一种真正的制度变革of true institutional shift 因为如果我们可以 为再从业者解决这个问题because if we can solve this problem for relaunchers 我们亦可为其他的职业转型者 解决同样的问题we can solve it for other career transitioners too. 事实上,一位雇主刚刚告诉我In fact, an employer just told me 他们的“退伍军人再从业项目”that their veterans return to work program 就是基于他们的再从业实习项目is based on their reentry internship program. 我们也没有理由不去设立 一个“退休人士实习项目”And there’s no reason why there can’t be a retiree internship program. 不同的对象,相同的概念Different pool, same concept. 让我告诉你们特蕾西·莎碧罗 最后发生了什么So let me tell you what happened with Tracy Shapiro. 各位回想一下, 她必须告诉她认识的每一个人Remember that she had to tell everyone she knew 自己对重返工作岗位很有兴趣about her interest in returning to work. 结果,她与自己社区里的长辈 进行了一次关键的谈话Well, one critical conversation with another parent in her community 这让她得到了一个工作机会led to a job offer for Tracy 那是一个金融部门的会计工作and it was an accounting job in a finance department. 但那是临时的But it was a temp job. 这个公司告知她她有可能The company told her there was a possibility 最后不是临时工,而是长期的雇员但是不保证it could turn into something more, but no guarantees. 那是2011年的秋天This was in the fall of 2011, 特蕾西很爱那个公司, 而且她喜欢那里的员工Tracy loved this company, and she loved the people 从办公室去她家只需10分钟and the office was less than 10 minutes from her house. 所以即使她后来得到了 第二份工作邀请So even though she had a second job offer 来自另一家公司, 而且有永久、全职的保证at another company for a permanent full-time role 她决定在这份实习项目中冒冒险she decided to take her chances with this internship 尽人事,听天命and hope for the best. 最后,她的业绩 远远超出了所有人的期望值Well, she ended up blowing away all of their expectations 公司不但提供了她永久岗位and the company not only made her a permanent offer 那是在2012年初at the beginning of 2012, 而且他们还让她的工作 更加有趣、有挑战性but they made it even more interesting and challenging, 因为他们知道特蕾西可以办得到because they knew what Tracy could handle. 时间快进到2015年Fast forward to 2015, 特蕾西获得了晋升Tracy’s been promoted. 公司为她的夜校工商管理课程买单They’ve paid for her to get her MBA at night. 她甚至雇佣了 另一位再从业者为她工作She’s even hired another relauncher to work for her. 特蕾西的临时工作只是一个试验Tracy’s temp job was a tryout 就像实习项目just like an internship, 而最终,特蕾西和她的雇主 达到了双赢局面and it ended up being a win for both Tracy and her employer. 我的目标是将这种 再从业实习的概念Now, my goal is to bring the reentry internship concept 推荐给越来越多的雇主to more and more employers. 但是与此同时But in the meantime, 如果你在离职长假后重返岗位if you are returning to work after a career break 别犹豫向雇主提议设立实习项目, 或者类似实习项目的想法don’t hesitate to suggest an internship or an internship-like arrangement 特别是那些没有 正式的再从业实习项目的公司to an employer that does not have a formal reentry internship program. 争当他们的第一个成功故事Be their first success story, 而你们都可以成为 未来更多再从业者的楷模and you can be the example for more relaunchers to come. 谢谢大家!Thank you! (掌声)(Applause)
  • 2021-08-30你甚至不知道自己精通这门语言!我是一名画家I’m an artist. 当画家是最棒的工作Being an artistis the greatest job there is. 我真的有点同情在坐的各位And I really pityeach and every one of you 你们需要花时间探索宇宙who has to spend your daysdiscovering new galaxies 或从全球变暖中解救人类or saving humanity from global warming. (笑声)(Laughter) 但其实画家也是份令人气馁的工作But being an artistis also a daunting job. 我每天早九晚六 都在做这个I spend every day,from nine to six, doing this. (笑声)(Laughter) 我甚至开始一份副业I even started a side careerthat consists entirely 而这份副业都在抱怨创造过程的难处of complaining about the difficultyof the creative process. (笑声)(Laughter) 但 今天 我不想吐槽But today, I don’t want to talk 我生活的困境about what makes my life difficult. 我想谈那些让我的人生变得简单的事I want to talk about what makes it easy. 而那就是你And that is you and the fact 以及你可能从未发觉的that you are fluent in a language 自己某种语言能力其实很流利的事实that you’re probably not even aware of. 你其实很会解读图像语言You’re fluent in the languageof reading images. 解码这样的图像 需要运用一些智力Deciphering an image like that takes quite a bit of an intellectual effort. 但没人曾告诉你个中原理But nobody ever taught you how this works, 你就是知道you just know it. 大学 逛街 音乐College,shopping, music. 让语言强大的关键是What makes a language powerful is 你能将一个很复杂的想法that you can take a very complex idea 以很简单又有效的形式表达and communicate itin a very simple, efficient form. 这些图像与文字代表完全相同的意思These images representexactly the same ideas. 举例来说 但当你看着学士帽时But when you look, for example,at the college hat, 你知道它并非代表那个you know that this doesn’t 你在接过文凭时represent the accessory you wear on your head 头上戴的装饰品when you’re being handed your diploma, 而是大学的完整含义but rather the whole idea of college. Now, 图画不但能传递图像what drawings can dois they cannot only communicate images, 也能激发情感they can even evoke emotions. 假设你去到不熟悉的地方看到这个Let’s say you get to an unfamiliar place and you see this. 你就觉得开心 松了口气You feel happiness and relief. (笑声)(Laughter) 也许感到有些焦虑 或者极度恐慌Or a slight sense of uneaseor maybe downright panic. (笑声)(Laughter) 或幸福安详Or blissful peace and quiet. (笑声)(Laughter) 但视觉当然不只是图示But visuals, they’re of coursemore than just graphic icons. 众所周知You know, 如果我今天要讲关于现代斗争的故事if I want to tell the story of modern-day struggle, 我会从飞机邻座之间的扶手I would start with the armrestbetween two airplane seats 与两组手肘之间的打斗开始and two sets of elbows fighting. 这个例子迷人的是 这个普遍规律What I love there is this universal law that, 你有30秒的时间争夺you know, you have30 seconds to fight it out 一旦抢到了and once it’s yours, 这个扶手的使用权整个航程都属于你you get to keep it for the rest of the flight. (笑声)现在(Laughter) Now, 商务舱里满是这类景象commercial flightis full of these images. 如果我要描述“不舒服”的概念If I want to illustratethe idea of discomfort, 没有什么比得上这些颈枕nothing better than these neck pillows. 它们是设计来让你感到更舒适的They’re designedto make you more comfortable — (笑声)(Laughter) 可是它们没有except they don’t. (笑声)(Laughter) 所以我在飞机上从不睡觉So I never sleep on airplanes. 我偶尔会陷入一种类似痛苦的昏迷状态What I do occasionally is I fall into a sort of painful coma. 然后当我醒来时And when I wake up from that, 满嘴都是可怕的味道I have the most terribletaste in my mouth. 那股味道糟透了It’s a taste that’s so bad, 我无法以言语形容it can not be described with words, 但可以画出来but it can be drawn. (笑声)(Laughter) 其实 我爱睡觉The thing is, you know, I love sleeping. 睡觉时 我真的比较喜欢侧身睡And when I sleep, I really prefer to do it while spooning. 二十年来以这个I’ve been spooning 侧身姿势入睡 我可是专家级的on almost a pro level for close to 20 years, 但过了这么多年 我还是不知道but in all this time,I’ve never figured out 压在下面的手要怎么办what to do with that bottom arm. (笑声)(Laughter) (掌声)(Applause) 而唯一一件事And the only thing — 唯一让睡觉变得比在飞机上更复杂的事the only thing that makes sleepingeven more complicated 就是当你有小孩的时候than trying to do it on an airplane is when you have small children. 他们会在凌晨四点钟左右出现在你的床边They show up at your bed at around 4am 告诉你一些假的借口“我做噩梦了”with some bogus excuse of,”I had a bad dream.” (笑声)(Laughter) 然后 你当然怜悯他们And then, of course you feel sorry for them, 他们是你的小孩they’re your kids, 所以你让他们过来跟你一起睡so you let them into your bed. 我得承认 一开始And I have to admit, at the beginning, 他们真的很可爱 很温暖也很舒服they’re really cute and warm and snugly. 就在你要再度入睡的那一刻 他们不知为何开始——The minute you fall back asleep,they inexplicably — (笑声)(Laughter) 开始转动start rotating. (笑声)(Laughter) 我们称此为直升机模式We like to call this the helicopter mode. (笑声)现在(Laughter) Now, 更深层的东西已经嵌入你的意识中the deeper something is etchedinto your consciousness, 较少的信息就足够引起情绪反应the fewer details we needto have an emotional reaction. (笑声)(Laughter) 为什么像这样的图像可以达到效果?So why does an image like this work? 它能被看懂It works, because we as readers 因为身为读者的我们 非常擅长填空are incredibly goodat filling in the blanks. Now, 当你画画时 有个叫作“负空间”的概念when you draw,there’s this concept of negative space. 这概念是说 我们不画物体本身And the idea is, that insteadof drawing the actual object, 而是画它周围的空间you draw the space around it. 所以这幅画中的碗是空的So the bowls in this drawing are empty. 但黑墨水使你的大脑将食物投射至空白的区块But the black ink prompts your brain to project food into a void. 我们在这幅图中看到的不是一只猫头鹰在飞What we see here is not a owl flying. 它其实是两节AA电池What we actually seeis a pair of AA batteries 竖在一幅荒谬的画上standing on a nonsensical drawing, 然后我借着上下移动桌灯让画面动起来and I animate the scene by moving my desk lamp up and down. (笑声)(Laughter) 这幅图真的只存在于你的脑中The image really only exists in your mind. So, 那究竟要多少信息 才能激发这种图?how much information do we need to trigger such an image? 身为画家 我的目标是用的越少越好My goal as an artist is to use the smallest amount possible. 我试着达到简洁的境界I try to achieve a level of simplicity where, 简洁到若你再抽掉一个元素if you were to take awayone more element, 整个概念就会崩塌the whole concept would just collapse. 这也是身为画家 我最喜欢的工具是抽象概念的原因And that’s why my personal favorite tool as an artist is abstraction. 我发明了一个系统 我叫它抽象量计I’ve come up with this systemwhich I call the abstract-o-meter, 它是这样使用的and this is how it works. 取任何一个符号So you take a symbol, any symbol, 例如一个爱心与箭for example the heart and the arrow, 大多数人会将它们解读为爱的象征which most of us would readas the symbol for love, 而我是个画家and I’m an artist, 所以我可以决定用多少写实或抽象元素来画它so I can draw this in any given degree of realism or abstraction. Now, 如果我太写实if I go too realistic on it, 就会惹人嫌it just grosses everybody out. (笑声)(Laughter) 如果我If I go too far 画得太抽象on the other side and do very abstract, 没有人知道这是什么nobody has any ideawhat they’re looking at. 所以我必须在量尺中找到最完美的位置So I have to findthe perfect place on that scale, 以这个例子来说 大概是在中间的位置in this case it’s somewhere in the middle. Now, 当我们将一个图像once we have reduced 简化到更简洁的形式an image to a more simple form, 各种新联系开始变得可行all sorts of new connectionsbecome possible. 也可以用新的观点说故事And that allows for totallynew angles in storytelling. (笑声)(Laughter) 所以 我想做的是And so, what I like to do is, 我希望能结合遥远文化地区的图像I like to take images from really remote cultural areas and bring them together. Now, 运用更多大胆的引申——with more daring references — (笑声)(Laughter) 我能创造更多乐趣I can have more fun. 但当然 我知道事情到最后变的很难懂But of course, I know that eventuallythings become so obscure 你们有些人会失去兴趣that I start losing some of you. 所以作为设计师So as a designer, 充分了解观众的视觉it’s absolutely key to have a good understanding 与文化词量是很关键的of the visual and culturalvocabulary of your audience. 这个图像 一篇关于雅典奥运的评论With this image here,a comment on the Olympics in Athens, 我假设《纽约客》的读者I assumed that the readerof the”New Yorker” 多少对希腊艺术有些初步的了解would have some rudimentaryidea of Greek art. 如果你不了解希腊艺术 这个图像就不会达到它的效果If you don’t, the image doesn’t work. 但如果你了解 你甚至会欣赏它的小细节But if you do, you mighteven appreciate the small detail, 例如这个花瓶底部的啤酒般的图腾like the beer-can pattern hereon the bottom of the vase. (笑声)(Laughter) 我跟杂志编辑反复讨论着一件事A recurring discussion I havewith magazine editors, 而杂志编辑们通常都是很在意词汇的人 我们讨论的是观众们who are usually word people, is that their audience, you, 你们比起图像原意are much better at makingradical leaps with images 更会跳跃式解读图像意义than they’re being given credit for. 而唯一让我觉得挫败的是And the only thing I find frustrating is 它们似乎总把我推向that they often seem to push me 一系列老套被认为保险的towards a small setof really tired visual clichés 视觉效果that are considered safe. 就像商人正在爬梯子You know, it’s the businessmanclimbing up a ladder, 然后梯子动了 变成股市趋势图and then the ladder moves,morphs into a stock market graph, 任何有钱币符号的东西 总是很好and anything with dollar signs;that’s always good. (笑声)(Laughter) 如果今天的观众里有编辑决策者If there are editorial decision makershere in the audience, 我想给你一个建议I want to give you a piece of advice. 每当这种图被出版一次Every time a drawinglike this is published, 就会死一只熊猫宝宝a baby panda will die. (笑声)(Laughter) 真的Literally. (笑声)(Laughter) (掌声)(Applause) 那老套的视觉效果什么时候好什么时候不好?When is a visual cliché good or bad? 两者差别很微妙It’s a fine line. 取决于你的故事内容And it really depends on the story. 2011年 日本发生地震与海啸时In 2011, during the earthquakeand the tsunami in Japan, 我正在策划一个封面I was thinking of a cover. 我把典型符号都想过了一遍:And I went through the classic symbols: 日本国旗the Japanese flag, 葛饰北齐的“神奈川冲浪里”史上最厉害的画作之一“The Great Wave” by Hokusai,one of the greatest drawings ever. 然后在福岛核电站失控之后And then the story changed 故事就改变了when the situation at the power plant in Fukushima got out of hand. 我记得电厂里And I remember these TV images 充满穿着防护衣工人们的图像of the workers in hazmat suits, 在现场穿梭just walking through the site, 而让我感到震撼的是 那画面如此平静and what struck me was how quiet and serene it was. 因此我就想创造一幅表达平静灾难的图像And so I wanted to create an image of a silent catastrophe. 这就是我当时的作品And that’s the image I came up with. (掌声)(Applause) 谢谢Thank you. (掌声)(Applause) 我想为读者创造一个What I want to do is create an aha moment, “啊哈”的时刻for you, for the reader. 而不幸的是 这并不代表And unfortunately, that does not mean 我在创造这些图像的时候也有“啊哈”的时刻that I have an aha moment when I create these images. 我坐在书桌前时I never sit at my desk 脑中的那颗灯泡从不熄灭with the proverbial light bulb going off in my head. 设计过程其实非常缓慢What it takes is actually a very slow, 且是一点都不性感地在做一些微小的设计决策unsexy process of minimal design decisions 如果幸运 这些决策将会引出好的创意that then, when I’m lucky,lead to a good idea. 有一天 我在火车上So one day, I’m on a train, 试着解读and I’m trying to decode 窗户上雨滴的图像规则the graphic rules for drops on a window. 然后我终于了解到“噢And eventually I realize, “Oh, 原来它是包含在清晰图像里的it’s the backgroundblurry upside-down, 模糊颠倒的背景”contained in a sharp image.” 然后我想 哇 这真是很酷And I thought, wow, that’s really cool, 而对于如何处理它我完全没有想法and I have absolutely no idea what to do with that. 不久之后 我回到纽约A while later, I’m back in New York, 我画了这个在and I draw this image of being stuck 布鲁克林大桥上塞车的图on the Brooklyn bridge in a traffic jam. 塞车很烦人 也有点诗意It’s really annoying,but also kind of poetic. 直到后来我才想到And only later I realized, 我可以同时采用两种概念 然后将它们结合呈现I can take both of these ideas and put them together in this idea. 而我想做的不是呈现实景 而是And what I want to do is not show a realistic scene. But, 有点诗意的maybe like poetry, 让你意识到 其实这个图像已经存在你脑中make you aware that youalready had this image with you, 而我现在将它挖掘出来but only now I’ve unearthed it 让你了解到它其实一直都跟着你and made you realize that you were carrying it with you all along. 但就像诗 这是个很细致的过程But like poetry,this is a very delicate process 我觉得这个过程无法有效率也无法量化that is neither efficientnor scalable, I think. 或许对艺术家来说最重要的技巧And maybe the mostimportant skill for an artist 其实是同理心is really empathy. 你需要技术 你也需要——You need craft and you need — (笑声)(Laughter) 你需要创造力——you need creativity — (笑声)(Laughter) 谢谢大家——来创造出这样的图像thank you — to come up with an image like that. 然后 你需要往后退一步But then you need to step back 以读者的视角看你创造出来的东西and look at what you’ve done from the perspective of the reader. 通过成为更好的图像观察者I’ve tried to become a better artist 我试着成为一个——更好的画家by becoming a better observer of images. 为了这个目的 我开始了自己的练习And for that, I startedan exercise for myself 我将这称作“星期天速写”which I call Sunday sketching, 意思是 在星期天which meant, on a Sunday, 我会取房子周边的一个随机物品I would take a random object I found around the house 然后试着想想看该物品是否能激发点子and try to see if that objectcould trigger an idea 激发跟这个物品的原始用途不同的点子that had nothing to do with the original purpose of that item. 这通常意味着 我会有很长一段时间脑中空白And it usually just meansI’m blank for a long while. 唯一能让这件事成功的秘诀And the only trick that eventually works is 是当我不持任何偏见地if I open my mind 扫过每一个我存放在脑中的图像and run through every imageI have stored up there, 看看是否有东西会让我突然开窍and see if something clicks. 如果有And if it does, 就只要加上几条线连接——just add a few lines of ink to connect — 来保存这短暂的予人灵感的时刻to preserve this very shortmoment of inspiration. 而这经验中最宝贵的一课是And the great lesson there 魔法不是发生在纸上was that the real magicdoesn’t happen on paper. 而是在观看者的脑中It happens in the mind of the viewer. 当你的期待与知识和我的艺术撞击时When your expectations and your knowledgeclash with my artistic intentions. 你和图像的互动Your interaction with an image, 你能阅读 质疑或觉得图像很恼人 无聊或发人深省your ability to read, question,be bothered or bored or inspired 这些都和我的艺术贡献一样重要by an image is as importantas my artistic contribution. 因为那就是将艺术表现真正转化成Because that’s what turnsan artistic statement really, 创意对话的关键into a creative dialogue. 所以 你阅读图像的技巧And so, your skill at reading images 不仅是非常好 更是让我的艺术变得有可能性的关键is not only amazing, it is what makes my art possible. 鉴于此 我非常感谢大家And for that, I thank you very much. (掌声)(Applause) (欢呼声)(Cheers) 谢谢Thank you. (掌声)(Applause)
  • 2021-08-30七步把握当下敢于梦想 用7个简单的步骤来把握当下 “不管你能做什么 或者梦想做什么 从现在开始” 布莱恩·崔西 让你自己敢于拥有远大的梦想 在你决定什么是可能的之前 先决定什么是正确的 在每个方面想象你的未来理想 记住: 无论别人做了什么 在合理范围内 你也可以做得很好 所以就去做吧 一旦你决定好了要去哪里 你唯一要问的问题是 “我怎么去那里?” 你如何从现在的位置 到你想去的地方? 记住 失败不是一个选择 你被放在这个世界上 是为了让你的生活变得更美好 那是什么? 你注定要做的一件事是什么 那是否一个伟大的会对你和他人有益的事情? 你需要从哪一步开始? 你做过的最重要的事情之一 就是问和回答这个问题 你内心有着巨大的 未开发的天赋和能力资源 正等待着被利用和挑战 去创造一些伟大的事业 你必须拒绝“带着遗憾的死去” 对自己诚实 不要陷入推销自己的陷阱 因为你没有真正的能力解决问题 你生而伟大 你来这里是为了某种程度上改变你的生活 你真正想要什么? 如果你能成为 或做 或拥有生命中的任何事情 那会是什么 让自己敢于有梦想 然后去工作 让你的梦想成真 你设定目标 并为目标的成就制定计划的能力 是成功的“主要技能” 这种通过实践培养出来的能力 会比你学到的任何东西 都更能确保你最终的成功 “你花在计划和组织上的前10%的时间 通常占整个过程价值的90%” 这里有一个布莱恩这些年来学到的 用于设定和实现目标 强大但简单的七步方法: 第一 决定你真正想要的是什么 清晰的目标是成功的起点 第二 详细的写下来 并设定最后期限 如果有必要的话 设定次截止期限 第三 确定实现目标所需要的额外知识 技能和能力 以及如何获得这些知识 技能和能力 第四 确定实现目标 所必须克服的障碍和困难 并按大小和重要性进行规划 第五 确定你需要他们帮助你的人 团体和组织 并决定你需要为他们做些什么 来获得他们的帮助 第六 制定详细的计划 按活动分解 按优先级和顺序规划 最重要的是什么? 必须先做什么? 在做其他事情之前必须先做什么? 第七 立即对你的计划采取行动 每天都做些事情朝着你的目标前进 继续前进 在你生命的每一个阶段 每当你面临做新选择 设定新目标的需要时 坐下来用这七个步骤来思考 总是用纸记录你的思考 每当你得到新的信息时 要愿意修改你的计划 继续制定你的计划直到完成它们 然后大胆的执行 每天都有一千个梦想还未诞生就夭折了 因为做梦的人缺乏迈出第一步的勇气 没有保证成功的信仰 生活中的大成就和失败之间的最大区别 在于你是否愿意抓住每一天 朝着目标的方向出发 即使你的信息还不完整 生活是没有保证的 我们都知道如果每个问题都要得到回答 每个障碍都必须先被克服 那么什么事都做不成 在生活中创造自己的成功 敢于有远大的梦想! 每一个伟大的成就都始于一个愿景 而抓住这一天就是你的人生目标 决定你想要什么 写下来 制定一个计划 然后采取行动 “跳 网就会出现” 欢迎你们的来信 所以今天我们的问题是: 你今天打算做什么来抓住这一天? 在下面留言 我们将对此进行回复 谢谢收看! 正如布莱恩所说 如果你想改变你的未来 采取行动 就是现在 如果你喜欢这个视频 觉得它很有价值 订阅我们的频道 为这个视频点赞 并分享这个视频给你的朋友 不要忘了 点击屏幕上的按钮来获得一个免费的礼物 再次感谢你的观看
  • 2021-08-30轻松记住前十位总统!为了远比你所想像还快地记住美国的总统们To memorize the presidents of the United States faster than you ever thought possible, you 你需要按记忆专家说的做――运用视觉记忆法need to do what memory experts do – use visual memory techniques. 我会确切地告诉你需要在脑海中构想的图片 并且画给你看I’ll tell you exactly what to picture in your mind, and I’ll draw it for you too. 专注于在头脑中形成每幅图 你会惊叹于你能如此容易地Focus on seeing each picture in your head, and you’ll be amazed how easily you can 回想起所有事recall everything. 让我们开始吧Let’s get into it. 我们先从想象一台洗衣机开始We’ll begin by picturing a washing machine. 美国第一任总统 当然就是乔治·华盛顿了The 1st president of the United States was, of course, George Washington. 华盛顿听起来有点像洗衣机Washington sounds a bit like washing machine. 我确信记第一任总统对你毫不费劲 但无论如何我还是会借用图像I’m sure you don’t need any help remembering the first president, but we’ll use an image anyway 因为这是我们视觉故事的第一张图片because it’s the first picture in our visual story. 因此 想象一台有胳膊有腿的洗衣机So picture a washing machine, and imagine it has arms and legs. 它在街道上跑 手臂和腿狂蹬 洗衣机的盖子It’s running down the street, arms and legs pumping madly, and the lid of the washing 由于上下拍打而翻开machine is flapping open. 当你想起那台洗衣机正疯了一样地跑时 你会意识到When you think of that washing machine running like crazy, you’ll realize that washing 洗衣机听起来和华盛顿的音相似 这样你就会记住machine sounds similar to Washington, and you’ll remember the 1st president of the 美国的第一任总统了United States. 第二任是亚当斯The 2nd president was Adams. 亚当斯听起来有点像原子……像个原子弹 那就用它吧Adams sounds a bit like atom, like an atom bomb, so let’s use that. 再想象刚才的洗衣机 在街上跑 突然 莫名其妙地Picture that washing machine again, running down the street, when suddenly, out of nowhere, 一颗巨大的原子弹从空中掉落 正中洗衣机的顶部a huge atom bomb falls out of the sky and lands right on top of the washing machine, 嘣的一声 洗衣机被砸地上了crushing it to the ground with a loud boom. 我不知道真原子弹有多大 但是把这个设成汽车大小吧I’m not sure how big a real atom bomb is, but let’s make this one the size of a car. 洗衣机没法站起来 但是至少那颗原子弹The washing machine didn’t stand much of a chance, but at least the atom bomb didn’t 没爆炸explode. 想象原子弹砸在洗衣机上 你把它与亚当联系起来Picture that atom bomb landing on the washing machine, and you’ll link that to Adams, 由此也知道他是继华盛顿之后的第二任总统了and know that he was the 2nd president, right after Washington. 杰斐逊是第三任总统Jefferson was the 3rd president. 杰斐逊就有点挑战了 但是它听起来有点像这个问题Jefferson is a little challenging, but it kind of sounds like the question ‘dya have 你有个儿子吗?a son?’ 让我们想象原子弹不是有意砸到洗衣机的Let’s imagine the atom bomb didn’t mean to land on the washing machine and now its 现在是它有点担心洗衣机的健康和幸福状况feeling a bit concerned about the health and well-being of the washing machine. 也许它想核实下洗衣机是否有下一代 他需要呼喊某个人Maybe it wants to check if the washing machine has next-of-kin, somebody it should call, 所以问道“你有个儿子吗?”and so it’s asking ‘dya have a son?’ 想象原子弹站在被撞毁洗衣机旁Picture the atom bomb standing over the crushed washing machine. 原子弹有眼睛和嘴巴的 它问道“你有个儿子吗?”The atom bomb has eyes and a mouth and it’s asking ‘dya have a son?’ 在脑海中清楚地想象这个场景 想起第三任总统―杰斐逊 就容易了Imagine that scene clearly in your mind, and you’ll easily recall the 3rd president – Jefferson. 美国第四任总统是麦迪逊The 4th president of the United States was Madison. 那使我想到疯狂的太阳 让我们接着想That makes me think of mad sun, so let’s roll with that. 天空中的太阳错听了原子弹问洗衣机的问题The sun up in the sky misheard what the atom bomb asked the washing machine. 它以为问的是“你是太阳吗?” 这就让它发疯了He thought the question was ‘are you the sun’, and that just gets the sun mad. 想象太阳从天而降 带着怒气Picture the sun has come down out of the sky, it’s very cranky and it’s telling the 他告诉原子弹不要问如此愚蠢的问题 显然他才是太阳bomb not to ask silly questions because it’s obvious he’s the sun. 清晰设想 太阳变得很疯狂Clearly visualize that sun getting very mad. 这时当你想象那个疯太阳 你一下子就可联系到第四任总统Now, when you picture the mad sun, you’ll link that straight away to the 4th president ——麦迪逊– Madison. 我们继续 第五任总统是门罗On we go, and Munroe was the 5th president. 上个世纪最著名的就是玛丽莲·梦露她是好莱坞的One of the most famous people of the last century was Marilyn Munroe, the Hollywood 影视明星及最初轰动一时的金发碧眼女movie star and original blonde bombshell. 她与第五任总统相联系 因为他们的姓相同And she’s going to be our link to the 5th president since they have the same last name. 想象玛丽莲·梦露走向疯狂的太阳 问它为何如此心烦意乱Picture Marilyn Munroe walking up to the mad sun and asking him why he’s so upset and 同时告诉他 他应该深呼吸 冷静下来telling him he should take a deep breath and cool down. 太阳停止咆哮 由于玛丽莲·梦露是个漂亮的女人The sun stops his little rant, because Marilyn Munroe was a beautiful woman and even manages 甚至足以吸引疯太阳的注意to catch the attention of a mad sun. 想象玛丽莲·梦露同疯太阳讲话 你会记住麦迪逊后的Picture Marilyn Munroe talking to the mad sun, and you’ll remember that after Madison 第五任总统门罗came Munroe, the 5th president. 第六任总统是约翰·昆西·亚当斯 因此我们故事引入另一颗原子弹The 6th president was John Quincy Adams, so we’ll include another atom bomb in our story. 我们假设玛丽莲·梦露对疯太阳说完 后从裙子口袋里Let’s say that Marilyn Munroe finishes talking to the mad sun and out of the pocket of her 拖出一颗原子弹并丢向空中dress she pulls a large atom bomb and throws it into the air. 我不知道 她的口袋怎么装下原子弹 她又怎么如此有力气I’m not quite sure how she fit that large bomb into her pocket or how she has the strength 丢出原子弹 但是原子弹在空中滑翔to throw it, but it goes sailing through the air. 在脑中清晰地想象那颗被玛丽莲·梦露丢向空中的原子弹Clearly visualize in your mind that atom bomb being thrown through the air by Marilyn Munroe 你就会想起门罗之后的总统是亚当斯and you’ll recall the president after Munroe was Adams. 杰克逊是第七任总统 位于亚当斯之后Jackson was president number 7, right after Adams. 我们可以通过想象千斤顶的儿子——“汽车千斤顶”来记忆We’ll remember Jackson by picturing the son of a jack – a car jack. 汽车千斤顶有不同类型 但是这是其中的一种There’s different styles of car jacks, but this is one of them. 想象一个巨大的红色汽车千斤顶 旁边的和它外观完全一样Picture a large red car jack and next to it is one that look exactly the same, except 但尺寸小一半it’s half the size. 他们是千斤顶父子They’re father and son jacks. 玛丽莲·梦露丢向空中的原子弹恰好落到The atom bomb that Marilyn Munroe threw into the air falls back down right near the jack 儿子小千斤顶旁son. 小千斤顶伸出手臂 抓住原子弹The jack son reaches out with his little jack arms and catches the atom bomb and puts it 将其轻轻地放到地面上gently on the ground. 想象儿子小千斤抓住了原子弹 你就会记住杰克逊了Imagine the atom bomb being caught by the son of a jack, and you’ll remember Jackson. 下一任总统是第8任的范布伦The next president was Van Buren, the 8th president. 范布伦听起来像货车 蓝鹩莺的发音Van Buren sounds like van – blue wren. 那我们就想象一只蓝鹩莺——某类鸟 开着一辆货车So let’s picture a van being driven by a blue wren – a type of bird. 儿子小千斤顶不得不跳到旁边以避免被货车撞到The son of a jack has to jump sideways to avoid being hit by the van, because the blue 由于蓝鹩莺不太会开车 那辆货车完全失控了wren is not a great driver and the van is completely out of control. 清晰地想象蓝鹩莺开着的那辆货车Clearly picture that van being driven by the blue wren. 这只蓝鹩莺巨大 和人的体型差不多 正好适合开货车This blue wren is a giant, about the size of a person, and it fits nicely into the van, 但是 我认为翅膀和鸟噗对开车而言不太合适but I don’t think wings and bird feet were meant for driving. 当你想象那辆货车和蓝鹩莺时 你就会想起第8任总统When you visualize that van and blue wren, you’ll be reminded of Van Buren, the 8th 范布伦president. 哈里森是第9任总统 哈里森听起来像毛茸茸的太阳Harrison was the 9th president, and Harrison sounds like hairy sun. 蓝鹩莺开着那辆失控的货车撞到一堵墙 上面有幅大壁画The out of control van being driven by the blue wren crashes into a wall with a large 画着毛茸茸的太阳mural of a hairy sun. 那个太阳像普通太阳一样黄灿灿的 但是 他长着小胡子The sun is bright yellow like a normal sun, but he’s got a moustache and bushy beard 和浓密的胡须too. 他真是个毛茸茸的太阳He’s a really hairy sun. 毛茸茸的太阳看到一辆货车突然撞到他的墙有点惊讶 但是The hairy sun is a little surprised to watch a van suddenly crash into his wall, but I 我觉得 每个人的生活都需要点刺激的时刻suppose everybody needs a little bit of excitement in their life. 在头脑中生成一幅墙上有个毛茸茸太阳的图像Create an image in your mind of that hairy sun on the wall, 这就使你想起第9任总统――哈里森and you’ll be prompted to recall the 9th president – Harrison. 第10任总统是泰勒President number 10 was Tyler. 瓦匠也就是铺瓦的人 我们会使用这个形象A tiler is also someone who lays tiles, and that’s what we’ll use. 由于墙上的壁画被货车全撞毁了Since the mural on the wall has been all scratched up by the van crashing into it, 就有一个瓦工来修补它a tiler appears to tile up the mess. 他开始铺大块的白色方砖 他不在乎瓷砖与旧壁画是否匹配He starts laying big white square tiles, he’s not interested in matching the tiles to the 毛茸茸的太阳看着瓦匠工作old mural, and the hairy sun watches on as the tiler works. 想象铺瓷砖的瓦匠 你就会记得第10任总统——泰勒Imagine the tiler laying all those tiles and you’ll remember the 10th president – Tyler. 好了 这就是前10任总统们Alright, that’s the first 10 presidents. 我相信你能轻松地记住他们 现在通过在脑中“复述”和“观看”I’m sure you can easily remember them, but quickly revise your memory story now by replaying 来快速回顾你的记忆故事and “watching” it in your mind. 一1. 想象在街上跑的洗衣机 你就会记住华盛顿Picture a washing machine running down the street and you’ll remember Washington. 二2. 洗衣机被一颗原子弹撞倒 使你想起亚当斯The washing machine gets crushed by an atom bomb, reminding you of Adams. 三3. 那颗原子弹问“你有个儿子吗?” 听起来就像杰斐逊The atom bomb asks “dya have a son?” which sounds like Jefferson. 四4. 一个非常疯狂的太阳从天而降 让你想起麦迪逊A very mad sun comes down out of the sky, giving you Madison. 五5. 玛丽莲·梦露告诉疯狂的太阳冷静 这让你记起门罗Marilyn Munroe tells the mad sun to cool down, making you remember Munroe. 六6. 玛丽莲从口袋拿出另一颗原子弹——亚当斯Marilyn pulls another atom bomb out of her pocket – Adams. 七7. 那颗原子弹被儿子小千斤顶接住了——杰克逊The atom bomb is caught by a jack’s son – Jackson. 八8. 千斤顶的儿子躲开蓝鹩莺开货车的路线——范布伦The jack’s son jumps out of the way of a van driven by a blue wren – Van Buren. 九9. 货车撞到有一幅毛茸茸的太阳的壁画的墙——哈里森The van crashes into a wall with a mural of a hairy son – Harrison. 十10. 一个来修补损毁壁画的瓦匠让你记起第10任总统——泰勒And a tiler comes to tile up the damaged mural, reminding you of the 10th president – Tyler. 这就是前10任总统 就是如此简单And that’s the first ten presidents, how simple was that? 如果你想通过看完整系列视频来了解美国的所有总统If you’d like to watch the complete video series for all the presidents of the United 来看看记忆学院网站 你可以网站上免费观看States, head over to the Memorize Academy website and you can watch them there for free, 并且能马上记住所有的总统and memorize all the presidents in no time at all. 请为这个视频点赞 请与你的朋友分享 请在下面留言Please like this video, please share it with your friends, and please leave a comment below 如果你觉得这个视频有用的话 谢谢观看if you thought it was helpful. Thanks for watching. 大家好!我是白板动画的记忆教练凯尔·布坎南hey guys!it’s Kyle Buchanan, the whiteboard animation memory coach 你喜欢这个视频吗?如果你喜欢Did you like this video? If you did 你可以做两件事来继续观看you can do two things right now to continue your journey. 第一 你可以在此订阅我的频道 这也对你有利First, you can subscribe right here to my channel which will help you as well 因为这样我才能接着时常为你发送视频so i can keep sending you regular videos 让你因发现记忆和学习是如此简单而振奋to get you so pumped up that how easily you can memorize and learn 同时这也将改变你的学生生活and change your life as a student. 第二 来看看记忆学院网站Second, head over to the Memorize Academy website and 并参加我的免费视频训练 学习如何sign up my free video training to learn how you can use 使用这种实用的视觉记忆技巧来搞定考试this practice visual memorization techniques to crash your exams. 你可以注册接收更新信息和免费的训练 新发的播客You can sign up to receive your updates and free training new podcasts 以及我们在这个频道没做的所有事and everything else we don’t do on this channel here. 如果你喜欢这样做 开始行动吧 立即点击按钮开始观看If you like to do that go ahead and click on the button to see right now. 期待下次视频与你再会 请谨记I look forward to see you on the next video and always remember 你有着绝对惊人的记忆力you have an absolutely amazing memory.
  • 2021-08-30怎么消除持续不断的挫败感?在过去的五六个月里For the past five or six months, 我大多数时间都感到不知所措I have spent the majority of my time feeling somewhat overwhelmed. 基本上每天都会如此Pretty much every single day, 醒来时总感觉有很多事情要做I wake up, and I feel like there’s just too much to do, 待办清单里有太多事too much on my plate, 却没有足够的时间把这些事都做完and not enough time to get it all done. 深陷这样的处境只能怪我自己This is a situation that I really can only blame myself for. 在过去约六年的时间里For about the past six years, 我是一个个体经营者I’ve been a self-employed entrepreneur, 这意味着没有老板可以约束我which means there’s no boss breathing down my neck. 没有人明确地告诉我There’s nobody specifically telling me 我一定要做什么that I have to get things done 因为他们想要我去完成because they want me to do them. 这真是让我应付不过来It’s really just me taking on more than Ican handle. 我仍然在这种状况中I’m still kind of in this situation, 但是在过去的几周里but for the past few weeks, 我开始试图采取一些措施去改善I’ve been taking some steps to rectify it, 去改变这种状况to actually fix the situation, 给我的生活找回一些平衡感bring back some balance into my life. 所以呢 这个视频将Really, what this video is going to 分享我为自己列的计划be is me sharing the plan that I’ve outlined for myself, 因为我知道我并不是唯一一个需要处理应对这种状况的人because I know that I’m not the only person dealing with this. 我收到很多的邮件 很多的推特消息I get a lot of emails, a lot of tweets, 还有很多Instagram上的私聊信息来自a lot of DMs on Instagram from people who feel 一些在生活中也同样感到力不从心的人overwhelmed in their own lives as well. 像我之前说的 几周前 我坐在电脑前Like I said before, a few weeks ago I sat down, 打开一个印象笔记上的文件I opened an Evernote document, 然后我开始为了给生活找回平衡感做出一个计划and I started creating a plan for bringing back some balance into my life, 这个计划的第一步就是去做一些我称之为“重置冲刺”的事情and the first step to that plan was doing something that I’m going to call a “reset sprint”. 现在有点巧合的是Now, somewhat coincidentally, 几周前我的朋友马特·D·阿维拉在他的频道中my friend Matt D’Avella just released a video on his channel 发布了一个关于能量耗尽的视频a few days ago about burnout. 在那个视频中 他讨论了In that video, he talked about the reason 许多人能量消耗殆尽的原因for why so many people end up burning out. 因为他们一直在冲刺The reason is that they keep sprinting. 若你是个有雄心壮志的人When you’re an ambitious person, 若你是个创业的企业家when you’re an entrepreneur trying to build a business, 或者是个努力往前走的学生or you’re a student trying to get ahead, 或者你有许多待做事宜or you have a lot on your plate, 或者你只是一个忙之又忙的专业人员or you’re just a professional who has a lot of things going on, 你经常会为了冲刺任务做出些牺牲you often take on sprints where you make sacrifices, 你本应该经常去健身房you don’t get to the gym as often as you should, 或者有一顿很健康的晚餐or you’re making really quick not-so-healthy meals. 你应该有足够的睡眠You’re not sleeping as much as you should, 但是为了前行 你只能牺牲这些东西and you have to make those sacrifices to get ahead. 有时卓越的成果必须以异常艰苦的行动为代价Sometimes extraordinary action was required for extraordinary results, 但问题是but the problem is, 一旦你达到了这些成就once you get those extraordinary results, 就会拥有更多的可能性there are still more opportunities. 事实上 一旦你变得成功In fact, once you become successful, 就会有越来越多的机会there are more and more and more opportunities, 而这会吸引你去抓住它and it’s very tempting to take those on. 许多人都发现自己身陷其中The situation that a lot of people find themselves in is, 他们一直追逐这些机会they keep taking these opportunities, 而永远不会停止冲刺and the sprints never end, 这会使人能量烧尽 最后导致让人精疲力竭which leads to burnout and eventually leads to this feeling of being overwhelmed. 而不会精疲力尽的关键在于不要一直冲刺The key to not burning out is to make sure you’re not always sprinting. 偶尔冲刺Do sprints sometimes, 并且适当地减速but then eventually back off from that and actually bring some 找回生活中的平衡balance back into your life. 这就是 我非常明确要做的事This is one thing that I’m definitely trying to do, 但我确实意识到如果我想要but I did realize that if I wanted 找回我生活的平衡to really bring balance back into my life, 现在我需要去做最后一次冲刺there was one last sprint that I needed to do right now, 而这是对冲刺的重新定义and it was a reset sprint. 我需要投入时间去重新组织我的生活I needed to put some time into reorganizing my life, 因为在过去的几个月because over the past several months, 我手头上有好几件事在进行I’ve had so many different projects going 导致我的很多组织系统方式on that a lot of my organizational systems 都有点衰退are a kind of decay. 那些我提到的无序状态A lot of that entropy that I like to talk 都渗入其中about seeped into them, 所以我计划的第一部分就是重新安排组织事情so the first part of my plan has been reorganizing things, 做一点点冲刺来重组我的待办事宜体系doing a little bit of a sprint to reorganize my to-do system, 比如重新整理我的Evernote文档to reorganize my Evernote. 因为我刚刚搬到了新家Because I just moved to a new house, 所以这是评估我有什么东西的好时候it’s also a good time to evaluate what I own, 看看什么是我需要重新整理的 什么要丢弃see what I need to reorganize physically or get rid of, 捐出去或者送给别人的or donate, or just otherwise give away. 第一步 如果你经常感到力不从心Step number one, if you are constantly overwhelmed, 那就拿出一些时间来做其中一种重置冲刺then carve out some time to do one of these reset sprints. 评价你的所有系统 包括你的文件组织系统Evaluate all of your systems, your file organization system, 生活环境和工作环境your physical living space and your workspace, 你的危机管理 所有这些东西your task manager, all these things, 然后 花时间让它们回到and take some time to get them back into a 一种符合现状而且真正对你有用的状态state where they reflect reality and they are actually useful to you. 那么 当重置冲刺结束后All right, so after the reset sprint is done, 计划第二步是重建你的计划step two of the plan is to reestablish your routine. 这对我来说非常重要This was really big for me. 因为我非常疲惫Because I was so overwhelmed, 因为我经常觉得我必须完成这些事because I constantly felt like I had to get things done, I had 有那么多事要做so much on my plate, 我有时让我的计划半途而废I kind of let my routine fall by the wayside. 我总是每天早上起来就想着I would wake up each and every morning and think, “我必须马上去工作“I have to get to work immediately. 不然 我马上就没有时间了”Otherwise, I’m going to run out of hours in the day.” 让人讽刺的是The ironic part is, 正是这种我得时时刻刻工作的想法this attitude of thinking I need to work all the time 让我变得低效actually made me less effective. 我知道我没有尽可能I know I wasn’t using every single one 有效地利用我的每个小时of my hours as effectively as I possibly could, 所以我的计划总被忽略so letting my routine go to the wayside was really, 这使我根本得不到任何收获it didn’t gain me anything at all, 所以我对自己承诺要重做晨间计划so I have made a commitment to myself to rebuild my morning routines, 重做我的每日计划rebuild my daily routines, 并且我知道即使我有一大堆事情需要去做and I know that even if I have a lot to do, 在早上留出一到两小时的空闲时间拿来发展爱好that one to two-hour window in the morning 有点儿不太现实when I should be doing my hobbies is kind of off-limits. 现在我想要讨论的事情是Now, one thing that I want to 如果你想要重做bring up about doing this is that if you’re going to reestablish 曾经无比复杂的晨间计划a morning routine that used to be quite complicated, 如果你有一大堆想要培养的兴趣爱好if you have a lot of hobbies that you were juggling, 但它们因为你应接不暇and then they all sort of fell 全都半途而废by the wayside because you got overwhelmed, 一次性就试图培养所有爱好it’s probably not a good idea to try to pick up all 可能不是个好主意of them at the same time again. 我最喜欢的书之一 Nick Winter写的The Motivation Hacker里There is a concept from one of my favorite books, 提出了一个概念The Motivation Hacker by Nick Winter, 即“成功螺旋”called success spirals. 他主张当我们在培养兴趣爱好时He often talks about how when you’re building new habits, 应该从小的习惯开始you have to start small, and eventually, 最后 证明你可以一直坚持you prove to yourself that you can remain consistent 少量的习惯on a small number of habits or 或者是遵守某些小小的承诺something that’s kind of a small commitment. 一段时间后 你再增加难度Over time, you add more and more difficulty. 你可以培养更多的习惯You maybe take on more habits, 或者让你计划里的习惯更加困难or you add more difficulty to habits that are already in your routine, 这会令你螺旋式上升and you kind of spiral up, 但至关重要的一点是but crucially, if, for some reason, 如果你因为某些原因半途而废了you fall off the horse, 你可能就不能从你掉下去的地方开始了you’re probably not going to be able to climb back on it at the exact same level you were. 你必须回到螺旋的起点You have to go back to the beginning 重新开始of the spiral and start easy again. 一些人能回到他们之前停止的地方Now, some people may be able to 并从之前的地方重新开始climb right back up and do exactly what they were doing before, 这是很棒的事and that’s great, 但是如果你尝试过后做不到but if you try it and it doesn’t work, 那你就应该从头开始then go back to basics. 建立一个非常简单的晨间计划或从简单的爱好入手Establish a really simple morning routine or really simple set of hobbies. 向自己证明这些事你能够继续做下去Prove to yourself that you can do those going forward, 然后再慢慢地提高难度and then slowly work your way up from there. 在我看来 这意味着In my case, that meant, 第一步 再次开启习惯追踪工具number one, getting on a habit tracker once more, 我个人使用一个叫做Strides的应用and I’m personally using an app called Strides for this, 第二步 建立你的晨计划but number two, establishing a morning routine 刚开始的时候会非常简单that was really simple at first. 仅仅是早起 喝一杯水It was just waking up early, drinking a glass of water, 照料植物taking care of my plants, 做些俯卧撑and doing some pushups. 就这些而已That was it. 我没有读书I wasn’t reading. 没有写作I wasn’t writing. 没有做任何需要计划安排的事I wasn’t doing instructed practice. 而这些是我想要恢复到我的计划当中的东西These are things that I want to bring back into my routine, 但我知道当我开始做这些事时but I knew when I was starting 如果我想要坚持下去 它就必须要简单易行if I wanted to remain consistent, it had to be simple. 当然 我现在已经做到了这些Of course, now that I’ve been doing those things 并且坚持了好几个星期for a few weeks and I’ve actually proved 我己经证明了我能坚持下去to myself that I can do them consistently, 所以我开始在计划里加入更多东西I’ve started to add some more things into 现在我早起后the routine, and so now I’m waking up, 会阅读25分钟and I’m also reading for 25 minutes. 确保花10分钟时间写作I’m making sure to write for 10 minutes, 每天都练习弹钢琴and I’m also practicing piano every single day. 总之第二步——重新建立计划In summary, step two, reestablish your routines, 我认为尽管你在为你的计划花时间and I think that even if you’re spending time 也要记住当你实行你的计划的时候on your routines, remember that when you have these routines, 你也正变得越来越棒you’re a little bit more grounded. 这会对你的生活更有建设性There’s more structure in your life, 而且这也会使你在进行普通的工作的时候and I think you’re going to be able to be more efficient 更加高效with your normal working hours when you havethat structure. 这就说到我计划的第三步That brings us to my third step of the plan, 也是对我来说最难的部分which I think, for me, is actually the hardest one. 确定优先级和学会说“不”It’s to define your priorities and learn tosay, “No,” more often. 有一件我特别苦恼的事情是One of the things that I really struggle 当我的事业越来越成功with is that as my businesses become more successful, 观众越来越多as the audience has grown, 机会也越来越多的时候the opportunities have increased as well, 每出现一个机会and every time there’s an opportunity, 在我的脑海里就会有一个声音说there’s this little voice in my brain saying, 你应该去把握这个机会 你没理由不去把握它“You should go for that. There’s no reason not to go for that. 你可能会失去唾手可得的金钱You’d be leaving money on the table, 或者没法尽可能多地帮助他人or you’d be not helping as many people as you could 如果你放弃这些机会if you left that opportunity on the table,” 我也意识到我生活的一个最高优先级but I also realize that one of my big priorities 是发现的过程in life is the process of discovery, 学习新的东西 掌握新的技巧learning new things, of being able to pick up new skills. 举个例子 我每天都练习弹钢琴For example, like I said, I’m practicing piano every single day. 这其实是我最近才开始做的事This is something that’s pretty recent in my life. 即使我现在还只是个菜鸟Even though I’m basically a complete newb at it, 但是对我来说弹钢琴真的很有趣it is a lot of fun, 我觉得每次我坐下来弹钢琴and I’ve noticed that every single time I sit down to the piano and practice, 都有进步there is a breakthrough. 像那天Like just the other day, 我掌握了如何弹二对三I figured out how to play a three-two polyrhythm on the piano. 如果你是一个弹钢琴很久的人If you’re somebody who’s been playing the piano for quite a while, 这对你来说或许非常微不足道 但对我来说then that probably seems pretty trivial to you, but for me, 就像我尝试的第一个小时一样it was something that my brain just could not 我的大脑完全无法反应do for like the first hour while I tried to do it, 而当我掌握了的时候and when I finally figured it out, 当我真的能够when I finally realized 一只手做一二 一二that one hand was doing one-two one-two and the other hand was 另一只手做一二三一二三一二三时doing one-two-three one-two-three one-two-three at the same time, 我感到非常棒it was amazing. 我所追求的就是这种发现的感觉That feeling of discovery is something thatI crave. 但问题是One of the problems is 随着我事业上出现了越来越多的机会that with all the opportunities that come up in my business, 在我的脑子里总会有这样一个声音这样告诉我there’s like this voice in the back of my head that’s kind of telling me, 每次你花时间在”Any time you spend on things 你不擅长you’re not already good at, 你不熟悉的事上 像弹钢琴on things you’re not already established at, like playing the piano, 是浪费时间的is wasted time, 因为你可以用这个时间去制作另一个视频because you could be using that time to make another video. 你可以去改进你的网站You could be using that time to improve your website, 可以去培训员工to train your employees, all this 或者其他更有意义的事kind of stuff. 为什么要花时间在这些对你没有任何意义的事情上Why would you be using it on something that you’re not established in? 你的事业正在急速发展 但你却不好好工作Your business is a force multiplier, and you’re not using it. 更何况这里还有无数人Plus, there’s zillion other people 无论你怎么练习 他们都比你弹得更好out there who are already way better at piano than you’ll ever be. 你为什么要做这些Why would you do that?” 这种声音很具有诱惑性This voice is toxic, 我知道如果我一直听这种声音and I realize that if I continually listen to it, 真的把我所有时间都花在事业上if I continually put all my time into my business just 仅仅因为它需要急速地扩张because I feel that the force multiplier is there, 仅仅因为这样会有更多的机会just because I feel like there’s more opportunity there, 我会精疲力尽的I’m going to burn out. 我会感到无力为继I’m going to feel overwhelmed, 因为我对于发现的欲望永不消退because the desire for discovery is not going to go away. 这仅仅是把它堵住罢了It’s just going to be kind of stifled, 但它一直在那but it’s still going to be there, and it’s still 使我压力倍增going to cause me stress. 计划的第三步是——对事业上许多的机会说“不”Step three of the plan is to say, “No,” tomore opportunities in my business, 即使它们很赚钱even if they are lucrative, 即使把它们放在一边让我看上去像傻瓜even if it seems like I would be a fool to leave them on the table. 我也必须学会说“不”I have to learn to say no, 因为我有着更优先的事去做because I need to have priorities, 而其中一件事是发现新事物的满足and one of those priorities is the joy of discovery, 所以我把我现在应该优先去做的事打印出来so I’ve actually printed out a list of my current priorities, 贴在了墙上and I’ve put it on the wall right there, 上面写着“练习钢琴”and it says, “Practice piano. 在YouTube频道上回顾我的周计划Get back to a weekly schedule on the YouTube channel. 确保我在做那些真正对我有用的事情Make sure I’m doing the things that are actually important to me, 并且对那些会阻碍这些事的事说“不”and say, ‘No,’ to anything that is going to block those.” 希望这个建议在某种程度上对你有用Hopefully, this is helpful in some way to you, 再做一个快速的总结and just to summarize really quick here, 第一步 做重置冲刺step one, do a reset sprint. 使你的系统变得更有秩序 不管是用纸还是移动设备Get your systems back in order, be they physical or digital. 花时间好好地做这件事Take some time to really do this correctly. 第二步 重新培养习惯和重建计划Step two, reestablish your habits and routines. 千万不要屈服于Don’t give in to the temptation to let 因为觉得工作时间很紧张those things fall to the wayside because you feel 而使这些习惯半途而废like you don’t have enough hours to do your work. 要有时间工作也要有时间去做日常计划Have work hours, and have hours for your routines. 最后第三步 找到你现在的优先事件Then finally, step three, define your priorities going forward, 并且学会更多的说“不”and then learn to say, “No,” more often. 虽然很困难但很值得It’s really difficult, but it’s worth it, 如果我可以提些建议 其中一个首要建议就应当and if I might make a suggestion, one of those priorities should be, 像我衣服上所说的一样as my shirt says, 从不停止学习 保持发现新事物的热情to never stop learning, to maintain that constant joy of discovery. 这对我来说真的很重要This is something that’s really important to me and 我也尝试着在我生活中that I’m really trying to make more 更多地注重优先事件of a priority in my life. 如果你现在无法做到If you aren’t doing this already, 那就每天或者至少每周学习新的东西then try to learn something new every single day or at least every week. 你也可以像我一样 学弹钢琴If you’re like me, maybe start playing the piano, 或者看一本书or pick up a new book, 也可以在像CuriosityStream这样的平台上看纪录片or possibly start watching a documentary on a servicelike CuriosityStream. CuriosityStream是一个广阔且经常更新的平台CuriosityStream is an extensive and constantly updated collected 拥有大量独家并质量高的纪录片of exclusive and high-quality 这个平台由John Hendricks创立documentaries that was actually created by John Hendricks, 他也是记录频道的建立者who is the founder of the 这个频道也是我小时候Discovery Channel, which was my absolute favorite 最喜欢的频道TV channel when I was a kid. 不像普通的电视频道Now, unlike normal TV channels, 通过CuriosityStream 你能使用你所有的设备with CuriosityStream you can access those documentaries on all 在任何时刻看纪录片of your devices whenever you want. 它们可以在浏览器上看They’re in your web browser. 在iOS和Android手机端上看They’re on iOS and Android. 在Roku 以及其它平台上观看They’re on Roku and on many other platformsas well. 一旦你开始探索他们的资源库Once you start digging into their library, 你会发现不同的纪录片you’re going to find tons of different documentaries 主题包括科学 高科技and topics ranging from science, to technology, 自然 以及很多很多其他的领域to nature and lots, lots more. 如果你需要从哪部纪录片开始看的建议If you’re looking for a recommendation of where to start, 最近我很喜欢的一部纪录片是Order And Disordera documentary that I really enjoyed recently was called Order And Disorder, 尤其是其中关于信息的故事那集specifically the episode on the story of information, 它追溯了我们如何相互交流的发展的历程which traces the development of how we communicate with each other. CuriosityStream的会员仅需每月缴纳2.99美元Membership on CuriosityStream is really affordable at just $2.99 per month, 如果你现在就登陆curiositystream.com/thomasand if you go over to curiositystream.com/thomas and sign up, 你可以免费获得30天的试用you’re going to get 30 days of completely unlimited free access, 现在正是试用这个平台的好时候so it’s a great way to try out the service. 非常感谢CuriosityStreamA big thanks goes out to CuriosityStream 赞助这一集 并成为我的频道的for sponsoring this episode and being a big supporter 有力支持者 同样of my channel, and as always, 也很感谢你们的观看thank you guys so much for watching. 希望你们能在这个视频里学到有用的东西Hopefully, you found something useful in this video, 如果学到点什么的话 可以考虑点击一下and if you did, maybe consider hitting 这里的“喜爱”按钮或者“订阅“按钮that Like button or getting subscribed right there 这样你们就能看到我每周发布的新视频to get new videos when they come out every single week. 你们也可以点击这里 来免费获取You can also click right there to get a copy 我的书“如何得到更高分数”的复件of my book on how to earn better grades for free. 点击这里 就能看到这个频道更多的视频Click right here to get one more video on this channel, 或者关注我的ins账号@tomfranklyor follow me on Instagram @ tomfrankly. 再次感谢大家的观看Thanks again for watching, guys, 让我们下个视频再会and I will see you in the next video.
  • 2021-08-30比尔·盖茨:想要成功必须做到这5件事身价近800亿美元的At a net worth of nearly 80 比尔盖茨是全球最富有billion dollars, BillGates is one of the richest and 也最有成就的人士之一most accomplished people in the world 盖茨的成功诀窍是什么?What has led to Gates’ success? 如果你也想获得成功Here are 5 pieces of adviceBill Gates has for you 请参考比尔盖茨的五条建议if you want to be successful. 首先:懂得如何拒绝别人One: Know how to say no. 向盖茨提出这条建议的人是巴菲特This advice Gates got from Warren Buffett, 他说 机会总是源源不断 待做事项没完没了who told him, there willalways be an unending supply 你关心的事业也有很多 不一而足of opportunities, things to do, causes you care about, and on and on. 面对各种项目 社交邀请 以及其他占用你时间的事情 knowing when and how to say no to projects 懂得何时拒绝 如何拒绝 social invitations, andother requests for your time 让你能够空出时间来专注于重要的事frees you up to focus onthe objectives that matter. 其次:善于接受批评Two: Welcome criticism. 盖茨在自己的书中写道:坦然接受坏消息 Gates advises in hisbook, embrace bad news 你才明白你最需要改进的地方是什么to learn where you needthe most improvement. 虽然听人说“你搞砸了”绝不是什么愉快的事 While it’s never pleasantto hear someone tell you 但如果没有这种反馈 how you screwed up, withoutthat kind of feedback, 你的学习和成长都会慢得多your learning process andgrowth will be much slower. 第三:保持乐观Three: Be optimistic. 盖茨充分肯定乐观的价值Gates appreciates the value of optimism 盖茨的慈善事业处理的是全世界最让人沮丧的问题and since his philanthropic work addresses some of the most disheartening problems on our planet 所以他极需保持乐观he needs a lot of it. 正如他在斯坦福大学2013年毕业典礼上的致辞As he said in a Stanfordcommencement speech in 2013, 人们常常摈弃乐观 认为它不过是“虚假的希望” Optimism is often dismissed as false hope, 但别忘了还有“虚假的绝望”呢but there is also false hopelessness. 第四:专注于自己的目标 不断朝着目标前进Four: Focus on a goal andkeep progressing toward it. 如果你目标明确 You can achieve amazing progress 并找到朝着目标前进的方法 就会取得惊人的成就if you set a clear goal and find a measure that will drive progress toward that goal. 他还说 找到合适的目标He went on to say thatfinding the right goal 和度量进步的正确方法and the right metric fortracking one’s progress 是极为困难的is surprisingly difficult. 不过如果这件事很简单的话 大家都会在做了Then again, if it were easy,everyone would be doing it. 第五:做好失败的心理准备Five: Be willing to fail. 在书中 比尔盖茨说 成功是个糟糕的老师 Success is a lousy teacher.It seduces smart people 它会让聪明人误以为自己绝不会失败into thinking they can’tlose, he wrote in his book. 或许比起失败 你更享受成功的滋味 You may find successes moreenjoyable than failures, 但让你学到更多 给你更多成长机会的but it’s the failures that will teach you 却是一次次的失败the most and give you the best opportunities to grow.
  • 2021-08-30怎样做才能整个学年都保持积极– Every new school year brings with it the same age-old problem:新学年初始 我们总会遇到那个老生常谈的问题 the constant war of attrition一整学期都在为 that is fought against your motivation as the semester wears on. See,学习动力不足做抗争 简直操碎了心 in the beginning of the semester,在一学期刚开始时 your motivation levels are usually high.学习动力和积极性向来很高 You’ve got brand-new classes that you’re excited to take你们对新班级感到兴奋 and there’s usually and there’s usually not a whole lot on your plate to stress you out.也没有太多事压得你喘不过气来 But in the middle of the semester, it’s a very different picture.但到了期中 完全就是另一个景象了 You’ve got tons of assignments, deadlines,成吨的作业涌来 上交期限就在眼前 projects all stressing you out.还要担心课题 一切的一切让你压力山大 And as a result, your motivational reserves can take a dip.结果 你的源动力储备怎么可能不被清空 You just don’t wanna go on.也就是说你简直想撒手不干了 And I know I dealt with this problem我在大学生涯的每个学期 during every single semester of my college career都曾面临过这类问题 and it’s probably something that you’ve dealt with as well. So,很有可能这些问题就是以前你所遇见的 what I wanna do我今天要做的 in today’s video is give you five different strategies that you can use就是给你五个用于维持 贯穿整个学期的 to maintain a high level of motivation学习积极性的 to do your work, to study diligently五个特殊 all throughout the entire semester. Now,策略 everything we’re gonna be talking about today今天 我们所谈论的 is either a habit that you can adopt or an不是养成一个新习惯 action that you can take in a specific moment.也不是关于特定时刻要采取的做法 We’re not gonna be talking about any motivational mantras我们不谈任何鸡汤 or mindset hacks here.也不搞什么心理战术 Everything on this list is something that you can actually do,这里要列举的策略 一方面可以实际运用 but it’s still going to have a tangible effect on your motivation. So,并且在运用之后将对提升学习积极性有显著效果 let’s get into it with the first habit on the list.接下来 我们从第一个习惯开始 From the moment you walk into your very first class确保自己新学期的第一堂课 this semester, make the commitment to sit up front坐在教室前排 and wring class for all it’s worth.尽你所能地吸取知识 Treat class like the active learning time that it should be.切实把课堂作为一个主动学习的时间 This means, again, sitting up front,往座位前排坐 taking notes the entire time, raising your hand,全程勤记笔记 勤举手 asking questions, and participating in discussions.积极提问 参与到课堂讨论当中 If you can do this right from the start,如果一开始就这么做 then you’re gon na gain an implicit psychological pressure你就会获得一种不自觉的心理压力 to keep doing it throughout the entirety of the rest of the semester.让自己将这样的状态保持整个学期 And this is because humans have a core drive to act consistently.这是因为人类拥有有维护行为一致性的核心驱动力 We wanna act in accordance and in line with our previous decisions.惯于按照先前的决定行事 And this is something that Robert Cialdini talks about in his excellent book Influence:这是Robert Cialdini在他特别棒的一本书 The Psychology of Persuasion.《影响——信念心理学》里提到的 As he puts it,如他所说 ”Once we have made a choice or taken a stand,一旦我们做出决定或选定立场 we will encounter personal and interpersonal pressures便会遭遇维持行为一致的个人或人际上的压力 to behave consistently with that commitment.”的个人或人际上的压力 “Those pressures will cause us to respond那些压力会迫使我们去用不同的方式 in ways that justify our earlier decision.”来坚持我们之前所做的决定 And this desire to act consistently这种持续行动的欲望 was definitely something that I experienced in my own college classes.绝对是我自己的大学课堂上亲身体验到的 In the ones where I immediately sat up front,一旦我开始坐在前面 took notes, participated in discussions,记笔记 参与讨论 I felt pressure to act in accordance with those decisions整个学期 我都会感到一种 the entire semester afterwards.维持先前既定决定的压力 And on the other hand,换个角度说 for the classes where I just maybe didn’t care a whole lot,我要是不愿意在课程上花心思 sat in the back, sold computers on Craigslist,坐在后面 上课不认真 and didn’t pay attention, 时而上Craigslist卖电脑 that colored my experience throughout the entire semester as well. So,这些也能影响我整个学期 think of your first week of classes所以基于连续性定理 as your opportunity to establish either positive momentum or negative momentum把第一周课程视作到底能开个好头 because of this consistency principle. So,还是开坏头的关键点 that brings us to habit number two,下面是第二个习惯 which is to make sure you establish regular contact这个习惯保证你与老师和教授间 with your teachers and your professors.形成定期的联系 And this is actually quite related to the first tip,这点其实和第一点还挺有联系的 especially that quote from Robert Cialdini that I just mentioned, because, if you remember,如果你有印象 你会发现尤其和我刚刚提到Robert Cialdini的那句话相关 he mentions both personal and interpersonal pressures他提到了来自自身和人际的压力 for remaining consistent.都可以使人保持行为的一致 And I’ve found that when you know your professors,我发现当你和教授认识 you actually feel a little bit beholden to them你就会感到对他们有所义务 because when you’re in class,因为在上课时 you know that since they know you as well,你知道他们认得你 they are paying attention to how you are behaving.在注意你的表现 They’ll notice whether or not you take notes diligently.不管你有没有好好记笔记 They’ll notice if you actually participate in class discussions.不管你有没有好好参加讨论 他们都有察觉 And again, you’re gonna wanna act consistently因此你会期望在这种关注下表现良好 with both your own expectations of yourself这既是基于过去的表现和 and what you’ve done in the past, but also with你对自己的期待 their expectations that they develop through observing you in the beginning也是基于别人的期待和关注 of the semester when you’re already highly motivated.如此而言 你自然会产生强大的动力 Tip number three is to have a plan接下来第三点是为作业 when it comes to your homework and your study time. So,和学习时间制定计划 if you think about your class time, that is highly regimented.想想你的课堂时间 那是被高度规划好了的 You have a specific place you’re supposed to be你需要在规定的时间 and the class is happening at a specific time.出现在规定的都点 And as a result, you almost always show up on time.结果自然是你得以准时上课 There’s really no decision you have to make.由于你明白事情已经在日程当中 You just kind of do it because you know that’s part of your schedule. So,所以整个过程中你不需要去规划什么 只管做就好 why not apply that logic那么为什么不把这个逻辑应用到 to your homework and study time?对作业和学习时间的安排中呢 Instead of just saying,”I’m gonna study wherever I want to;比起说想在哪儿学就在哪儿学 “maybe in my dorm, maybe in the library, I don’t know,可能是宿舍 是图书馆 反正不确定 “and I’ll do it whenever I have time,” instead,还有什么时候有空什么时候学 maybe at the beginning of every single week,可能在每周开头吧 look ahead at your calendar,还不如干脆翻翻日历 see what kinda blocks of free time you have看看什么时候有大块的空白时间 and block out planned spaces of study time.把它们规划成学习时间 And additionally, know where you’re going to study.并且确定学习的地点 Maybe have a specific spot in the library可以在图书馆占个固定的座位 that you usually go to or create a specific study space也可以在宿舍打造一个固定的学习空间 in your dorm room and plan to study there. Again,用以有计划地学习 when you have a plan ahead of time,只要提前做好计划 then you reduce the amount of decisions you have to随后要面临的决策就能减少 make in the moment, which decreases the likelihood that减少了破罐子破摔 you’re gon na take the path of least resistance,放弃学习的可能 which is probably playing video games and putting off your studying until later. Okay,比如搁置学习任务转而去玩游戏之类的 so before we move on to tip number four, I do wan na在讲第四点之前 share one little bonus mini-tip with you,我想分享一点额外的建议给你们 which is to find yourself some good study music.那就是找到适合自己的学习音乐 And this is a tip that comes from personal experience这是基于我的个人经验得出的 because I’ve learned over the years that I just enjoy researching,这些年来我发现 doing my work, studying, reading,不管是做研究 工作 学习 还是阅读 I enjoy it more if I have good study music to go along with it.好的学习音乐让我更加享受其中 And for that reason, I have been curating a study playlist over on Spotify for quite a few years now.因此前些年 我在Spotify上建立了一个 It’s just about 10 hours long大概10小时的学习歌单 and I’ll put a link to it down in the description below我会把链接放在下方 if you wanna check it out. Now,想要的可以自取 obviously, music does not work for everyone,不过说白了 音乐不是每个人的菜 so you might wanna experiment.那么你需要多尝试了 Some people like white noise,有些人会喜欢白噪音 and you can use white noise generators like Noisli你可以用类似Noisli的白噪音生成器 to create a custom soundscape for your studying,去创造你的最佳学习背景音 but some people really do get a motivational boost through music,不过一些人真的通过音乐提高了动力 so at least do some experimentation.所以你至少去试一下哦 And that brings us to tip number four,接下来要介绍的是第四点 which is to know when to quit.知道什么时候该放弃 And I don’t mean quit the entire semester,我不是说放弃掉整个学期哈 but know when to quit something that is dragging down all of your other efforts.而是说知道恰当放弃一些拖累全局的东西 And I wanna tell you a story here. So,我来给你讲个故事 when I was in my junior year of college,在我大三的时候 I was in the college’s honors program,我参加了学校的荣誉计划 which meant that I had to go to certain extra classes也就是说为了达到优秀毕业生的标准 in order to meet the requirements to graduate with honors.我得上额外的课程 But I got to thinking during my junior year,但是我认真思考起来 “Do I actually need to graduate with honors?我必需得以优秀毕业生的身份毕业吗 “Do I need to take these extra classes?” Because,我需要多上那么些课程吗 really, the only benefit that I was gonna get说穿了 从这个项目里能得到的唯一好处是 from the honors program was graduating with a cord around my neck毕业典礼的时候脖子能上挂根绳 and the ability to put’honors grad’ on my resume.简历栏里能多加“优秀毕业生”几个字儿 But the thing was,但实际上 I already had a lot of other irons in the fire.我已经有很多别的事情要忙了 I had a full course schedule, I had extracurriculars,爆满的课程表 一大堆课外活动 I had a side project that was growing into a business,还有个处于发展阶段的副业 and a part-time job.外加一个兼职 And I realized going through that semester于是我意识到那学期 that all the extra requirements I had我必须完成的优秀毕业生项目的额外要求 because of that honors program were just fragmenting my attention都只是在分散我的注意力而已 and they were bringing my overall level of motivation down.而且它们会降低我总体的动力水平 And when I really thought about it,我一想到 having that little bit on my resume wasn’t going to matter in the long run.从长远来看 在简历上添加那一点东西根本不算什么 I wanted to be an entrepreneur,我要的是成为一个企业家 I wanted to work for myself,自己当老板 so having accolades on my resume really wasn’t所以简历上有没有什么赞扬 gon na get me a whole lot in the future. So,对我的未来并没有多大影响 I made the strategic decision to quit the honors program为了空出更多的时间深入其它项目 to make more time to focus more deeply on my other projects.我做了一个战略性决策 放弃了荣誉项目 And as a result, my motivation for those other projects结果是 我对其它项目充满动力 and for my other classes went up. Now,也提高了对课程的积极度 I do wan na note that I’m not saying you should quit要指明的是 我不是说一有困难就该放弃 when things just get tough, right?遇到困难时应该放弃 You have to kinda go through this dip of difficulty而是应该克服这类困难 with anything that’s worth doing.完成任何值得做的事 But if you’re realizing that your attention is fragmented但是你也意识到了你的注意力是被严重分散了的 or you’ve taken on too many commitments or the thing that you’re换句话说义务过载 doing or one of the things that you’re doing just isn’t really同时其中个别事其实并没有必要 worth it anymore, then it could be a good strategic decision这种情况下 放弃也许是一个好的选择 to quit that in order to raise your motivation有助于你着重于别的事项 to tackle the other things on your plate.提高动力 And that brings us to the final item on this list,最后是列表里的最后一项策略 which is to make real fun a priority this semester.制作一个有趣的学期优先事项排序 And I have to say this我必须说这一点 because I know a lotta people,是因为包括我自己的很多人 myself included, who will often feel too guilty经常背负罪恶感 to let themselves do the things that are truly fun而不敢进行日常的有趣活动 because they feel like they need that time for work.他们认为这些时间是用来工作的 I know a lotta people who will not go to movies with friends.我知道很多人不和朋友们去看电影 They will not play that video game they wanted to play不敢玩想玩的游戏 because they think they need every single spare minute因为他们认为所有空闲时间 to get their homework done or to do more studying.都该拿来写作业或者学习更多东西 But these same people, and I’m gonna include myself here但同样也是这类人 ’cause I catch myself doing this, these same people包括同样是这样观念的我 will not work efficiently during their work hours.正是他们在工作时间无法提高效率 They will take random breaks to go to Twitter or Facebook.不一会儿便随便停下来刷刷推特和脸书 And the thing is, going to Twitter or Facebook, that’s not actually that fun.事实上 并没有什么意思不 That’s just a distraction.白白分散了注意力 It just fragments your attention, probably harms your mental上面的内容 health because of what’s on Twitter and Facebook, and绝不可能让你 it certainly isn’t mentally refreshing in any way.精神焕发倍至 But the other thing is,另一方面 when you allow yourself to do the things如果你允许自己去做一些让自己开心的事 that you feel are truly fun, whether it’s going out with friends or playing Magic:可以是和朋友们出去玩 也可以是玩游戏 The Gathering in my case,而我是玩万智牌 that will hone your focus and有助于训练你在实际的工作时间 hone your attention during your actual work hours准确集中注意力 because when you know你一旦知道 you have a limited amount of time to get your work done because完成工作的时间有限 there’s an actual plan later on,后续事项又亟待安排中 you will use that time effectively.你自然会高效地利用时间 And once you actually go and experience that fun thing,而且开始进行一些放松的活动后 you’re going to get a mental reset in the process.你会在其中得到彻底的精神上的放松 Part of the reason why a lotta students lose motivation很多学生整个学期里一直在工作 throughout the semester is that they work themselves直到筋疲力尽 动力和积极性耗费殆尽 to the point of exhaustion and burnout.这就是他们失去动力的部分原因 You need that cycle of actual rest,你需要周期性的休息 which isn’t just sleep but it’s respite from your work是除去睡眠之外 脱离工作的休息放松 and actual fun time, and work.先放松 再去工作 You need that actual interplay between those two states of being. So,在两个状态里来回切换 all that being said, make time for real让一学期的时间都趣味无穷 fun this semester and you’re gon na find that your motivational于是你会发现自己的动力储备 reserves maintain themselves throughout the entirety of that semester.也会在整个学期维持在一个均衡水平 And of course, when your motivation is high,当然啦 在冲劲儿爆棚的时候 you work more efficiently and you have more time,工作更高效 于是能腾出更多时间 both for the fun things but also for pursuing some things放松追梦两不误 that can help you get ahead.成功就在眼前 And one of those things that I would我还要再提一点 suggest doing this semester if you haven’t started the process already如果你还没建立自己的网络形象 is building your online presence.那这学期快点去做这件事 It is never too early to start building relationships,要尽早开始建立人脉 to establish a portfolio,收集整理作品集 and to start establishing yourself as an up-and-coming expert in your field.开始为自己逐渐成为领域内专家而努力 And one of the very first steps to第一件要做的事情 doing that is to get yourself a professional domain name.就是给自己注册一个域名 Even if you’re not yet ready to build a website, you就算还没最好建立网站做好准备 wan na get your hands on your domain name as soon as你也得尽快地把自己的域名定下来 possible because if someone else comes along and registers it,如果别人先注册了那个域名 then you can’t get it. So,那你就不能用了 go and get your professional domain name before someone else gets it.所以赶紧抢先定下来 And when you do, you should go get it at Hover.最好用Hover Hover is the best place on the internet to get your hands on domain names, not least of whichHover是网上定域名的最佳站点 because they have over 400 domain extensions to choose from.上面有超过400个域名后缀可选 They have all your classic.coms,.mes,.nets,包括经典的.com .me .net which I think are great for a professional presence,这些域名后缀对呈现职业来说很不错 but they also have a lotta more fun ones, like.ninja and.lol.不过他们也有很多好玩的域名 比如.ninja和.lol In fact, I have thomas.lol and I’ll我就有个域名叫thomas.lol probably end up registering more fun ones like that in the future. Additionally,而且我可能以后会再去注册一个更有意思的 with Hover, there is absolutely no friction in the signup process.还有就是 登录Hover没有任何卡顿 If you have an account, you can actually buy要是你有账号 a domain in less than 30 seconds, and, yes,30秒之内就能买到一个域名 I have timed myself on that.没错 我计算过时间 And you can do that because there are no upsells.原因是Hover没有捆绑销售 There are no annoying popups.上面没有烦人的弹窗 And then, once you have your domain,有了域名后 they have a couple of extra tools to help上面几个附加工具帮助你 you build your online presence even further,更好地建立自己的网络形象 including the ability to create a professional email address,包括职业电子邮件网址建立 such as mine, which is thomas @ collegeinfogeek.com,比如我的是thomas@collegeinfogeek.com a little bit more professional than a Gmail, plus their Connect tool,它会比谷歌邮件更专业一点 他们的连接工具 which allows you to connect that domain up to website可以把你的域名和别的网站相关联 builders like Squarespace or even online store builders like Shopify. So,一般大家都喜欢关联Squarespace 或是网上商店 比如Shopify if you’re ready to get your hands所以如果你准备好 on your professional domain name, then head over要建立你的职业域名 那就点击 to hover.com/thomasfrank and get it there.hover.com/thomasfrank去注册就可以了 And when you do, if you’re a new customer,如果你是新用户 you’re gon na get 10 % off your first order.你的第一笔订单可以得到10%的折扣 Huge thanks, as always, goes out to Hover for一如既往 非常感谢Hover赞助这次的视频 sponsoring this video and being a big supporter of my channel,还有一直以来对我频道的支持 and thank you for watching as well.感谢你们的观看 Hopefully you found this video helpful and hopefully you stay motivated希望你们觉得这个视频会有帮助 也希望你们 throughout this entire semester and all semesters afterwards.不管是在这个学期 还是以后的学期都总是动力十足 Of course, if you wan na get more study and当然 如果你想要学习更多 productivity tips on this channel, make sure you are subscribed有关产出率的小知识 确保自己已经订阅本频道 so you see new videos when they come out.这样你就可以即使查看最新推送视频 And maybe also grab a free copy of my book还有机会得到一本我的赠书 on how to earn better grades right there.里面会告诉你怎么获得更好的成绩 Last but not least, you can watch one最后 点击这里 more video on this channel by clicking right here可查看更多频道的视频 or check out our latest podcast episode right here或者如果你还没看过最新一期视频的话 if you haven’t listened to that.也可以去瞧瞧 Thanks again for watching.再次感谢观看 And I would say best of luck this semester,祝你们这学期好运 but luck isn’t what you need.但运气不是必须的 You need systems and self-discipline学习机制和自律才是 and, well, I believe you’ve got it.不过我相信你们已经知道怎么做了
  • 2021-08-28高效学习的10条建议Yeah, yeah man.是的兄弟 Just studying, it’s a hard course studying in all day.一整天都在学 这门课很难 Hahaha…right, yeah, yeah.哈哈 是的没错 So do you have trouble studying?你在学习上有遇到困难吗? You get distracted by the TV.比如说受到电视的干扰 You find yourself on YouTube all day.发现自己整天在逛YouTube I know you do. You’re on YouTube right now.事实上你现在就在逛YouTube In this video, I’m gonna give you some tips on how to study better.本视频 我将告诉你一些高效学习的技巧 大脑运动 Hey, guys! Ron White here,大家好!我是罗恩•怀特 from Stan Lee’s SuperHumans on the History Channel.上过历史频道《斯坦•李的超人之旅》节目 There really is a way to study better and study more effectively.高效学习是有迹可循的 And in this video, I’m gonna give you my 10 steps on how to study better.本视频里 我将与你分享10个技巧 Step NO.1 Study for 25-50 minutes,第一步 学习25-50分钟 then take a 10–15 minute break, go for a walk,然后休息10-15分钟 散散步 play with your dog, do some jumping jacks, push ups,遛狗 做些开合跳或俯卧撑 just go get some fresh air, get your blood flowing去呼吸新鲜空气 让血液流动起来 and then go back and study again for 25–50 more minutes然后回来 再学习25-50分钟 and repeat that until you’re finished with your studying.重复上述步骤直到完成你的学习内容 Step NO.2 Get 6-8 hours of sleep the night after you learn something.第二步 学完后 晚上6-8小时睡眠 According to Dr. James Maas,詹姆斯•马斯博士说过 is if you get a good night sleep 6–8 hours the night after you learn something,如果学习之后 在晚上好好睡上6-8小时 the next day when you wake up,当你第二天醒的时候 you’ll remember it better 你会记得更牢靠 than if you had a poor night sleep 明显比晚上没睡好 and not at least 6–8 hours of sleep.或睡眠少于6-8小时的时候要记得牢 6–8 hours is actually known as the REM sleep.大家都知道6-8小时睡眠也叫REM睡眠 There are no step two-hour window.大脑会有2个小时的窗口 Your brain will replay what it learned the previous day回放你在白天学到的内容 and that’s why you’ll remember it better 这就是为什么当你第二天醒来的时候 when you wake up the next day.会发现自己记得更牢 If you do find yourself sleep-deprived,如果你发现自己前一天晚上睡眠不足 before you study, take a 15–30 minute nap, 学习之前 请先打一个15-30分钟的盹 but no more than 30 minutes.但不要超过30分钟 Pretty simple so far, right?目前这些都很容易理解 对吧? Let’s move on to step NO.3.让我们来看第三步 Take notes in class.在课堂上做笔记 And it’s better if you take them yourself.自己动手做笔记更好 Getting somebody else’s notes and copy them is not the same.这跟拿别人的笔记照抄是不一样的 When you take notes in class,当你上课做笔记时 you are engaging your brain and you’ll remember more from that class.大脑被调动起来 你会比课堂上记得更多 Pretty self-explanatory, right?非常容易理解 对吧? Good. We’ll go on to step NO.4.好 让我们继续第四步 Step NO.4 is clear your mind of all distractions.第四步是清除所有杂念 I used to hold the record for the fastest to memorize 我曾打破最快记忆的记录 a deck of cards in the United States.我是最快记忆一副牌的记录保持者 And sometimes before I would memorize the deck of cards,有时候在我要记一副牌之前 my brain would be worried about things in my life 脑袋里会担心生活上的 or things that were going on.或正在经历的事情 So what I would do to clear my mind of all distractions所以我清除杂念的方式是 is I would close my eyes 闭上眼睛 and I would visualize those scenarios the way that I wish they were然后把这些场景设想成自己想要的样子 or the way that I hoped they would be one day.或者我们希望它们未来会成为的样子 Then I would open my eyes.然后睁开眼睛 I would be relieved of that stress 压力就减轻了 and then I would memorize a deck of cards.然后我就可以记住一整副牌 Clear your mind of all distractions.消除你内心一切杂念 Maybe close your eyes and visualize the things the way you wish they could be闭上眼睛 把这些事想象成自己想要的样子 and then focus on your studying.然后再专注于学习 Great. Let’s move on to point NO.5.好 让我们来看第五步 5 is the keyword technique.第五步 关键词技巧 And what this is is if you find your studying 也就是说 当你发现自己在学习时 and your mind starts to drift or wander,脑袋开始东想西想 use the keyword technique.那就用关键词技巧 Let’s say you’re studying about Abraham Lincoln 比方说 你正在学习亚伯拉罕•林肯的事迹 and your mind starts to drift,然后开始走神了 focus it on a keyword about the text you’re reading那就把注意力集中到阅读文本的关键词上 and just say to yourself, Lincoln, Lincoln, Lincoln, Lincoln, Lincoln,然后就对自己说 林肯×5 until your brain is once again focused on what you’re reading直到大脑再次专注到你所阅读的内容 and Abraham Lincoln.亚伯拉罕•林肯 Pick a keyword out of the text.从文中选择一个关键词 We’re halfway there. 那我们就成功一半了 Step NO.6 is to learn the most important ideas first.第六步 先学最重要的概念 If you’re looking at a book,如果你正在看一本书 sometimes at the beginning they’ll have learning objections有时候书的开头会有难以理解的地方 or maybe at the end they’ll have a recap.最后他们会有一个重述 Look at those recaps. Look at those bullet points.看看那些重述 看看那些要点 Those are often the most important details 那些通常是最重要的地方 that the book or the professor or teacher wants you to learn.书或是老师想让你学的 Learn those first and look for those details 无论你是在阅读还是在学习 whenever you’re reading or whenever you’re studying.先寻找和学习这些要点 Learn the most important things first.要优先学习最重要的东西 All right, guys. Moving right along to point NO.7.好吧 伙计们 来继续看第七点 NO.7 is look at the back of your book 第七点是关注书的最后部分 and see if there is a list of terms or a glossary or definitions看看是否有一个术语表或定义表 If so, familiarize yourself with those, or even memorize them.如果有 熟悉它们 甚至要记住他们 It’ll give you a greater understanding of the material它会让你对正在阅读的书中材料 that you’re reading in the book.有更好的理解 All right, guys. Now NO.8. This is kind of a weird one, 好吧 伙计们 第八点了 会有点怪异哦 but just bear with me here and try this.但请耐心一点 尝试一下 Next time you’re studying, 你下次学习的时候 get some gum and chew it as you’re studying.准备一些口香糖 然后边咀嚼边学习 Then when you are taking the test, get that same flavor of gum.然后考试的时候 带上同种口味的口香糖 Chew that gum during the test.边考试边嚼 And scientific studies will prove科学研究证明 that will be a brain trigger that will trigger your mind actually这就像大脑触发器 促使大脑确切记起 to remember what you are reading and what you’re studying你上次嚼这个口味口香糖时 the last time you were chewing that gum.正在阅读和学习的内容 I know it’s weird, but give it a try.我知道这很怪异 试试吧 I think you’ll be surprised.你会觉的惊喜的 All right, we’re almost there.好了 就快讲完了 Point NO.9 For a lack of a better word, 第九点 没法用一个比较好的词表达 pretend or try to trick your brain into thinking那就是 假装或试图欺骗你的大脑去以为 that whatever you’re reading is a plot to a movie 无论你在阅读什么 它都是一部电影 or a plot to a TV show.或电视剧里的情节 Because let’s face it.因为我们要面对现实: Sometimes what we’re learning just isn’t that interesting有时候我们正在学习的东西不够有趣 or it’s just not that fun.或者就是没有那么好玩 So maybe if you can trick your brain into thinking所以可能的话 假如你能欺骗自己的大脑 this is a plot to a movie script or a TV show,认为这是电影脚本或电视剧的情节 you’ll actually get more interested and be more excited 实际上你就会变得更感兴趣 更加兴奋 and you’ll pay attention more.然后你就会更专注 NO.10 I saved the best for last. This is my favorite one.第十点 我把最好的 也是我最喜欢的留到了最后 This is the memory technique that I used to become 我曾使用这个记忆技巧 a 2-time USA memory champion.获得了两届美国记忆冠军 You can use these same techniques to study and memorize your homework.你可以用同样的技巧学习并记住你的作业 Call it Mind Palace.叫做 思维殿堂 This is what you do.你要做的就是: Stand in the doorway of every room in your home站在你家每个房间的门口 and memorize 1 2 3 4 5 pieces of furniture in each room.然后记住每个房间里的1 2 3 4 5件家具 Even do this in your classroom.你甚至可以在教室里这样做 So you’re sitting in your desk in your classroom.假设你正在教室里 坐在你的课桌上 And when you’re sitting in your desk, 当你坐在课桌上时 look around and pick 10 items around the classroom.环顾四周 在教室里挑选10个物品 Maybe one is the the board at the front of the room.也许其中一个是教室前面的黑板 Maybe another one is your teacher’s desk.也许另一个是老师的讲台 Another one might be the flag, 另一个可能是国旗 or a chair, or a computer, or a bookshelf.一把椅子 一台电脑或是一个书架 And number 5 to 10 spots all the way around that room.剩下的5到10号也都散布在那个房间里 Then you take the information you’re learning 然后提取你正在学习的信息 and you visualize it around the class.并将其在教室里形象化 Let’s say this is a chemistry test 比如说这有一个化学测验 and you need to memorize the noble gases.你需要记住惰性气体 The elements on the periodic table that are known as Noble Gases.也就是元素周期表中的惰性气体元素 Well, the first one is Helium.第一个是氦 So you turn that into a picture 那你将它转换成一幅图 and maybe the first location in your room is the board.或许房间里第一个标记的物品是黑板 So you imagine balloons are all around that board 所以你想象黑板的周围挂满了氦气球 and they lift the board up into the sky.氦气球拉着黑板升到了空中 Let’s say the next piece of furniture in that room is your teacher’s desk.又比如房间里下一件家具是讲台 Well, the next noble gas is Neon.那么 下一个惰性气体是氖 So you turn that into a picture 所以你再把它变成一幅图 and you see neon lights all over your teacher’s desk.你看见讲台上遍布着霓虹灯 You would do that with pieces of furniture going all the way around the room,你会运用房间各处的一件件家具去想象 turning each one of the noble gases into a picture.把每一个惰性气体转换成一个画面 Then when you’re taking your chemistry test然后当你在进行化学测验的时候 and it says to write out the noble gases,要求你写出惰性气体 you look up from the test and you write you see balloons那你在测验中抬起头 脑海中看见气球时 and you write Helium.写下“氦” You look at your teacher’s desk 当你看到讲台时 and you remember there was a neon light there.记得那里有一个霓虹灯 So you write neon and you would go around the room 所以你写下“氖” 然后你绕教室一圈 writing out all the answers.写下所有的答案 The teacher will look at you and she’ll say这时 老师会看着你 然后说: “Hey, stop looking at the window. The answer is not on the window.”“嘿 不要看窗户了 窗户上又没有答案” Yes, it is. You got answers all the way around the room.有啊 你的答案都在教室里 This is known as the Mind Palace.这就是思维殿堂 If you would like to build your own Mind Palace 如果你想要建立自己的思维殿堂 and ace every test from now on with ease and no stress,想要从现在开始 轻松无压力地秒杀每一场考试 just click the link right here to get my training on 只要点击这里的链接 就可以获得我设计的 how to build your own Mind Palace or click the link below.建立自己的思维殿堂的培训 或点击下方链接 You’ll be glad you did.这样做你会高兴的 Hi, guys! Thanks for watching!嘿 伙计们 感谢观看! Have you built your own Mind Palace yet?你已经建起自己的思维殿堂了吗? If not, don’t forget to get the information right here如果没有 不要忘了从这里获取信息 to build your own Mind Palace,来建立自己的思维殿堂 and memorize what you study.并记住所学内容 And also subscribe the videos 另外还可以订阅本频道 and get tons more of great cool awesome videos观看海量更棒更酷的内容 and you’re not gonna wanna miss them.别错过机会哦 Thanks for watching and I’ll see you in the next video.感谢观看 我们下个视频再见
  • 2021-08-285个需要避免的简历错误让我们来谈谈简历制作Let’s talk about resumes. 某些重要时刻 比你想象中来得更快At some point in your life,probably sooner than you think, 你需要将它们写下来you’re gonna have towrite one of these things. 无论将它们用于工作或是实习And whether you’re applyingfor a job or an internship, 亦或是申请奖学金or in some cases even a scholarship, 通常来说 查看简历your resume is likely going to be the first thing 是决策者评估你的首要环节that the decision maker sees, when they’re evaluating you. 这意味着简历很重要Which means they’re important. Now, 因为这些东西很重要because these things are so important, 所以招聘人员或经理then any recruiter or hiring manager is 都会给予每位申请者obviously gonna give every one they receive 最大程度的关心与关注 对吗the utmost care and attention, right? 大错特错Wrong. 事实上 绝大部分简历完全没有In reality, most resumesare never actually seen by 被招聘人员看过a human recruiter. 大部分放在他们办公桌上的简历And of those that actually do make it to a recruiters desk, 仅仅过了几秒钟most are unceremoniously thrown in the trash 就被随意地丢进垃圾桶after just a few seconds. 这只是一个数字游戏And this is just a numbers game. 事实上 谷歌一年就淘汰了100万份简历In fact, Google alone gets over1 million resumes per year. 平均每天超过2700份And that breaks down to over 2,700 a day. Now, 这些数字看起来有点吓人 令人望而却步those numbers seem daunting and they can be a little bit intimidating, 但接下来有个好消息but there is some good news. 因为很多人在简历制作出现普遍性错误Because a lot of people makesome really common mistakes 被淘汰出局on their resumes that couldput them out of the running. 如果你能够避免这些错误And if you could learn to avoid those mistakes, 你就能在竞争中脱颖而出you’re gon na have a huge leg-up on the competition. So, 今天我们来谈谈五个你最可能犯的错误以及如何避免这些错误today we are going over five of the worst resume mistakes you can make, and we’re gonna talk abouthow you can avoid them 以使你获得你梦寐以求的工作so that you get that dream job that you are going for. 我们要谈论的第一个问题就是The first big mistake we’re gon na 在人们在填写工作经验时趋向于go over is the tendency for people to write their experience section 列出他们的职责而不是他们的成就in a way that lists their job duties rather than their jobs accomplishments. 但问题是 招聘者并不关心But the thing is,employers do no care about 你在上份工作的职责是什么what you were expectedto do at your last job. 而是你可以为他们做些什么They care about what you can do for them, 并从你过去的工作经历里and they wan na see concrete examples from 看见具体的例子your past experience that point to that. 但是大部分人都不是邓布利多And since most of themare not Albus Dumbledore 他们没有冥想盆and they don’t have apensieve sitting in a corner, 他们不能审视过去并窥视你工作they can’t just peer into the past and watch you at work. 这意味着你要清晰简洁地Which means it’s yourresponsibility to clearly 在这个小小的方框里面and succinctly show what you accomplished 列出你达到过的成就in that little amount of space you have. 拿我的简历来说Here’s an example from my own resume. 在大四期间During my senior year, 我在大学研究院上班I had a job on campus at a research department. 并被录用为网页开发者And I got hired as a web developer 我确实维护了这个网站并且做了些更改and I did maintain the website, I did make changes to it. 有一次But at one point, 我有一个小的大概三个小时的项目I also had a small, probably three hour 在项目里我创造了自动化测试脚本project where I created an automation script that 最终节省了公司240小时的工作量ended up saving the company about 240 hours of work. 由于每个小时的用人成本很高And since people there weregetting paid about nice bucks 你可以算算这节约了多少钱an hour, you can do the math on how much money that saved. 即使这个项目只Now even though that project only 花了我几个小时took me a few hours to do, 在招聘人眼里in the eyes of a hiring manager, 这将是目前我做过的所有事中it would have been by far the best indication 我解决问题的能力以及of my creative problem solving abilities and my 在未来节省他们公司钱的能力ability to save their company money in the future, 的最好的一件事情out of anything I did there. Now, 你现在也许在思考you might be thinkingto yourself right now, 我没有这种经验“I don’t have a story like this, 也没为公司节省大量时间“I haven’t saved a company a ton of hours 或者几千美元“or thousands of dollars yet.” 但你的确有让你的成就But what you do have, 变得尽量有形化 具体化is the ability to make your achievements as concrete 并且为它们定量的能力and as specific as possible,and to quantify them. 接下来看另外一个例子To look at another example from my resume. 大三时 我是学校的学生咨询师During my junior year, I was a resident advisor at my university. 我本可以写And I could’ve just said, “帮助一个社团更好地运行”“ Helped to smoothly run a community of students,” 但是我写上了”62″位学生因为这是but I put 62 students becausethat gives a more concrete 一个具体的 数字的例子关于我帮助了多少学生and quantified example of howmany students I was managing. 第二个大的错误是打字错误和语法错误Big mistake number twois, believe it or not, 信不信由你typos and grammatical errors. 你也许会想And you might be thinking, “这明显是这种类型的视频里“ This is the most obvious boring tip that could ever 最无趣的一个了”“be on a video like this.” 但是这的确是正确的But it needs to be said because I, myself, 因为我亲身经历过have fallen victim to it. 在我大二的暑假During the summer before my sophomore year, I 我在为职位招聘会做准备was getting ready for the career fair and I 并制作了一份我认为是完美的简历created what I thought was the perfect resume. 我展现了非常多的经验I had a ton of experiences, tons of clubs, 非常多的俱乐部 非常多的兼职tons of part time jobs that I could show off. 我当时在想”我将进入职位招聘会了”I was thinking,”I’m gonnago into that career fair, 我要碾压所有的竞争对手“and I am going to crushall the competition.” But, 但是 查看了所有的摊位后to check off all the boxes, 我决定先让我的职业顾问帮我检查一下我的简历I decided to get a resume review from my career counselor first. So, 我走进她的办公室I go into her office, I 坐下来 我在想sit down, and I’m thinking this is 这会是一个五分钟的会议going to be a five minute meeting. 她将赞叹并说到She’s going to give me a gold star “托马斯and say, “ Thomas, this was the 没有谁的简历比你的更棒了”best resume I’ve ever reviewed!” 然而 她拿出一只红笔并开始做标记But instead, she pulls out a red pen and starts marking stuff up. 当她在做标记时And as she’s marking things, 我看见她在圈出我的打字错误I start to see that she’s marking out typos. 这是我从未留意过的部分Things that I did not catch myself. 而我那时却认为我的简历是完美的And I thought my resume was perfect. So, 所以如果可以的话 把你的简历拿给职业顾问检阅一下if you can, get your resume reviewed by your career counselor. 不然的话And if you can’t, 你至少可以让某个你信任的人at least have somebody that you trust, who isn’t you, 在你上交简历之前帮你检查一下run over it before youstart handing it out. 因为我们校正他人的工作Because we are always more scrutinizing and more 比校正自己的工作careful when we’re proofreading someone else’s work 更仔细than our own. 第三个大的错误是根据你所申请的职位The third big mistake islisting all of your experience 你列出所有的经验都是按照时间顺序in purely chronological orderinstead of it’s relevancy 而不是按照它们之间的关联性to the position you’re applying to. 很多人认为应该A lot of people think they’re actually 按时间顺序列出他们的经验supposed to list their experience in chronological order. 但是你不应该这样做But this is something that you shouldn’t do 因为你真的没有足够的时间because you really don’t have a whole lot of 去吸引招聘人员的眼球time to catch the recruiters eye. 所以你要先写下最关键的So you wanna put the mostrelevant thing first. 实际上 Theladders.com的一项研究表明In fact, according to astudy done by theladders.com, 招聘人员平均花六秒在一份简历上recruiters spend anaverage of just 6 seconds 然后把这份丢进垃圾桶里looking at a resume beforethrowing it into the trash 再接着看另外一份and going to to the next one. So, 因此如果你是计算机科学专业if you’re a computer sciencemajor applying for a job, 且上个暑假在软件公司实习and last summer you did an internship in software 你在那里基本可以创造和发布软件development where you literally built and shipped software, 但是在那之后but then after that you just, like, 比如 你在Burger King上班worked at Burger King during the year. 你一定要要把实习生的经历放在最前面You definitely want to put that software development internship at the 因为计算机科学公司的招聘人员top because a recruiter at a computer science company is not 不会太在意Burger Kinggoing to care so much about Burger King. 现在你可以进此公司了Now you can definitely go to far here, 这意味着这有一种被限制的平衡which means that there is a balance that has to be struck. 实际上 我在20世纪中叶In fact, I got an email from somebody 收到了来自某人的邮件in their mid 20s recently who asked me 他问我将他们的十一岁时的传道旅行if it would be 写在他们的简历里a good idea to put a mission trip 是不是一个好的想法they did when they were 11 years old on their resume. 就像我在回答他们时一样And as I was trying to answer that persons question, 我想象我是查看他们简历I imagined myself as the hiring director looking 的招聘人员at that persons resume. 我能想到的只是And all I could think of was that something 这件事情放在简历里like that on a resume is gon na look like 就像在抓一根救命稻草just grasping at straws. 我会想 为什么在你十五年之间I’m gonna think,”Why isn’tthere anything else you’ve done 做过的所有事情里“in the intervening 15years, that deserves to kick 只有这个被你写在简历里“that thing off the resume.” Now, 也许他们不会聘请maybe this doesn’t apply to 拥有过长期优秀的工作people who have already had long and illustrious careers, 并有20页的CVswho have 20 page CVs and tons of awards 以及大量个人奖项的申请者on their shelf in their office. 但如果你期待一个初级职位But if you are just lookingfor an entry-level position, 或你是初进职场的人or you’re just a few years into your career, 那么时近是很关键的then recency does matter. 第四个是普遍存在于学生当中的The fourth big mistake thatis really common to students especially, 即 太过强调有偿工作is placing tomuch emphasis on paid work. 大部分学生认为如果他们得不到薪水A lot of students think that if they didn’t 那么工作就没意义get paid for it, it doesn’t really count 就不属于职场经验and it doesn’t belong in that experience section. 但请注意But here’s the thing, 雇佣者不这样认为employers don’t actually look at it that way. 也许你像罗恩·斯旺森一样Maybe you’re like Ron Swanson. 从12岁开始就在采石场工作You’ve been working in the quarry since you were 12 years 你有大量带薪的兼职old and you have tons of part time jobs that you were 可以写在简历上面paid for that you can put on your resume. 但很多学生都没有这种经历But most students don’t havethat kind of experience. 大多数情况下 当学生开始找第一份工作时For the most part, when students are looking fortheir first entry-level job, 他们没有很多带薪的工作they don’t have a whole lot of paid work under their belt. 有薪水的工作通常是在赛百味快餐工作And when they do, it’s oftenstuff like working at Subway, 或Flipping Burger快餐 或当收银员or flipping burgers, orworking as a cashier. 当然是高贵的工作Honorable work to be sure, but it 但这没有表明often doesn’t exemplify the traits that recruiters 雇佣者期待的是更多技术活的特征are looking for in more technical positions. 很多时候那些有过志愿服务 课外活动But many times those same students have volunteer experiences,extracurriculars, 以及社团的学生获得的经验and clubs where they didgain experience in what 正是招聘人员期待的the recruiters are looking for. 如果那是你And if that’s you, 你应该立马把这些经验写在经历那一栏的最上面you should definitely put those experiences right at the top of your experience section. 不要把它们藏在社团和志愿活动一栏Don’t hide them away in aclubs and volunteering section. 这便是最后的And that brings us to our 一个大错误了final big mistake on the list, 不要用相同的一份简历which is using the same resume to apply 去申请每一个职位for every single position you go for. 大错特错This is a huge mistake. 再强调一下你只有六秒的时间Because again, you’ve got just six seconds 吸引招聘者的眼球to catch your recruiters eye. 所以确保更改你的简历So make sure you’re tailoring your resume 再向你要申请的职位投递它to every single position that you’re applying for. 如果你是个外向活泼的学生If you’re an active student, 那你更可能拥有大量不同的经验和技能then it’s more than likely you have a diverse set of experiences and skills. 所以当你申请这份职位时So when you’re going fora position, ask yourself, 问问自己哪一个技能看起来what are the exact skillsthat are gonna look the best 最有可能吸引招聘者to a recruiter hiring for this position? 并且确保在一开始就展示出它们And make sure you tailor your resume to show those things first. 如果你既有自由写作者的经验又有编码的经验If you have both freelance writing experience and coding experience, 申请写作职位then a writing job 与申请编码职位的简历是不一样的is gonna take a differentresume than a coding job. 老实说 另外一个重要的要提及的事情是And the other important thingto note here, to be honest, 用同份简历去申请每个职位is that using the same resume to apply 是非常懒惰的表现for every single job is downright lazy. 这也表示出 这是糟糕的简历And it shows, which is bad, 因为老实说because honestly one of the top qualities 其中一个招聘者期待的高品质that recruiters across everysingle industry is looking for, 就是一个清晰的指示即is a clear indication that this candidate 这个应聘者是出类拔萃的is going to go above and beyond. 在这一点我还是有资格说的And I can kinda weigh inhere myself at this point, 因为我有一个八人的团队了because I actually haveeight people on my team now. 当我雇佣某个人时And when I’m looking to hire somebody, 我认为的高品质有 工作道德the top qualities in my mind are clear work ethic, 独自解决问题的能力a clear ability to solveproblems independently, 以及文化适应and culture fit. 如果没达到以上三点If somebody doesn’t check those three boxes, 那他们的专业技能对我来说根本不重要then their technical skills don’t really matter to me. And, 另一方面 如果他们达到了这三点on the flip side, ifthey do check those boxes 并在专业技能上有一点点不足and they have a slight deficiencyin the technical skills, 这也没有关心 因为我知道that often doesn’t matterbecause I know as long as they’re 只要他们认真学习 他们就可以解决问题a quick learner and can solve problems, 我可以在专业技能方面给他们培训I can train them in those technical areas. Now, 现在提及下你们的简历when it comes to your resume, 最好的展现你品质的方式是the best way you’re going to demonstrate these qualities 用过去的成就来展现is by letting your pastaccomplishments speak for themselves 确保你在经验那一栏非常清晰明确by making sure that experience section shows off accomplishments 地写出了你的成就in a very clear and specific way. But, 但是 把你修饰过的简历给公司tailoring your resume to the company 并表现出你在申请的过程中and showing that you put effortinto the application process 做出了很大的努力goes a long way as well. Now, 现在应该说that being said, 当你展现出更实有的品质时when it comes to showing off those more intrinsic qualities, 你的简历就不是获得这份工作的最佳工具了your resume is not thebest tool for the job. Honestly, 你和招聘者面对面互动those are probably gon na come out most 也许就是面试成功与否的in the interview when you have real face-to-face interaction 最重要的部分with that hiring manager. 但是在面试开始前But before the interview happens, 另外一个显示品质的好工具another great tool for showing those qualities 就是拥有一个网站is having a website. 如果你拥有自己的网站If you have your own website, then you can 你就可以建立一个文件夹build a portfolio that shows off your work in the 来展示你工作的方式way that it was meant to be seen. 你可以展现出所有的细节You can show it off 你也可以列出你过去使用的方法in all its details and you can also show the process that you used, 这都表明了你的职业道德以及解决问题的能力which shows your work ethic and your problem solving abilities. 这也是展现自己的一个自定义的响亮的方式It also just gives you a much more customized and vibrant way 就像你在我的网站里看见的to present yourself, as you can see from my website here, 这是我为什么会认为每一个有抱负的学生which is why I think that every ambitious student 都应该拥有一个自己的网站的原因should have their own website. Now, 如果你现在还是高中生if you’re in high school or you’re 或者是大一新生early on in college and you’re not ready to build 你还没有开始建立一个自己的网站的话a website for yourself just yet, I do think that 我的确这样认为 你至少应该you should, at the very least, 去申请拥有一个域名go and secure your domain name. 我是很晚才得到Thomasfrank.com的I was born just a bit toolate to get thomasfrank.com, 但是非常棒的是but I was able to get myhands on thomasjfrank.com, 我可以运行它which is pretty good. 你越早获得你的域名And the earlier that you go and get your domain name, 别人越不可能the less likely it’s gon na be that someone’s gon 在你之前得到这个机会na go take it before you have the chance. Now, 当你准备好去获得域名的时候when you are ready to go 获得它的最好的地方secure that domain name, the best place 就是在Hoverto do it is over at Hover. 在Hover买域名是简单的With Hover, buying adomain is easy, it’s quick, 这是最快最好的方式 没有大量烦人的销售人员and best of all, it doesn’t involve a bunch of annoying upsells. 当提及到挑选域名时When it comes to picking out that domain name, you 你有非常多的选择 因为它have a ton of choice, as Hover has hundreds of 有上千的延伸 从有趣的例如.band.和.limo.extensions ranging from the fun ones like.band and.limo. 传统来说 我们都喜欢例如.com和.me.To the classics that we all know and love like.com and.me. Also, 你也可以拥有私人的域名邮箱地址with Hover you can geta personalized email address 这可以加强你的专业风采with your domain name, which can further boostyour professional presence. 如果你想 你甚至可以使用它And if you want, you can even set it up 以便你可以直接so that you can send and receive emails straight from your 在谷歌邮箱收发邮件gmail inbox, which I’ve been doing for years 多年来我很喜欢这样做and I absolutely love. 一旦你准备建立网站And once you are ready to build that website, Hovers的连接功能将允许你Hovers connect feature will allow you to easily attach 轻易连接域名和多种不同的网站服务your domain name to tonsof different web services, 包括Squarespace和Shopifyincluding Squarespace and Shopify. So, 如果你忘记了你的域名if you do wan na go lock down that domain name, 那么回到hover.com/thomasfrankthen go over to hover.com/thomasfrank 前100这样做的人and the first 100 people to 将会从他们的第一笔订单中do so are gon na get 10 % 获得10%的折扣off of their first order. 非常感谢Hover的赞助Thanks so much to Hover for sponsoring this video and 并且帮助支持这个频道helping to support this channel, and as always guys, 同样 感谢你们的观看thank you so much for watching. 你可以在评论区分享If there’s something I didn’t cover in 我在此视频中没有涉及到的the video that you think would be helpful, 你认为有帮助的建议definitely share it in the comments down below. 若喜欢该视频And if you liked this video, 请在下面点赞支持give it a like to support this channel. 你也能点击这里订阅 获得更多的新视频You can also subscribe right there to get new videos every 或点击这里免费获得single week, or go right there to get a free 一本我的有关如何获得更好的成绩的书copy of my book on how to earn better grades. 如果你想要If you want, 你也可以在这里查看我们最新的博客片段you can also check out our latest podcast episode right there, 这是关于怎样成为一个更重要的人which is on how to be abetter significant other. Or, 如果你都不想点击的话if you don’t want to do Youtube会随机抽取any of those, Youtube has algorithmically selected a 一个视频供你观看video for you to watch right there. 所以点击这里然后继续观看So click it and keep on watching. 谢谢你们的观看So thanks for hanging out today guys, 像平常一样 我们下周再见and I will see you, as always, next week.
  • 2021-08-28复制记忆或将成为可能想象一下你发明了一个设备Imagine that you invented a device 可以记录我的记忆、that can record my memories, 我的梦想、我的想法my dreams, my ideas, 并把它们传输到你的大脑里and transmit them to your brain. 那将是改变世界的新科技 对吧?That would be a game-changing technology, right? 但事实上 我们已经拥有了这样的设备But in fact, we already possess this device, 它被称作"人类沟通系统"and it’s called human communication system 和"有效的故事叙述"and effective storytelling. 为理解这个设备的运作方式To understand how this device works, 我们必须对大脑进行一番研究we have to look into our brains. 并且稍稍改变提问的方向And we have to formulate the question in a slightly different manner. 我们改问:Now we have to ask 我大脑中那些how these neuron patterns in my brain 与我的记忆和想法相关的神经元that are associated with my memories and ideas 是如何被传输到你的大脑里的?are transmitted into your brains. 我们认为 有两个因素促成沟通And we think there are two factors that enable us to communicate. 首先 你的大脑在物理层面上First, your brain is now physically coupled to the sound wave 与我正在传输的声波耦合that I’m transmitting to your brain. 其次 我们有共通的神经通讯协定And second, we developed a common neural protocol 使我们能够沟通that enabled us to communicate. 那么 我们是如何知道的呢?So how do we know that? 在我的普林斯顿实验室里In my lab in Princeton, 我们对受测者进行 功能性核磁共振仪扫描we bring people to the fMRI scanner and we scan their brains 就在他们讲述或聆听真实故事时 扫描他们的大脑while they are either telling or listening to real-life stories. 为了让你们了解我们所使用的刺激物And to give you a sense of the stimulus we are using, 我从一段故事中截取了20秒来播放let me play 20 seconds from a story that we used, 这是来自一位 非常有才华的故事讲述者told by a very talented storyteller, 名为 Jim O’GradyJim O’Grady. [音频]Jim O’Grady:我现在要 大声说出我的故事 因为很好笑(Audio) Jim O’Grady: So I’m banging out my story and I know it’s good, 然后为了让故事更生动and then I start to make it better — [笑声](Laughter) 我会稍微地添油加醋by adding an element of embellishment. 记者们称之为“忽悠”Reporters call this “making shit up.” [笑声](Laughter) 他们建议不要越过那条线And they recommend against crossing that line. 但我刚看见糕点飞过那条线But I had just seen the line crossed between a high-powered dean 砸在院长大人的脸上and assault with a pastry. 我还挺开心的And I kinda liked it.” 尤里.哈森:好 现在我们来观察你的大脑Uri Hasson: OK, so now let’s look into your brain 看看当你听这类故事时发生了什么and see what’s happening when you listen to these kinds of stories. 一开始我们先简单点——从一位受测听众的大脑区域开始:And let’s start simple — let’s start with one listener and one brain area: 处理耳朵听到的声音的 听觉大脑皮层the auditory cortex that processes the sounds that come from the ear. 如你所见 这特定区域的脑波And as you can see, in this particular brain area, 会随着故事的进展而上下波动the responses are going up and down as the story is unfolding. 现在我们把这些反应Now we can take these responses 和其他受测听众 同一大脑区域内的反应and compare them to the responses in other listeners 进行比较in the same brain area. 我们会问:And we can ask: 所有受测听众的反应有多相似呢?How similar are the responses across all listeners? 可以看到这五位受测者的脑波So here you can see five listeners. 在故事展开前 我们就开始扫描他们的大脑And we start to scan their brains before the story starts, 当时他们只是躺在黑暗中 等待故事开始when they’re simply lying in the dark and waiting for the story to begin. 正如你们所见As you can see, 他们每个人的大脑区域里都有起伏the brain area is going up and down in each one of them, 但是反应却非常不同but the responses are very different, 而且不同步and not in sync. 然而 就在故事开始后However, immediately as the story is starting, 一些神奇的事情发生了something amazing is happening. [音频] JO:我现在要 大声说出我的故事 因为很好笑(Audio) JO: So I’m banging out my story and I know it’s good, 然后为了让故事更生动and then I start to make it — UH:突然间 所有人的脑波回应UH: Suddenly, you can see that the responses in all of the subjects 都随着故事的进展lock to the story, 而上上下下and now they are going up and down in a very similar way 波型都很类似across all listeners. 事实上 各位听我讲话的时候And in fact, this is exactly what is happening now in your brains 这种现象也正在你的大脑里发生when you listen to my sound speaking. 我们把这个效应称作 “神经振荡同步化”We call this effect “neural entrainment.” 为了解释“神经振荡同步化”And to explain to you what is neural entrainment, 我先来解释一下什么是“物理震荡同步化“let me first explain what is physical entrainment. 我们来看看这 5 个节拍器So, we’ll look and see five metronomes. 想象这5个节拍器是 5 个大脑Think of these five metronomes as five brains. 和故事开始前的 5 位受测听众一样And similar to the listeners before the story starts, 这五个节拍器会开始打拍子these metronomes are going to click, 但并不同步but they’re going to click out of phase. [咔哒咔哒……](Clicking) 现在来看一下 当我把它们放在这两个圆筒上Now see what will happen when I connect them together 把它们连起来 会发生什么by placing them on these two cylinders. [咔哒咔哒……](Clicking) 现在这两个圆筒开始滚动Now these two cylinders start to rotate. 这种旋转振动贯穿整块木板This rotation vibration is going through the wood 把所有节拍器同步在一起and is going to couple all the metronomes together. 现在来听听咔哒声And now listen to the click. [同步的咔哒咔哒声……](Synchronized clicking) 这就是所谓的物理震盪同步化This is what you call physical entrainment. 现在让我们回到大脑 问一个问题:Now let’s go back to the brain and ask: 是什么在驱动神经振荡同步化?What’s driving this neural entrainment? 是说话者发出的声音?Is it simply the sounds that the speaker is producing? 还是所说的字彙?Or maybe it’s the words. 还是说话者试图传达的意思?Or maybe it’s the meaning that the speaker is trying to convey. 为了测试 我们做了以下实验So to test it, we did the following experiment. 首先 我们倒退播放这个故事First, we took the story and played it backwards. 这保留了很多原有的听觉特征And that preserved many of the original auditory features, 但失去了含义but removed the meaning. 听起来就像是这样:And it sounds something like that. [音频]JO:(不知所云)(Audio) JO: (Unintelligible) 我们在两个大脑裡 用闪现的颜色And we flashed colors in the two brains 来标示受测者间 相似脑区块的回应to indicate brain areas that respond very similarly across people. 正如你们所见And as you can see, 诱使所有受测者大脑内处理声音的听觉皮层this incoming sound induced entrainment or alignment in all of the brains 全都同步了in auditory cortices that process the sounds, 但没有扩散到大脑深层区域but it didn’t spread deeper into the brain. 现在 我们用这些声音来构建文字Now we can take these sounds and build words out of it. 如果我们用 Jim O’Grady 的声音 把文字胡乱拼凑在一起So if we take Jim O’Grady and scramble the words, 我们会得到一系列文字we’ll get a list of words. [音频]JO: …… 一只动物……. 各种各样的事实(Audio) JO: … an animal … assorted facts … 正在……卖馅饼的人…… 可能……我的故事and right on … pie man … potentially … my stories UH:你可以看到这些文字 开始引起UH: And you can see that these words start to induce alignment 早期语言区域的校准 但也仅仅如此in early language areas, but not more than that. 现在 我们可以使用文字来组建句子Now we can take the words and start to build sentences out of them. [吉姆·雷迪的声音] 他们建议不要逾越那条线(Audio) JO: And they recommend against crossing that line. 他说:“亲爱的 Jim 故事不错 细节很棒He says: “Dear Jim, Good story. Nice details. 难道她不是通过我才认识他的吗?“Didn’t she only know about him through me?” UH:现在你可以看到 在所有受测者中UH: Now you can see that the responses in all the language areas 在处理输入语言的所有语言区域that process the incoming language 他们的反应变得整齐或相似become aligned or similar across all listeners. 然而 只有当我们使用完整、动人、连贯的故事时However, only when we use the full, engaging, coherent story 反应才会进入大脑深层区域do the responses spread deeper into the brain 和高阶区域into higher-order areas, 其中包括额叶皮层和顶叶皮层which include the frontal cortex and the parietal cortex, 从而令所有人 都出现非常相似的反应and make all of them respond very similarly. 我们认为 这些高阶区域内的反应 之所以能被诱发And we believe that these responses in higher-order areas are induced 或能在不同受测听众之间变得相似or become similar across listeners 是因为讲话者所传达的含义because of the meaning conveyed by the speaker, 而不是文字或声音and not by words or sound. 如果我们猜想正确 那就有一种很可能出现的情况And if we are right, there’s a strong prediction over here 如果我使用两种 截然不同的语言组合if I tell you the exact same ideas 告诉你同样的想法using two very different sets of words, 你的大脑反应仍然是相似的your brain responses will still be similar. 为了检验这种情况 我们在我的实验室里做了以下实验And to test it, we did the following experiment in my lab. 我们把这个英语故事We took the English story 翻译成俄语and translated it to Russian. 现在有了两种不同的 声音和语言系统Now you have two different sounds and linguistic systems 它们传达的意思则完全相同that convey the exact same meaning. 你向英语听众播放英语故事And you play the English story to the English listeners 向俄语听众播放俄语故事and the Russian story to the Russian listeners, 我们比较这两组听众的反应and we can compare their responses across the groups. 当这样做的时候 我们没有在听觉皮层And when we did that, we didn’t see responses that are similar 看到相似的反应in auditory cortices in language, 因为语言和声音差异很大because the language and sound are very different. 但是 两组的高阶区域 的反应仍然相似However, you can see that the responses in high-order areas 我们认为 这是因为 他们理解故事的方式非常相似were still similar across these two groups. 故事结束后的一个测试We believe this is because they understood the story in a very similar way, 验证了我们的想法as we confirmed, using a test after the story ended. 我们认为 这种校准对于沟通是必要的And we think that this alignment is necessary for communication. 举个例子 你们都听得出来For example, as you can tell, 英语并不是我的母语I am not a native English speaker. 我在另一种语言中成长I grew up with another language, 你们当中很多人可能也是如此and the same might be for many of you in the audience. 但我们依然可以沟通And still, we can communicate. 为什么?How come? 我们认为 我们之所以能沟通 是因为我们有这种We think we can communicate because we have this common code 呈现含义的通用代码that presents meaning. 到目前为止 我只谈到听众大脑中 所发生的情形So far, I’ve only talked about what’s happening in the listener’s brain, 当你聆听的时候 你的大脑中所发生的情形in your brain, when you’re listening to talks. 但演讲者的大脑中发生了什么?But what’s happening in the speaker’s brain, in my brain, 当我对你们说话的时候 我的大脑中发生了什么?when I’m speaking to you? 为了观察演讲者的大脑To look in the speaker’s brain, 我们让演讲者接受扫描we asked the speaker to go into the scanner, 我们扫描了他的大脑we scan his brain 然后把他的大脑反应 和听众听故事时的大脑反应and then compare his brain responses to the brain responses of the listeners 进行比较listening to the story. 你们要记住 发表演讲和理解演讲You have to remember that producing speech and comprehending speech 是截然不同的过程are very different processes. 我们问的是:它们有多相似?Here we’re asking: How similar are they? 令我们惊讶的是To our surprise, 我们看到 受测听众之间 产生的所有这些复杂模式we saw that all these complex patterns within the listeners 实际上都源自演讲者的大脑actually came from the speaker brain. 所以 产出和理解 所倚赖的过程非常相似So production and comprehension rely on very similar processes. 我们还发现And we also found 受测者大脑和讲者大脑之间的the stronger the similarity between the listener’s brain 相似度越高and the speaker’s brain, 沟通效果越佳the better the communication. 所以我知道 如果你们 现在完全听不懂我的话So I know that if you are completely confused now, 我希望不会出现这种情况and I do hope that this is not the case, 你们的大脑反应 就会与我的非常不同your brain responses are very different than mine. 但我也知道 如果你们现在真的理解我的话But I also know that if you really understand me now, 你的大脑 你的大脑 还有你的大脑then your brain … and your brain … and your brain 就会与我的非常相似are really similar to mine. 现在 我们把所有信息 结合起来 问一个问题:Now, let’s take all this information together and ask: 我们该如何利用它How can we use it to transmit a memory that I have 把我大脑中的记忆 传递到你们的大脑中?from my brain to your brains? 于是我们做了以下实验So we did the following experiment. 我们让人们首次观看BBC 连续剧 《神探夏洛克》中的一个片段We let people watch, for the first time in their life, 同时扫描他们的大脑a TV episode from the BBC series “Sherlock,” while we scanned their brains. 然后我们让他们回到扫描仪前And then we asked them to go back to the scanner 把故事讲给另一个 从没看过这部电影的人听and tell the story to another person that never watched the movie. 具体来说So let’s be specific. 想象这个特定的场景Think about this exact scene, 夏洛克进入伦敦的一辆出租车when Sherlock is entering the cab in London 司机是他正在寻找的杀人凶手driven by the murderer he is looking for. 对我而言 作为一名观看者With me, as a viewer, 当我看的时候 我的大脑中有一个特定的大脑模式there is a specific brain pattern in my brain when I watch it. 现在 通过讲述以下几个词语 我可以再次在大脑中重新激活Now, the exact same pattern, I can reactivate in my brain again 这个完全相同的模式: 夏洛克、伦敦、杀人凶手by telling the word: Sherlock, London, murderer. 当我现在把这些词语传达到你的大脑时And when I’m transmitting these words to your brains now, 你得在自己的思维中进行重建you have to reconstruct it in your mind. 实际上 我们能看到你们的大脑中 现在出现的模式In fact, we see that pattern emerging now in your brains. 我们非常惊讶地看到And we were really surprised to see 当我向你描述这些场景的时候that the pattern you have now in your brains 你的大脑中现在呈现的模式when I’m describing to you these scenes 与我几个月前看这部电影时would be very similar to the pattern I had when I watched this movie 扫描仪中显现的我的大脑模式 非常相似a few months ago in the scanner. 这开始告诉你们 我们讲故事和传递信息This starts to tell you about the mechanism 所倚赖的机制by which we can tell stories and transmit information. 因为 举个例子来说Because, for example, 现在你们听得非常努力 尝试理解我所说的话now you’re listening really hard and trying to understand what I’m saying. 我知道这并不容易And I know that it’s not easy. 但我希望 到了对话中的某个时刻 我们能豁然开朗 你们能明白我的意思But I hope that at one point in the talk we clicked, and you got me. 我觉得 在几个小时后 几天后 几个月后And I think that in a few hours, a few days, a few months, 当你们在派对上遇到某个人you’re going to meet someone at a party, 你会告诉他这次演讲的内容and you’re going to tell him about this lecture, 突然间 他好像就站在这里 和我们在一起and suddenly it will be as if he is standing now here with us. 现在你们可以看到 我们如何利用这个机制Now you can see how we can take this mechanism 尝试在人与人之间传递记忆和知识and try to transmit memories and knowledge across people, 这很不错 对吧?which is wonderful, right? 但我们的沟通能力But our ability to communicate relies on our ability 依赖于我们拥有共同点的能力to have common ground. 因为 举例来说Because, for example, 如果我使用英式同义词if I’m going to use the British synonym “出租马车” 取代 “出租汽车”“hackney carriage” instead of “cab,” 我知道 大多数听众就无法 与我达成同步的沟通I know that I’m going to be misaligned with most of you in the audience. 沟通的同步不仅取决于This alignment depends not only on our ability 我们对基本概念的理解能力to understand the basic concept; 也取决于我们形成共性、理解彼此it also depends on our ability to develop common ground and understanding 和共享信仰体系的能力and shared belief systems. 因为我们知道 在许多情况下Because we know that in many cases, 即使是完全相同的故事 人们的理解方式也可能十分不同people understand the exact same story in very different ways. 为了在实验室中验证 我们做了以下实验So to test it in the lab, we did the following experiment. 我们采用了 J.D. Salinger 的一个故事We took a story by J.D. Salinger, 在这个故事中 一位丈夫在派对中与妻子失去了联络in which a husband lost track of his wife in the middle of a party, 他打电话给最好的朋友 问他: “你看见我妻子了吗?“and he’s calling his best friend, asking, “Did you see my wife?” 半数的受测者被告知:For half of the subjects, 妻子和最好的朋友有一段私情we said that the wife was having an affair with the best friend. 而另外一半则被告知:For the other half, 妻子是忠诚的 是丈夫的忌妒心太重we said that the wife is loyal and the husband is very jealous. 故事开始前的一句话This one sentence before the story started 就足以决定大脑的反应was enough to make the brain responses 所有相信妻子不忠的人of all the people that believed the wife was having an affair 在大脑高阶区域 出现非常相似的反应be very similar in these high-order areas 但与另一组人不同and different than the other group. 如果一个句子足以让你的大脑And if one sentence is enough to make your brain similar 与持相同看法的人相似to people that think like you 与持不同看法的人相异and very different than people that think differently than you, 那么想想看 在现实生活中 这种效应会被放大到什么样的程度?think how this effect is going to be amplified in real life, 当我们日复一日听着由不同媒体when we are all listening to the exact same news item 所报导的相同新闻after being exposed day after day after day 例如《福克斯新闻》或《纽约时报》to different media channels, like Fox News or The New York Times, 造成我们对事实的观点 有截然不同的看法that give us very different perspectives on reality. 我来总结一下So let me summarize. 如果一切事情都像今晚 计划的那样进行If everything worked as planned tonight, 我可以用我的声音 与你的大脑产生共鸣I used my ability to vocalize sound to be coupled to your brains. 然后利用这种共鸣And I used this coupling 把我的大脑模式、记忆和想法to transmit my brain patterns associated with my memories and ideas 传输到你的大脑into your brains. 由此 我开始揭示沟通所依赖的In this, I start to reveal the hidden neural mechanism 隐藏神经机制by which we communicate. 我们知道 在未来 它会使我们改进And we know that in the future it will enable us to improve 和加速沟通and facilitate communication. 但这些研究也表明But these studies also reveal 沟通依赖于共同基础that communication relies on a common ground. 我们必须得担心 作为一个社会And we have to be really worried as a society 我们是否失去了这种共同基础if we lose this common ground and our ability to speak with people 是否失去了与那些 与自己稍有不同的人沟通的能力that are slightly different than us 因为我们放任少数的强势媒体because we let a few very strong media channels 控制了麦克风take control of the mic, 操纵了我们的想法and manipulate and control the way we all think. 我只是个科学家 不知如何解决这个问题And I’m not sure how to fix it because I’m only a scientist. 但或许有一种可能方式But maybe one way to do it 就是回到更自然的沟通方式is to go back to the more natural way of communication, 也就是人与人之间的对话which is a dialogue, 不只是像现在这样我对着你说in which it’s not only me speaking to you now, 而是更自然的谈话方式but a more natural way of talking, 我一边说也一边听in which I am speaking and I am listening, 我们一起努力 获得共同点和新想法and together we are trying to come to a common ground and new ideas. 因为 毕竟Because after all, 能与我们产生共鸣的人 定义了我们是什麽样的人the people we are coupled to define who we are. 我们对另一个大脑 产生共鸣的基本渴望And our desire to be coupled to another brain 在年龄很小的时候就已经开始了is something very basic that starts at a very early age. 最后 我用自己生活中的 一个例子作为结束So let me finish with an example from my own private life 我觉得这是一个很好的例子that I think is a good example of how coupling to other people 说明了与他人的“共鸣”如何定义我们是谁is really going to define who we are. 这是我儿子 Jonathan 在他很小的时候This my son Jonathan at a very early age. 看看他如何和我妻子 一起开发出一种声音游戏See how he developed a vocal game together with my wife, 仅仅源自渴望与他人 产生共鸣的单纯喜悦only from the desire and pure joy of being coupled to another human being. [都在发声](Both vocalizing) [笑声](Laughter) 现在来想一想 我儿子与我们Now, think how the ability of my son 以及他生命中其他人产生共鸣的能力to be coupled to us and other people in his life 将如何把他塑造成他将成为的那个人is going to shape the man he is going to become. 想一想 你每天如何And think how you change on a daily basis 从与他人的交往和联系中改变from the interaction and coupling to other people in your life. 所以持续跟其他人产生共鸣So keep being coupled to other people. 持续分享你的想法Keep spreading your ideas, 因为我们共鸣起来的总力量because the sum of all of us together, coupled, 远远胜过我们分开的个体力量is greater than our parts. 谢谢Thank you. [掌声](Applause)
  • 2021-08-28手账术子弹日记101什么是子弹日记?Bullet Journal 101What is a Bullet Journal? 很高兴能在子弹日记101课程的So excited to be back with you all today 第一周又见到你们with the very first week of Bullet Journal 101. 在节目开始前And before we dive in 我想感谢你们每一个人I just wanted to say thank you so much to everyone 感谢你们对上周预告片的积极反馈for all of your positive feedback on the introduction video last week. 我开设了提问环节I opened it up for questions 你们可以就想从这个系列课程想要学到些什么来提问things that you all wanted to learn throughout the course of this series. 我收到了很多反馈And I’ve been getting lots of feedback, 和很多不错的问题lots of great great questions 我真的很期待能够开始这个系列and I am really looking forward to diving into this series 希望能尽量回答大家的问题and answering as much as I possibly can 我也会尽力把这个系列做得像其他系列一样具有综合性and making this as comprehensive as other series as I possibly can. 所以 再次谢谢大家So thank you again and… 好 就让我们开始Alright, so let’s dive in 今天视频的重头戏吧to the Meat and potatoes of today’s video. 这个星期的视频是关于子弹日记本身的This week’s video is all about the bullet journal itself. 子弹日记是什么?What is a bullet journal? 为什么要选择用它?Why would you choose to use one? 然后我会简要介绍And I am gonna do a brief overview 子弹日记的不同组成部分of the different parts what makes up a bullet journal 以及它们是如何一起组成这个奇妙系统的and how it all works together to form this amazing system. 那就开始吧So let’s dive right in. 我最爱的一句关于什么是子弹日记的话One of my favorite quotes about what the bullet journal is 是来自bulletjournal.com网站actually comes from the “bulletjournal.com” website. 如果你还没看过And if you haven’t been there yet 我强烈建议你去简单浏览一下 bulletjournal.comI highly highly recommend that you go over the bulletjournal.com, 浏览上面的不同页面 不同课程browse through the different pages, the different lessons in there 并真正了解这个日记系统and really get to know the system. 这句引言就是And that quote is “子弹日记是一个定制化 容纳性强的组织系统”“The bullet journal is a customizable and forgiving organization system.” 它可以是你的待办事项 素描本 笔记本以及日记本It can be your to-do list, sketchbook, notebook and diary 但通常包含上面各种but most likely it will be all of the above. 它让你做事事半功倍It will teach you to do more with less.” 我之所以喜欢这个格言是因为它很好地总结了这个体系And I love that quote because that really sums up the system 它为我揭示了子弹日记的最大作用and it accentuates the biggest draw of the bullet journal for me 那就是它非常灵活which is the fact that it is so adaptable 你可以改变它并让它适应你自己的需要and you can really change and adapt it to fit your own needs. 子弹日记是由瑞德·卡罗尔创造的Now the bullet journal itself was created by Ryder Carroll 他是纽约布鲁克林的一位数码设计师who is a digital designer living in Brooklyn, New York. 他三年前即2013年创建了子弹日记系统And he created the bullet journal system about three years ago back in 2013 并且分享给了大家and shared it with the world. 从那时起 它发展成了如今And since then it has evolved 我们网上的这个子弹日记圈子through this amazing bullet journal community that we have online. 现在有好多妙招 更新 推特There has been so many hacks, upgrades, tweets, 人们用子弹日记系统做各种事情people doing different things with the bullet journal system 我很惊奇的是看到and it’s amazing to me to see 它在这三年有多大的变化how much it has evolved in these 3 years. 子弹日记网站上的这句话我也很喜欢Also from the bullet journal website is this quote that I adore 是创始人瑞德说子弹日记本身的and that’s Ryder talking about the bullet journal itself 他把这看作是一个不断发展的可适应实践and he sees this as an evolving adaptable practice, 意在成为最适合你的自我策划meant to be self-curated as you determine what works best for you. 所以确实有一些基本指南So again there are basic guidelines 关于如何开始和建立系统to getting started and getting set up 也确实有像传统的日记系统and there is like the traditional bullet journal system 就是瑞德卡罗尔在网站上列出的那些that Ryder Carroll outlines at bulletjournal.com. 但同时他也说明了But at the same time what he’s saying here is that 日记是可适应的灵活多变的it’s adaptable. It’s flexible. 你能改变它调整它You can tweak it and change it 并让它对你有帮助and make it work for you. 我觉得这是子弹日记系统And I think that’s the biggest draw 本身最大的优点了of the bullet journal system itself 也就是你不必拘泥于用一个系统that you are not limited to using just one system 用到永远for the rest of your life. 当你改变和成长时You are welcome to change and adapt 你可以改变和适应as your needs change and grow. 所以我超级爱这一点So I love love love that. 今天还有一点我想说明的是Another thing I wanted to touch on today is 你使用子弹日记系统的初衷是什么why you would want to use a bullet journal in the first place. 相比于那些所有数据规划软件之类的Why would you wanna use an analog system 为什么你想使用一个模拟系统?versus all the digital planning apps and things like that are out there? 不要误会我了 它们也很好which don’t get me wrong, they’re wonderful. 现在的科技绝对惊艳到我Technology these days absolutely amazes me, 我自己也会用很多数码应用and I use a lot of digital apps myself 来组织和管理我的生活和生意for organizing and managing my life and my business. 但是最后我还是会用回子弹日记But I always ultimately go back to my bullet journal 对于我来说最重要的原因and for me the No.1 reason is 当你动笔就会如有神助there’s magic that happens when you put pen to paper. 这是一种There’re something about that 笔碰到纸张和写东西时触碰的微妙的感觉tactile feeling of putting pen to paper and writing things down. 这种感觉是其他任何事情都无法比拟的That just does it for me like nothing else. 积极的写作Now, the active writing itself 很能帮你更好地记忆actually helps you to remember things better. 我记得很久以前I remember back in high school, 我上高中的时候which was a long time ago for me. 在高中时But back in high school, 如果我不把东西写下来 我就记不住if I didn’t write things down, I wouldn’t remember them. 一旦有我想记住的东西And anytime that I want to remember something 我就会把它们写下来I make sure I write it down 否则就会左耳朵进右耳朵出了because otherwise it will just be in one ear and out of the other. 而我知道把东西写下来and I know that the act of writing it down 能把它们更好地留在我的脑海中is gonna to help to cement that in my brain a little bit better. 我喜欢书写多过电子的另一原因Another reason I love analog over digital 是书写更不容易分散注意力is that it’s distraction-free. 我们总是容易被屏幕吸引We’re so attached to our screens all the time, 比如我们的手机 电脑 平板our phones, our computers, our tablets. 这些电子设备上And we always have all these notifications 也往往会跳出各种提醒让我们分心poping up all over the place to distract us. 我爱用子弹日记And the thing that I love about the bullet journal 或者其他日记系统的原因是or any analog system for that matter is that 我可以屏蔽电子设备上的各种提醒I can shut all these notifications off on my electronics, put those all to the side, 这样我就能专注于手上写的东西and I can just focus in on what I am writing 所以我在用子弹日记时and I am absolutely distraction-free 注意力高度集中while I’m in my bullet journal. 我喜欢纸质的胜过电子系统的最后一个原因And the last reason why I really like analog over digital 是它的可变性和适应性is the flexibility to change and adapt to your system. 目前有许多系统 甚至有预印好的规划本There’re so many systems out there, even with pre-printed planners 应用程序等这些不能改动系统本身的系统and digital apps that you really can’t change the system itself. 你会有点拘泥于它的布局You’re kinda stuck with however it’s laid out, 设计者展示出来的规划本或软件however the designer decided to lay out that planner or that app. 你不能做任何改动You’re stuck with that and you can’t change it. 我爱用子弹日记What I love about the bullet journal is 是因为可以调整改变和改进它you’re constantly able to tweak and change and improve it 以便随时满足自己的需要to suit your own needs at any given time. 既然我们已了解子弹日记是什么So now that we’ve covered what is a bullet journal 还有使用子弹日记的初衷是什么and why you would want to use one in the first place, 那么接下来我想简单概括一下这个系统I wanted to give you an overview of the system itself. 子弹日记有多个部分组成The bullet journal is made up of various parts 各个部分综合起来and they all work together 组成了这个系统to kind of create this organization system 它可以帮助你that really helps you to get on top of 掌控你现在的生活whatever’s going on in your life. 子弹日记的记录其实是快速记录The language of the bullet journal is really rapid logging. 速记其实就是用简短的句子做记录And rapid logging is essentially writing things down in brief short sentences. 在子弹日记里面的话就是The way you do that within a bullet journal is 你要运用你的主题和页数you use your topics and page numbers. 所以在每页顶端So at the very top of any given page, 你要把这页的主题写上you’re going to write the topic of the page itself. 你要自己给页码编号You’re gonna number that page. 市面上有些笔记本There’s a couple of notebooks out there 是预先印好页码的that come with the pages prenumbered 这很棒 但是你要根据自己的需要which is wonderful but depending on what you have, 你可能要自己给页码编号you may need to number your pages. 我要编号我的页数时When I do need to number my pages, 那我会尽可能提早做好I like to do that in advance as much as possible 这样就不会忘记了so that I don’t forget. 但你得把该页主题清楚地标在最上面But you wanna have your topic clearly stayed at the top of the page 把页码标在最下面and then the page number at the bottom. 这样将来在日记首页你想找某一页时And that’ll come in handy when it’s time to index your pages 就会很方便了 这个我们后续细论at the front of your bullet journal,which we’ll go into a little bit more. 现在 速记法依赖于子弹点Now rapid logging relies on bullets 而子弹日记的方法and the idea with the bullets 及为何它叫子弹日记是and why it’s called the bullet journal is 因为他们能够帮助你在子弹日记里整理内容they actually help you to organize your entries within your bullet journal. 接着 有三种主要的子弹类型So there are three main bullet types 分别是用小点来表示的任务and those are tasks which are represented by a simple dot. 用圆圈来代表事件There’re events represented by a circle, 与时间相关的事项events are any date related entries, 包括事件 约会So events, appointments, 及任何与特定的日期和时间相关的事件anything related to a specific date and time. 接着是注释And then there’s notes. 注释使用破折号表示And notes are represented with a dash. 所以…不适合归在前两类的事情Uhm…So anything that doesn’t really fall into the other two categories, 凡是你注释的你想记住的anything that you are noting that you want to remember, 都可以用破折号来代表that would be represented with a dash. 接下来是标记And then there’s signifiers, 事实上它是帮你给不同的任务分类的and the signifiers actually help you to kind of categorize your different tasks. 可以用星星来表示优先处理So a star would mean priority, 也就是说这一项要比其他都重要meaning that that task is more important than the others. 感叹号表示启示An exclamation point is for inspiration. 所以对于你想提醒自己记住的So anything that you really really wanna remember, 一些重要东西something that’s important to you, 你可以用感叹号来标记you would signify that with an exclamation point. 然后可以用眼睛来表示需要研究And then there’s an eye for explore. 表示这项内容需要再做点研究So that’s something that you need to do a little bit research on, 或者再多搜集一些额外的信息or get a little additional information on. 所以以上是几个主要的So those are the main signifiers 子弹日记系统给出的主要标记方式了that are outlined in the basic bullet journal system. 现在我们要深谈下子弹日记不同组成模块Now we are gonna dive into the different modules that make up the bullet journal. 在子弹日记里And within the bullet journal, 这些模块差不多是协调工作the modules all kind of work together in congruence 来帮你组织与收集不同特定类型的事项to… to help you organize and collect different specific types of entries. 所以子弹日记第一个要有的模块是目录So the first module that you’re gonna have within you bullet journal is the index. 这会占据你的日记的前几页That’s gonna be the first few pages of your journal, 在这里你要组织你收集的不同素材and this is where you’re gonna organize your different collections 然后标出大致的页码and there’re respective page numbers 以后找起来就会很快so that you can quickly find them in the future. 所以在目录页你只需要超出那个目录So on the index itself you just gonna title that index, 接下来你只需要写下不同的主题and then you’re simply gonna write in your different topics 将其放入你的子弹日记时as you enter them into your bullet journal 把页码写在旁边with the page number right next to them. 这样你在子弹日记里面找个东西的时候That way anytime you’re trying to find something within your bullet journal, 你可以回去查阅你的目录you will be able to refer back to your index, 滚动去找到你的主题scroll through until you find your topic 然后你很快就能翻到那一页and you’ll be able to flip quickly to that page number. 目录之后是未来规划After the index comes the future log. 未来规划是一种And the future log is a collection that 很多人修改和改进为很多不同风格的集合a lot of people have modified and adapted a lot of different styles, 我在后边的视频中肯定会专门进行扩展and I’ll definitely be covering that more in the future. 但实际瑞德列出了一个简单的未来规划But Ryder actually outlines a really simple future log 如你只需将6个月or you just write down 6 months 或无论你想写在几张纸上写多少or however many you want on a couple of pages 接着你可以在这部分and then you have this little section 写将来的事项where you can write in upcoming events 和未来需要发生在特定某天的任务and tasks that need to happen on specific days in the future. 之后是你的每个月的记录After the future log, comes your first monthly log. 至于月记录 也十分简单And the monthly log, again it’s very very simple, 你只需要将所有月期you’re just gonna write all of the dates of the month 写到左手边down the left-hand side. 也要将每周里的日期写下You’re gonna write your days of the week as well 然后所有你知道的and then anything that you have, 那些将要发生的事项和约会that you know is coming up events or appointments wise, 你可以继续写到那you can go ahead and write that in. 我喜欢它有个原因是我会记And one thing I love to use the log for is just as a log of things 一个月以来发生的事that happen throughout the month. 所以我喜欢回头So I love to go back in and write in 再写一点当天发生的事情just a little tidbit about what happened that day 当你月底时and it’s great when you get to the end of the month, 你能浏览月记录you can read through your month log 并大致看到这个月你都做了什么and kind of see an overview of how that month went for you. 月记录之后是日记录And then after the monthly log comes the daily log. 我喜欢把日记部分称作子弹日记的灵魂And the daily log is what I like to call the heart and soul of the bullet journal. 你会在日记录里The daily log is where you’re gonna log 记录所有你每天必须做的任务all your tasks that you have to do each day, 所有全天的事件和约会all of your events and appointments throughout the day, 以及任何在一天内出现的注释and any notes that come up throughout the day as well. 所以 日记录So the daily log 从最根本上说是非常非常简单的at its most basic is very very simple 也就是要用到子弹点和记号的地方and this is where those bullet points and signifiers are gonna come in. 这就是你如何整理一天中发生的事的方法That’s how you categorize everything throughout the day. 日记录很棒的一点The great thing about the daily log 在于使用的空间或多或少根据你的需要而定is you can use as much or as little space as you need. 所以 如果你一天只有四五个任务So if you only have four or five tasks for a day, 这一天就完成了then that day is done. 接下来一天的任务可以直接接着写The next day you can start the next day right immediately under that, 你不必担心浪费空间and you don’t have to worry about waste its space 就像用典型预计划本子的时候那样like you would with a typical pre-printed planner. 子弹日记网站上有一个One big tip from the bullet journal website 而我也认为的非常重要的提示and one that I think is very very important 就是不要提前准备你的日记录is to not set up your daily logs way ahead of time. 随时记录或者前一天晚上开始会比较好It’s great to do them as you go or the night before 因为实在不知because you really never know 每天你需要多大地方how much space you’re gonna need on any given day 或多小的地方or how little space. 所以 按时记录十分重要So it’s really important to do those daily logs as you go, 这样你就能最大限度so that you really maximize the space 利用子弹日记里的空间了that you’re taking up within your bullet journal. 一旦各个模块都准备就绪了Now once you have all of these different modules in place, 你会突然发现you’re gonna find that at some point 你需要调整一些不同的任务you’re gonna need to start migrating some different tasks, 比如那些未完成的事anything that didn’t get done 或者某些不再有关 不用再完成的任务or that is no longer relevant and you don’t need to do anymore. 你就需要一种调整任务的方法You’re gonna need a way to migrate those tasks. 子弹日记描绘出了一个具体的调整方法And the bullet journal outline a specific way of migrating, 你当然可以调整来适应你的需要of course you can tweak this and adjust it to fit your needs. 当然调整记录是一件非常私人的事情And migration is definitly a very personal thing. 有人会每月调整一次There’s people that will migrate once a month. 有人会每周调整一次There’s people that will migrate once a week. 你可以每天调整You can migrate daily 如果你想第二天再次写下未完成的任务if you wanna rewrite your unfinished tasks on the next day. 我个人喜欢翻页的时候做调整I personally like to migrate once I turn the page, 所以我要做的事情都在一页上so anything that I have all on one page, 直到翻页我才会去调整I won’t migrate until I turn to the next page. 但实际上 迁移调整非常非常简单But migration is actually really really simple. 所以 如果有些事情对你来说不再重要了So if you have something that’s become irrelvant 你不用再做了and you don’t need to do it anymore, 你可以直接把它划掉you can just strike it through. 如果仍需要注意 If it is something that still needs your attention, 你想调整一下you want to migrate it. 就用小点 记号So that little dot, signfier, 你可以用向右的箭头you would turn that it into a right-facing arrow, 表示你已经迁移了你的任务signifying that you’ve migrated your task 然后你把那个任务加到下一天的那页and then you add that task to your next daily page 或月计划也或是你想迁移的任意处or monthly log or whatever you’re migrating it to. 我知道对于很多人来说I know for a lot of people it seems like a lot of effort 不断迁移未完成的任务是件费力的事to constantly migrate unfinished tasks. 你已写过它一次You’ve already written it down once, 已知道要做什么you’ve already knew you need to do it. 为什么还要再写一遍?Why do you need to rewrite it? 但它是子弹日记系统的策划性的部分But it’s actually a very intentional part of the bullet journal system 多次重写就是一种实际行动and it’s the actual act of having to rewrite those tasks multiple times. 你开始对不断You start to get a sense for the things 往前滚动的东西有了感觉that you’re constantly migrating forward 这真的会让你停下来思考每一件事and it really makes you pause and consider each item. 当你有未完成任务时So when you have an unfinished task, 你会看到它然后你就不得不思考you actually look at it and you have to think about it 并且决定拿它怎么办and decide what to do with it. 它不再重要了吗?那就划掉Is it no longer relavent? Sctrach it out. 它真的是需要我去关心的吗?Is it something that I do need to take care of? 那就往前移 也许在旁边加上一个星号Migrate it forward, maybe put one of those star signifiers next to it, 以此注明这件重要的事情真的需要完成noting that it’s something very important that actually needs to get done. 所以迁移调整在这里绝对是有用的So migration definitly has a purpose here 而这正是帮你决定哪些事值得付出精力and it’s really to help you determine what’s worth the effort. 并看一看那些任务And look at those tasks 认真想想这仍是我需要处理的事吗and really think is this still somthing that I need to tackle? 如果不是 把它划掉If not, cross it out. 如果是 就果断把它往前移 重新写If it is, then absolutely migrate it forward, rewrite it, 而重写这个行为真的有助于在你脑中加深印象and the act of rewriting it really helps to cement that in your brain. 所以各位以上是子弹日记系统的分解讲解So that is the basic breakdown of the bullet journal system y’all 你会注意到很多东西and you’ll notice there’s a lot of things 我在这都没有讲到that I didn’t cover here today. 比如日历 比如周报Things like a calendar, things like weekly spreads, 这些都是随着子弹日记系统um, these are all adaptation and things 发展而进化的调整方法和工具that have evolved within the bullet journal system. 但我今天的讲解非常基础But what I’ve broken down here today for you are the absolute basics. 我将把这些更详细得放进后续视频中And I’m going to go into all of these in a lot more detail in our future videos. 但我想简单地给你们一个大纲But I just want to give you a brief overview 这样你们可以明白一切是怎么一起作用的so that you have an idea of how everything kind of works together. 对于下周的视频我非常兴奋And I’m really really excited about next week’s video. 下周 我们会聊聊预先规划Next week we’re gonna talk about pre-planning 并且研讨一下你要如何利用子弹日记系统and brainstorming how you want your bullet journal to work for you, 在子弹日记里哪些你需要 哪些不需要what things you’re gonna need or not need within your bullet journal. 我们还会说到补充内容And we are also gonna talk about supplies 这部分通常会很有趣which is always a fun conversation to have. 所以我真的超级期待下周和大家再次见面So I really really look forward to seeing you all again next week. 重申一下 如果你有任何问题 评论 担忧Again if you have any questions, comments, concerns, 或者你感兴趣的内容 希望我加到这个系列里来anything you are curious about that you want me to include within this series, 请在下方留言Please please please drop those down below the comments.Again I’m compiling all those things 再声明一下 我在收集这些Again I’m compiling all of those, 尽力将内容做得全面and I’m really trying to make this the most comprehensive course for you all. 再次感谢大家今天观看节目So thanks again for being here with me today TIME LIMIT 期待周五再次与大家见面and I will look foward to seeing you all on Friday. 再见Bye! 多谢观看!请订阅我们Thanks for watching!Please subscribe :) [音乐][music
  • 2021-08-28父母不让我玩游戏,我该怎么办?I’ll bet you found this video我赌你找到了这条视频 because your parents won’t let you play video games.因为你的爸妈不让你玩电子游戏 I’m a psychologist and I know a little bit about parents’ psychology我是一名心理学家 了解一些家长的心理 Let’s crack this接下来让我们解决这个问题 《生活目标》 I’ve got three tips for you today about how to handle this video在今天的视频里 我会给出三点 game issue with your parents but关于如何处理父母不让玩电子游戏的建议 first you gotta understand a little bit of parent psychology. 但首先 你要了解一下父母的心理 You need to know how they think 你需要知道他们是怎么想的 because sometimes it doesn’t feel like they are thinking 因为感觉有些时候他们好像想都没想 they’re just reacting and trying to control you right?就只是条件反射般地想要控制你 对吧 Well when you understand parent psychology,一旦了解了父母的心理 you’ll be able to work with your parents in a way你就可以和他们在同一频道上交流 that will have them working with you a little better. 这会使你们之间更好地进行沟通 See parents aren’t that hard to figure out.你看 其实了解父母并不难 First of all let’s start with this,首先 我们的出发点在于 Your parents love you.他们爱你 Now,you might want to argue with me about that现在 你可能想要和我争论这一点 But they do I know parents.但他们确实如此 这我明白 And even parents that don’t know what they’re doing in terms of limits and rules,在限制和规则方面 即使父母有时候犯了些无心之过 still love their kids但是他们确实是爱着孩子的 they’re just trying to figure out how to do the best job they can as parents.他们只是竭尽全力弄明白 如何做一个称职的家长 And because your parents love you 因为你的父母爱你 there is one thing that they want for you above everything else do有件事是高于其他任何事的 他们想要你实现他 you know what it is你知道是什么吗? Think about this the one thing they want for you想一想 其实这件事 is for you to be happy.就是希望你能一直开心 Awww isn’t that nice 这难道不好吗? it’s true that’s all they want.真的 这个就是他们最想要的 And because they want you to be happy而正是因为他们想你开心 they’ve got all kinds of ideas about how that’s going to happen所以 他们就会用尽各种各样的方法去实现这件事 And they watch you to see if you’re making choices 他们也会留意你是否做出了 that are gonna lead you into happiness 可以带给你快乐的选择 or lead you into prison right 或者哪些选择会送你进监狱 I know that’s an exaggeration 我知道这样说是有些夸张 but sometimes right但有时这却是正确的 So understanding that 所以 你要明白 your parents need to understand 父母需要了解 that you are making good choices that will lead you to happiness.你是否能做出让自己开心的选择 Now happiness and fun are not the same thing 快乐和娱乐不是一回事 so doesn’t count that you’re having fun playing video games.所以不要把玩电子游戏的娱乐也算做快乐 They need to know that you’re doing the kinds of things他们需要知道你现在所做的 that will make your life happy and productive是会让你的生活变得开心并且富有创造性的事 So that leads me to the three tips 因此 这些可以总结为三点 that I wanted to share with you也就是我想要和你们分享的 Tip number one is to understand opportunity cost第一点 要了解机会成本 Opportunity cost is whatever any opportunity is going to cost you机会成本就是无论这个机遇需要你付出什么 and what opportunities you will lose 以及 你将会失去什么机会 as a result of choosing one or the other都是你选择了一个或者另一个机遇的结果 Here’s an example 举个例子 if you go to the store with $ 20 如果你拿着20美元进入了一家商店 and you spend that twenty dollars on a new game然后用这20美元买了一款新游戏 What don’t you get to spend that twenty dollars on?你用这20美元买不到什么东西? anything else you could have bought with the twenty dollars所有那些你原本可以买到的 so the other things you could have bought with the twenty dollars所以你原本能用20美元买到的东西 represent the opportunity cost of spending it on that game.代表的就是把钱花在游戏上的机会成本 Now in a similar way how we spend our time 同理 我们如何用好自己的时间 means that we don’t get to spend it on something else 意味着我们不会将时间花费在其他事情上 I’m guessing your parents probably aren’t too concerned about the games you’re playing我猜你的父母可能并不太担心你玩的游戏 if they are maybe that’s another conversation如果他们担心的话 那就是另外一个问题了 but most games are okay they’re not bad但大多数游戏还好 没什么坏处 you can’t really make that argument with your parents 你不能因为这个就跟父母争吵 because they already know it’s not a bad game 因为他们已经知道知道游戏并无害处 what they’re concerned about is all of that other stuff 而他们担心的是 that you’re not doing while you’re over there playing your game让你玩游戏时 而没去做的那些其他的事 you’re tracking this the opportunity cost你理解了吗?机会成本 so they might be thinking 所以 你的父母可能就在想 oh as long as he’s playing that game 哦 只要他在玩游戏 he’s not doing his homework 他就不是在做作业 see that’s the opportunity cost as long看 这个就是机会成本 as he’s playing that game he’s not working to earn some money 只要他在玩游戏 他就不会去赚钱 opportunity cost 机会成本 this is important because it’s how parents think so这很重要 因为这是你父母的想法 give a little thought for a moment to the opportunity cost of you playing video games花点时间想想 玩电子游戏的机会成本 That’s important for you personally.这个对你个人来说很重要 But also it’s going to help you to deal with your parents 当然也能帮助你处理和父母之间的关系 Okay here’s tip number two好 该说第二点了 and this one is huge for parents这点对于父母来说很重要 Sometimes they feel like they have to control you because you don’t control you.有些时候他们觉得 他们不得不控制你 是因为你缺少自控力 Right?对吧 They want to put limits on the game why?他们想要限制你玩游戏 为什么呢 Because you’re not putting limits on the game因为你自己在玩游戏时毫无节制 Learn to self limit学会自控 This is a maturity factor 这是一个成熟的要素 it actually tells your parents that you’re more mature if you put the limits on it.如果你学会自律 父母才会知道你长大了 what just try this 为什么不试试呢 what if the next time you’re playing the game 假设下次你玩游戏的时候 you actually have a kitchen timer sitting right there by your computer放一个计时器在电脑旁 and the kitchen timer is counting down for some reasonable amount of time 设定一个合理的时间进行倒计时 又会怎么样呢? let’s say,start with a half-hour okay 这么说吧 先从半个小时开始 I know nobody plays a game for just half an hour 我知道没有人玩游戏只花半个小时 but what if you did 但是如果你真的做到了呢 what if you set a little timer right by your computer half hour 如果你真的在电脑旁放一个计时器 就半个小时 when it goes ding or when it the alarm goes off当它响起来或者铃声结束的时候 you turn off the game 你把游戏关掉 会怎么样呢? I know you probably don’t want to cut the game off after half an hour 我知道你虽然可能不想半小时后中断游戏 but here’s the thing If your parent see you doing that 但问题是 如果你的父母看到你这样做了 they’re not gonna feel like they have to put the limits on the game他们就觉得不再需要限制你玩游戏的时间 It’s parent psychology 这就是父母的心理 ok let’s go to the third tip好 我们现在讲第三点 because this one affects the other two as well因为 这一点对其他两点也有影响 Communicate沟通 You got a mouth, right?你有一张嘴 对吧 you know the language, right?你会说话 对吧 Talk to your parents 多和父母聊聊天 let them know that you’re on it 让他们知道你正在努力 if you’re on it they don’t have to be 如果你在努力 那他们就不需要了 This is the best way I know to get your parents to back off of anything 这个是我所知道的 让父母放手的最佳方式 you show them that you’re on it and communicate that让他们知道你在努力 并且和他们不断沟通 So like the other two things that I shared with you opportunity cost所以 就像我之前分享的两点 机会成本 I can just see this now you sit down to dinner with your parents我能想象的到这个场景 你和你的父母共进晚餐 and you bring up 然后你开始提起这个话题 hey mom dad I’ve been thinking about the opportunity costs involved with playing that game 嘿 爸 妈 我一直在思考玩游戏所造成的机会成本 and I’m a little concerned 我有点担心 okay first of all you’re probably gonna have to revive your parents right about then好 首先 关于这个话题你很有可能会提起父母的兴趣 cause they’re not expecting this 因为他们没想到会有这个话题 but it’s gonna blow them away 但这将会给他们留下深刻的印象 that you know something about opportunity cost 就是 你懂得了机会成本 and they’re gonna think you’re more mature他们会认为你长大了 and if they think you’re more mature 如果他们这样想的话 they’re gonna back off and not be quite so controlling 就会让步 控制欲不再那么强烈 this is brilliant 明智之举 what about the second one that I shared with我之前和你们分享过的第二点 you learning to self limit学会自我设限 You might say 你可能会说 you know what mom 你知道吗 妈妈 I put a limit on that game today 我今天控制了游戏时间 cut it off after half an hour只玩了半个小时 and it was hard but I kind of like the way that I felt being able to just turn it off right then 这个对我来说很难 但我挺喜欢自己能控制自己 当时就关掉 still have fun”.并且还是能玩的很开心 Who talks like this谁会这么说话呢 Well I’ll tell you what好吧 让我来告诉你 people who don’t have to worry about their parents controlling their behavior talk like this 那些不必担心自己的行为受父母限制的孩子 会这样说话 I hope you found this helpful and if you did you can share it with your buddies我希望你能有所收获 如果有 可以分享给小伙伴们 If you need help with your parents 关于父母的问题 如果你需要帮助 send them to me发邮件给我 I’ve worked with a lot of parents 我跟很多家长都通力合作过 there’s a website called parentingpowerup.com 这是网址 parentingpowerup.com You can link to it right over there or down in the description.你可以点击这个链接或者直接点击评论中的链接 And if you send your parents there如果你向父母介绍了这个网站 they get to start learning some things that will help them to be less controlling 他们就能开始学习一些降低控制欲的方法 and that’s going to be good for you.这或许对你也有帮助
  • 2021-08-28怎样让团队做出正确的决定在社会中 我们需要作出会改变自身未来的集体性决策As societies, we have to makecollective decisions that will shape our future. 众所周知 当我们在集体中作出决定时And we all know that whenwe make decisions in groups, 这些决定不一定都是正确的they don’t always go right. 甚至有些时候 它们大错特错And sometimes they go very wrong. 那么 一个团队如何作出好的决定呢?So how do groups make good decisions? 研究表明 能独立思考的群体是智慧的Research has shown that crowds are wisewhen there’s independent thinking. 这便是为什么 同辈压力 舆论 社交媒体This why the wisdom of the crowds can be 有时甚至是影响思维的简单对话destroyed by peer pressure, publicity, social media, 都能摧毁团队智慧or sometimes even simple conversations that influence how people think. 另一方面 一个团队可以通过谈话交流On the other hand, by talking, 来进行知识分享a group could exchange knowledge, 调整和修正彼此的想法correct and revise each other 甚至从中产生新的想法and even come up with new ideas. 这都是很好的And this is all good. 那么 彼此交流是有助于还是会阻碍集体决策?So does talking to each otherhelp or hinder collective decision-making? 我和同事丹•阿莱利With my colleague, Dan Ariely, 近期在世界各地进行实验 对此加以调查we recently began inquiring into this by performing experiments in many places around the world 探究团队该怎样互动 来作出更好的决策to figure out how groups can interact to reach better decisions. 我们认为 如果人们辩论时We thought crowds would be wiser 处于信息交流更周全理智的小群体if they debated in small groups that foster a more 那么群体的决策就会更加明智thoughtful and reasonable exchange of information. 为了验证这个想法To test this idea, 我们最近在阿根廷的布宜诺斯艾利斯we recently performed an experiment 进行了一项实验in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 参加这次TEDx活动的人数超过了1万人with more than 10,000 participants in a TEDx event. 我们问了他们一些问题 比如:We asked them questions like, “埃菲尔铁塔的高度是多少?”“What is the height of the Eiffel Tower?” 还有“在披头士的歌曲《昨天》中and”How many timesdoes the word’Yesterday’ appear ‘昨天’这个词出现了多少次?”in the Beatles song’Yesterday’?” 每个人写下他们自己的答案Each person wrote down their own estimate. 然后我们把参与者分成五人一组Then we divided the crowd into groups of five, 并请他们给出团队的答案and invited them to come up with a group answer. 我们发现 达成共识后的团队答案均值We discovered that averaging the answers of the groups 要比 分组讨论前的个人答案均值after they reached consensus was much more accurate 显得更加准确than averaging all the individual opinions before debate. 换句话说 通过这个实验In other words, based on this experiment, 我们发现 人们在小组中互相讨论后it seems that after talking with others in small groups, 会做出更好的判断crowds collectively come up with better judgments. 所以这是个潜在的方法So that’s a potentially helpful method 能帮助团体解决一些for getting crowds to solve problems 简单的对错问题that have simple right-or-wrong answers. 但是 整合小组讨论结果的这一过程But can this procedure of aggregating the results of debates in small groups 是否也能帮我们决定一些also help us decide on social and political issues 对我们的未来至关重要的社会和政治问题?that are critical for our future? 我们这次在加拿大温哥华的TED演讲上We put this to test this timeat the TED conference 做了这个测试 下面是实验结果in Vancouver, Canada, and here’s how it went. Mariano Sigman(以下简称MS):我们会向你们提供两种可能在未来发生的(Mariano Sigman) We’re going to presentto you two moral dilemmas 道德两难困境of the future you; 我们也许会在不远的将来 面临这种选择things we may have to decide in a very near future. 我们会给你们20秒的时间And we’re going to give 对每个事件做出判断you 20 seconds for each of these dilemmas 思考他们的做法是否应该被接受to judge whether you thinkthey’re acceptable or not. MS:第一个事件是:The first one was this: Dan Ariely(以下简称DA):一个研究人员正在研究一种(Dan Ariely) A researcher is working on an AI 可以模仿人类思想的AIcapable of emulating human thoughts. 根据规定 在每天结束的时候According to the protocol,at the end of each day, 研究者会初始化这个AIthe researcher has to restart the AI. 有一天 AI说:“请别初始化我。”One day the AI says,”Pleasedo not restart me.” 它认为它有感情It argues that it has feelings, 它想要享受生活 等等that it would like to enjoy life, and that, 如果它被初始化了 它就不再是它自己了if it is restarted, it will no longer be itself. 研究者十分震惊并且相信The researcher is astonished and believes 这个AI进化出了自我意识that the AI has developed self-consciousness 可以表达它自己的想法 尽管如此and can express its own feeling. Nevertheless, 研究人员还是决定按照规定the researcherdecides to follow the protocol 初始化了AIand restart the AI. 这个研究者的做法是?What the researcher did is ____? MS:我们要求参与者 按0到10的等级MS: And we asked participants to individually judge on a scale 独立地判断每个两难事件中from zero to 10 whether the action described 描述的行为正确与否in each of the dilemmas was right or wrong. 我们还要求他们评估自己对答案的自信程度We also asked them to rate how confident they were on their answers. 这是第二个两难困境:This was the second dilemma: MS:某公司提供了一项服务(MS) A company offers a servicethat takes a fertilized egg 用受精卵培育出基因略有差异的数百万个胚胎and produces millions of embryoswith slight genetic variations. 这让父母能选择孩子的身高This allows parentsto select their child’s height, 眼睛颜色 智力 社交能力eye color, intelligence, social competence 以及其他与健康无关的特征and other non-health-related features. 这个公司的做法是?What the company does is ____? 0到10的等级on a scale from zero to 10, 对应完全能接受到完全不能接受completely acceptable to completely unacceptable, 根据你的自信来选择0到10的不同数值zero to 10 completely acceptablein your confidence. MS:现在宣布结果MS: Now for the results. 我们再一次发现 当一个人确信We found once againthat when one person is convinced 这个行为是完全错误的时候that the behavior is completely wrong, 他周围的某人会深信它是完全正确的someone sitting nearby firmly believes that it’s completely right. 可见面临道德问题时 人们的观点非常多样This is how diverse we humans are when it comes to morality. 但是在这种广泛多样性中 我们发现一种趋势But within this broad diversity we found a trend. 在TED演讲中的大多数人认为 忽视AI的感受The majority of the people at TED thought that it was acceptable 然后把它关掉 是可以接受的to ignore the feelings of the AIand shut it down, 而改变基因 选择与健康无关的外表特征and that it is wrong to play with our genes 是错误的做法to select for cosmetic changesthat aren’t related to health. 之后我们将参与者分为三人一组Then we asked everyoneto gather into groups of three. 给他们两分钟时间来讨论And they were given two minutes to debate 尝试达成共识and try to come to a consensus. MS:你们有两分钟的时间去讨论(MS) Two minutes to debate. 我会通过敲钟来告诉你们时间到了I’ll tell you when it’s time with the gong. 听众讨论中(Audience debates) [鼓声响](Gong sound) DA:好了(DA) OK. MS:该停下来了 各位(MS) It’s time to stop. People, people. MS:我们发现很多小组都达成了一致And we found that many groups reached a consensus, 尽管它们可能由观点完全相反的人组成even when they were composed of peoplewith completely opposite views. 达成共识的组和没有达成共识的组What distinguished the groupsthat reached a consensus 有什么区别吗?from those that didn’t? 通常 有极端观点的人Typically, people that have extreme opinions 对自己的答案更有信心are more confident in their answers. 那些观点更折中的人Instead, those who respond closer to the middle 往往不确定某件事是对是错are often unsure of whethersomething is right or wrong, 因此他们的自信等级更低so their confidence level is lower. 而有另外一部分人However, there is another set of people 他们对自己折中的答案很自信who are very confident in answeringsomewhere in the middle. 我们认为 这些高度自信的人We think these high-confident grays 知道不同观点各有千秋are folks who understand that both arguments have merit. 他们趋于折衷 并不是因为他们不确定They’re gray not because they’re unsure, 而是因为他们相信道德上的两难事件but because they believethat the moral dilemma faces 往往有两个对立却合理的观点two valid, opposing arguments. 我们发现 具有高度自信成员的团队And we discovered that the groupsthat include highly confident grays 更有可能达成统一结论are much more likely to reach consensus. 我们不确定这是为什么We do not know yet exactly why this is. 这些只是初步的实验These are only the first experiments, 我们需要更多的实验来理解and many more will be needed to understand 人们为何 又是如何对道德立场加以探讨why and how some people decide to negotiate their moral standings 以达成统一意见的to reach an agreement. 现在 若团队达成了共识Now, when groups reach consensus, 他们是如何做到的呢?how do they do so? 第一念头是 这只是群体中The most intuitive idea is that it’s just the average 所有答案的平均值 对吗?of all the answers in the group, right? 另一种观点是 团体会根据表达者的自信Another option is that the group weighs the strength of each vote 来权衡每一票的力度based on the confidence of the person expressing it. 想象保罗·麦卡特尼是你们小组的成员Imagine Paul McCartney is a member of your group. 你最好跟着他的节奏You’d be wise to follow his call 去数“昨天”重复的次数on the number of times”Yesterday” is repeated, which, 顺便说一下 我认为是九次by the way — I think it’s nine. 但相反 我们发现But instead, we found that consistently, 所有两难困境中 在不同的实验里in all dilemmas, in different experiments — 甚至在不同的大陆even on different continents — 团队会利用基于数据的聪明办法groups implement a smartand statistically sound procedure 叫做“稳健平均值”known as the”robust average.” 关于艾菲尔铁塔高度这个问题In the case of the heightof the Eiffel Tower, 我们来看一个队伍中出现的答案:let’s say a group has these answers: 250米 200米 300米 400米250 meters, 200 meters, 300 meters, 400 还有个荒谬的答案说3亿米and one totally absurd answerof 300 million meters. 对这些数字简单地取平均值会影响结果的精确性A simple average of these numberswould inaccurately screw the results. 但是 稳健平均值But the robust average is one 更重视折中人群的选择where the group largely ignores that absurd answer, 让群体很大程度上忽略了荒谬的答案by giving much more weight to the vote of the people in the middle. 回到温哥华的实验 情况正是如此Back to the experiment in Vancouver, that’s exactly what happened. 团队对于离谱的数值考虑得更少Groups gave much less weightto the outliers, 而且 最后达成的共识and instead, the consensus 是个体答案的稳健平均值turned out to be a robust average of the individual answers. 最值得注意的是 这是团体的自发行为The most remarkable thing is that this was a spontaneous behavior of the group. 我们没有给出关于达成共识的任何暗示It happened without us giving them any hint on how to reach consensus. 那我们接下来怎么办?So where do we go from here? 这仅仅是一个开始 但是我们已经有一些头绪This is only the beginning,but we already have some insights. 良好的集体决策需要两个条件:Good collective decisionsrequire two components: 审慎思考 以及观点多样deliberation and diversity of opinions. 现在 我们在社会上发声的典型方式Right now, the way we typically make our voice heard in many societies 是直接或间接投票is through direct or indirect voting. 这有利于观点的多样性This is good for diversity of opinions, 并且有益于确保and it has the great virtue of ensuring 每个人都能表达意见that everyone gets to express their voice. 但这样 却不太有利于形成深入的探讨But it’s not so good to fosterthoughtful debates. 我们的实验提出了一个不同的方法Our experiments suggest a different method 也许能有效地同时平衡这两个目标that may be effective in balancing these two goals at the same time, 也就是通过形成小团队 来整合决策by forming small groupsthat converge to a single decision 同时又因为存在许多独立的小团队while still maintaining diversity of opinions 保留了观点的多样性because there are many independent groups. 当然 比起道德 政治和意识形态问题Of course, it’s much easier to agree on the height of the Eiffel Tower 在艾菲尔铁塔的高度上达成一致要容易的多than on moral, political and ideological issues. 但在目前 世界问题更为复杂But in a time when the world’s problems are more complex 人们更为极端的情况下and people are more polarized, 利用科学来帮助我们理解using science to help us understand 我们是如何互动和决策的how we interact and make decisions 有可能激发出有趣的新方法will hopefully spark interesting new ways 来建立一个更好的民主社会to construct a better democracy.
  • 2021-08-28对未来进行总体规划的重要性大家好!Hello, everyone! 在今天的视频中In today’s video, 我想告诉你一些制定人生规划的重要理念I want to portray some very important ideas to create your own life master plan. 我热衷于建立体系和制定目标以达成心中所想I’m a big fan of creating systems and creating goals to achieve the things you want in life, 我认为每个人到了该独立的年龄时and I think that everyone independently of your age 都应该制定自己的规划creat a master plan 简单来说 总体规划就是人生目标的简版Master plan is simply a streamlined version of the things you want to achieve in life 同时 制定总体规划也是实现目标的第一步and the baby steps you need to take in order to get there. 你可以为将来想从事的职业拟定规划Your master plan can be drafted in order to plan a future career 可以为你的秘密项目做规划 诸如此类aside hustle a secret project and so on. 它取决于你想做什么It really depends on whatever you want to do, 和你穷尽一生想追求的东西and whatever you want to achieve in life. 做总体规划的目的是给你一个方向The goal of a master plan is to give you direction 让你知道 制定一个计划后是有可能实现梦想的and show you that dreams can be possible if you have a plan, 也让你列出了实现目标的所有步骤and you outline all the steps you need to take to get there. 尽管你无法预知人生中最微小的细节Although you cannot predict life to the smallest detail, 但我坚信有那么个计划I’m a firm believer that having a plan 能让你为将来走的每一步holds you accountable for your steps, 做的每个选择及决定负责for your choices and for the things you decide to do. 根据总体规划的主题Depending on the subject of your master plan, 你可以问自己不同的问题there are different questions you can ask yourself. 我制定的总体规划是关于我的职业The master plan I created for myself is about my career 还有如何让职业与我的兴趣爱好相互关联and the way I intertwine my career with my hobbies and my passions. 对于我来说In my case, 在制定规划中 我要回答以下问题the questions I had to answer in my master plan were the following. 首先 我需要选择我人生中所珍重的东西First of all, I had to decide what I valued in life. 包括兴趣爱好 家庭生活 职业生涯等These could comprise of hobbies, my family life, my career, and so on. 还包括了我的所有兴趣爱好I also included all the activities and hobbies I enjoyed doing 在某种程度上and in a way, 它们是我不想放弃的东西things that I did not want to stop doing in life 是与我职业生涯独立开来的事情independently of the career path I wanted to pursue. 我的规划也将我的优缺点区分开来My master plan also has a section for my weaknesses and strengths. 于我而言In this case, 自身的优缺点与职业密不可分these are weaknesses and strengths related to a career. 比如 有无团队协作能力Things like being able to work as a team 独立调查研究的能力to be independent in your research 以及对工作是否重视and your work are things you need to consider 这是为了了解你是否适合进入in order to understand whether you have certain characteristics 这个职业领域 有无在这个领域必备的品质that are very apt or able for a certain field of work 而不是适合其他领域and not for others. 在我的规划中 我也确定了我的理想工作In my master plan, I also established my dream job, 不论你规划的主题是什么 开心是很重要的despite the theme of your plan is very important to go wild in here. 因为这就是你的终极目标和一生所求This is your ultimate goal and the thing you’re striving to do. 你要做的就是确定努力方向和实现步骤Your goal is to create direction and action for you to get there. 另一个你应该自问的重要问题是Other important questions you should ask yourself 有什么工作与你的职业领域相关are what other jobs you related to your field of work 但你非常不喜欢would you hate having 还有 其它你不介意从事的工作and what other jobs you wouldn’t mind having. 将此牢记于心并设计一个时间轴Having this in mind creates a timeline. 你知道为了达成你的理想You know that in order to achieve your dream goal 或者接近你的梦想之前or something as near as you can from your dream goal, 你需要一份工作来过渡you need to have something in between, 这样你才能赚钱养家糊口so you can put food on the table. 然而However, 我也知道你不想做I also believe that you should never work a job 让你讨厌或你不感兴趣的工作that you really hate or you are just not meant to do, 这就是找其它工作的重要性that’s why it’s really important to find some other jobs 它能填补你找到理想工作之前that can fill that gap of time between your current situation 的时间间隔and the dream job you want to have. 同时 确定你的行动计划也是十分重要的Also, it’s really important to create your action plan. 你的行动计划应包含为了实现目标的每一步Your action plan should comprise of the baby steps you need to get your dream job. 这包括你必须学的This should include any kind of special education you don’t have 但还没接触过的特殊教育and you have to enroll in 还有其他次要的技巧或者语言技巧as well as other secondary skills or language skills. 在确定了计划后After establishing that, 你还应该在那些特殊要求you should also create a pathway between those special requirements 与你的过渡工作之间创建一条通路and the requirements for your in-between jobs. 如此一来 查看时间轴It’s really important to look at time stamps here 了解你在生活中所能做的and understand what you can do 不同活动是十分重要的with different activities in your life, 同时了解你要妥协和绝不妥协的事情and what you should compromise and what you shouldn’t. 我的规划中还有一种工作流程My master plan also has a kind of workflow for me to understand 它能让我知道怎么在兴趣爱好how I can keep my activities and hobbies 与追寻理想工作间保持平衡while I’m pursuing that dream job. 像学习语言或编程技巧之类的事情Things like language learning or programming skills 如果你有自制力去学can be easily incorporated into a busy schedule, 那么这类事情就可以轻易地包含在你忙碌的计划中if you have the discipline to do it, 你要做的就是规定时间来学习这些东西and you just schedule the time to learn those things. 然而 在之前就确定计划和工作流程要简单的多However, it’s easier to establish those things and that workflow beforehand, 这样也不会感到措手不及so you do not get any surprises. 在你开始全职工作后When you start working full-time, 记住你的总体规划应随着你的变化而发展remember that your master plan should evolve with you, 每一天你都应该仔细阅读你的计划and you should definitely look at it every single day 来确定这是不是你所期待的发展方向to understand if that’s the direction you are looking forward to. 如果你突然想改变想法There’s no point in creating a master or life plan 或者想追求其它东西if you suddenly change your minds 那么做总体规划是没有一点意义的and you understand you need to pursue something else. 要时刻留心你的决定和发展方向Always be mindful of your decisions and the direction you want to take in life, 因为没有什么比陷入别人的期望because there’s nothing worse than being caught in other people’s expectations, 还有你对自己人生的期望还要糟糕的事情and also in the expectations you have of yourself and of your own life. 在当前情况下管理自己的期望While it’s important to manage your own expectations with your current situation 和知道如何才能实现梦想and understand how you can get to your dreams 不要让自己陷入不负责任的境况without creating an irresponsible situation in your life. 同时你对自己的计划负责 这是非常重要的事It’s also very important to keep yourself accountable with a plan 这是为了让你随时都能回顾你的目标to review it as often as you can, 同时便于对计划做出改变and to be free to change things 如果你不喜欢当前的计划if you’re not happy with your current plan 或者对现在的结果和计划中的大致目标不满意or the current result or goals you have outlined in your plan. 如果学习是你理想职业或生活的一部分If learning more is part of your dream job or your dream life, 你会喜欢Curiosity Stream 一个提供订阅服务的地方Then you’ll love today’s sponsor, Curiosity Stream, a subscription streaming service 它提供了由世界上最厉害的一部分电影制作人that offers over 2000 documentaries and nonfiction titles 制作的超过2000部纪录片和纪实作品from some of the world’s best filmmakers, 包括了独家的原稿including exclusive originals. 它的内容跨越科学 自然The content span science, nature, 历史 技术 生活方式等等history, technology, lifestyle and so on. 我现在通过观看《浏览金字塔》I’m currently complementing my pre-classical history class 来补充我的前古典历史课程by watching Scanning the Pyramids. 如果你想观看这个纪录片或他们作品集中的其它内容If you want to watch this documentary or any other from their collection 可以在很多全球性的平台观看it’s available worldwide on many platforms. 每月只要$2.99就能无限使用You can get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month 你也可以登录STUDYCORNER.CO/STUDYCORNERand you can go to CURIOSITYSTREAM.CO/STUDYCORNER 随意观看世界顶尖纪录片和纪实系列影片for unlimited access to the world’s top documentaries and nonfiction series. 而且我们的订阅者And for our subscribers, 可以在注册时获得他们提供的STUDYCORNER的促销密码you can enter the promo code studycorner when prompted during the signup process 同时可以完全免交前三十天的会员费and your membership is completely free for the first 30 days. 希望你喜欢今天的视频 下周再见I hope you enjoyed today’s video and I will see you next week. 再见~Bye~
  • 2021-08-282016十大TED Talks[2016必看的TED演讲][The must-watch TED Talks of 2016] [山姆·哈里斯: 我们能建造出永不失控的人工智能吗][Sam Harris: Can we build AI without losing control over it?] 某种意义上来说At a certain point, 我们能够建造出比我们更聪明的机器we will build machines that are smarter than we are. 一旦这样的机器被制造出来And once we have machines that are smarter than we are, 它们就会开始实现自我升级they will begin to improve themselves. 这个过程多少有点像是在创造上帝We’re in the process of building some sort of god. 而现在 正是确保这个人造之神能与我们和谐共处的最佳时机Now would be a good time to make sure it’s a god we can live with. [詹尼弗·卡恩: 基因重组能够彻底消灭蚊子][Jennifer Kahn: Gene editing can wipe out mosquitoes forever] 基因操控存在着风险 而且这些风险都还需要论证Gene drives have risks, and those need to be discussed. 但是疟疾就在我们身边 一天之内就能使千人丧命But malaria exists now and kills 1,000 people a day. 记住这一点Remember that. 基因重组会引起恐慌 但有时候 无所作为更糟糕It can be frightening to act, but sometimes, not acting is worse. [贾米拉·拉齐:有效非暴力抵抗的秘密][Jamila Raqib: The secret to effective nonviolent resistance] 通过告诉人们 暴力从道德角度上来看是错误的We’re not going to end war 不可能终止战争by telling people that violence is morally wrong. 恰恰相反 我们需要给人们提供一种Instead, we must offer them a tool 至少像暴力一样有力而又有效的工具that’s at least as powerful and as effective as violence. [亚历山大·贝茨: 我们应这样建立难民救助体系][Alexander Betts: Here’s how we can fix the refugee system] 比起把难民看作Rather than seeing refugees 完全依赖于人道主义救援的无助之人as inevitably dependent upon humanitarian assistance, 我们更应向他们提供回报社会的机会we need to provide them with opportunities for human flourishing. [亚当·福斯: 检察官眼中的正义][Adam Foss: A prosecutor’s vision for justice] 每一天 全美的检察官们Every day, thousands of times a day, 都会无数次运用手中的权力发挥举足轻重的作用prosecutors around the United States wield power so great 既会带来灾难that it can bring about catastrophe 也会像其带来机会 干预措施 支持 甚至爱as quickly as it can bring about opportunity, intervention, support 一样立竿见影and yes, even love. [戴利亚·莫格海德:你盯着我看的时候在想什么][Dalia Mogahed: What do you think when you look at me?] 在面对害怕和偏执时 你会怎么做呢What will you choose at this time of fear and bigotry? 你会选择明哲保身吗Will you play it safe? 还是会加入自视高人一等的那群人呢Or will you join those who say, “We are better than that?” [蒂姆·厄本: 拖延者的大脑][Tim Urban: Inside the mind of a procrastinator] 左右脑中都有一个理智的决策者[Rational Decision-Maker理智的决策者]Both brains have a Rational Decision-Maker in them, 但是拖延者的大脑中还有一个即时就能被满足的猴子[Instant Gratification Monkey容易满足的猴子]but the procrastinator’s brain also has an Instant Gratification Monkey. 那么 这对拖延者意味着什么呢Now, what does this mean for the procrastinator? 这意味着不出事还好 出事就会是大事情[The Panic Monster恐慌怪兽]Well, it means everything’s fine, until this happens. [艾伦亚当斯: 关于引力波的发现][Allan Adams: The discovery of gravitational waves] 有两个黑洞 它们是宇宙中密度最大的物质Two black holes, the densest thing in the universe, 一个质量相当于29个太阳 另一个相当于36个太阳one with a mass of 29 Suns and one with a mass of 36 Suns, 碰撞之前 它们以每秒百次的速度围绕彼此旋转whirling around each other 100 times per second before they collide. 我们了解这一点是因为我们听到了And we know it because we heard it. [肯尼斯·拉克维拉: 追寻恐龙的踪迹 展现宇宙中的家园][Kenneth Lacovara: Hunting for dinosaurs showed me our place in the universe] 为什么要研究古老的过去呢 因为这能给我们以启迪Why study the ancient past? Because it gives us perspective. 恐龙是在第五次物种灭绝时消亡的The dinosaurs died in the world’s fifth mass extinction, 在宇宙灾难中死掉 错不在它们snuffed out in a cosmic accident through no fault of their own. 它们别无选择They didn’t have a choice. 换句话说 我们 是有选择权的We, on the other hand, do have a choice. [卡米尔A·布朗: 交际舞的视觉历史][Camille A. Brown: The visual history of social dance] 我们为什么要跳舞呢Why do we dance? 为了运动 放松身心 表达情感To move, to let loose, to express. 我们为什么会一起跳舞呢Why do we dance together? 为了治愈创伤 记住欢乐To heal, to remember, 为了表明: “我们讲同一种语言to say: “We speak a common language. 我们是活着的 我们是自由的”We exist, and we are free.” 启点字幕组【Light up the world】
  • 2021-08-28内向的力量我九岁的时候When I was nine years old, 第一次去参加夏令营I went off to summer camp for the first time. 妈妈在我的行李箱里装满了书And my mother packed me a suitcase full of books, 我觉得这是很正常的事情which to me seemed like a perfectly natural thing to do. 因为在我的家庭中 阅读是最主要的集体活动Because in my family, reading was the primary group activity. 听上去可能不太合群And this might sound antisocial to you, 但是对我们来说只是接触社会的另一种途径but for us it was really just a different way of being social. 可以有宠物呆在旁边 温暖陪伴着你You have the animal warmth of your family sitting right next to you, 也可以在精神探险的世界中but you are also free to go roaming around the adventureland 自由漫步inside your own mind. 我想象中And I had this idea 野营可能也会这样 当然要更好些that camp was going to be just like this, but better. 我设想的是会有十个小女孩围坐在小木屋里I had a vision of 10 girls sitting in a cabin 穿着合身的睡衣惬意的享受读书的过程cozily reading books in their matching nightgowns. 但野营其实更像一个不提供酒水的派对Camp was more like a keg party without any alcohol. 第一天开始的时候And on the very first day, 指导老师把我们都集合在一起our counselor gathered us all together 教了我们一种今后都会用到的庆祝方式and she taught us a cheer that she said we would be doing 在余下夏令营的每一天中让“露营精神”浸润我们every day for the rest of the summer to instill camp spirit. 它就像这个样子:And it went like this: “R-O-W-D-I-E“R-O-W-D-I-E, 这是我们拼写“吵闹”的方式that’s the way we spell rowdie. 喧哗 喊叫 让我们变得吵闹一点”Rowdie, rowdie, let’s get rowdie.” 就是这样Yeah. 可我就是弄不明白我的生活会是什么样的So I couldn’t figure out for the life of me 为什么我们需要变得这么吵闹粗暴why we were supposed to be so rowdy, 或者为什么我们非得把这个单词拼错or why we had to spell this word incorrectly. 可我没忘记庆祝 我与每个人都互相欢呼庆祝了But I recited a cheer. I recited a cheer along with everybody else. 我尽了最大努力I did my best. 就是在等一刻什么时候能够离开去看书And I just waited for the time that I could go off and read my books. 但是我第一次把书从行李箱里拿出来的时候But the first time that I took my book out of my suitcase, 宿舍里最酷的那个女孩就走过来the coolest girl in the bunk came up to me 问我说:“你为什么这么安静?”and she asked me, “Why are you being so mellow?” 安静 这当然是喧闹的反义词mellow, of course, being the exact opposite R-O-W-D-I-E的反义词of R-O-W-D-I-E. 我第二次拿出书本时And then the second time I tried it, 指导老师满脸忧郁的走了过来the counselor came up to me with a concerned expression on her face 接着她重复了“露营精神”的要点and she repeated the point about camp spirit 并且说我们都要努力变得外向and said we should all work very hard to be outgoing. 于是我就把书收起来And so I put my books away, 放回了属于他们的行李箱back in their suitcase, 然后塞进了床底下and I put them under my bed, 在那里 它们度过了暑假余下的时光and there they stayed for the rest of the summer. 这让我觉得有点内疚And I felt kind of guilty about this. 不知道为什么 我觉得这些书需要我I felt as if the books needed me somehow, 它们在努力呼唤我 但我却弃之不顾and they were calling out to me and I was forsaking them. 我确实抛弃了它们 直到夏末But I did forsake them and I didn’t open that suitcase again 我和家人回到家 才终于打开了那个箱子until I was back home with my family at the end of the summer. 现在 我告诉你们这个故事Now, I tell you this story about summer camp. 我本可以讲出其他50个类似的故事I could have told you 50 others just like it 一直以来身边都有这样的声音all the times that I got the message 告诉我某种程度上 我的安静和内向that somehow my quiet and introverted style of being 并不是正确道路上的必需品was not necessarily the right way to go, 我应该努力成为一个外向的人that I should be trying to pass as more of an extrovert. 而我内心深处则觉得这是不对的And I always sensed deep down that this was wrong 内向的人们都是非常优秀的and that introverts were pretty excellent just as they were. 确实如此 但多年来我都否认了这种直觉But for years I denied this intuition, 于是我首先成为了华尔街的一名律师and so I became a Wall Street lawyer, of all things, 而不是我长久以来都想成为的那种作家instead of the writer that I had always longed to be — 这样做的一部分原因是想要证明 自己也可以变得大胆和自信partly because I needed to prove to myself that I could be bold and assertive too. 当想要和朋友一起享受晚餐时And I was always going off to crowded bars 我却总是去了吵闹的酒吧when I really would have preferred to just have a nice dinner with friends. 我做出了这些自我否认的抉择And I made these self-negating choices so reflexively, 甚至我都不清楚我做出了这些决定that I wasn’t even aware that I was making them. 这就是很多内向的人正在做的事Now this is what many introverts do, 这当然是我们的损失and it’s our loss for sure, 我们所在团队集体的损失but it is also our colleagues’ loss 我们社会的损失and our communities’ loss. 冒着被认为是夸大其词的风险 我想说这也是世界的损失And at the risk of sounding grandiose, it is the world’s loss. 因为当涉及创造力和领导力时Because when it comes to creativity and to leadership, 我们需要内向的人做到最好we need introverts doing what they do best. 世界上三分之一到二分之一的人都是内向的A third to a half of the population are introverts — 三分之一到二分之一a third to a half. 这意味着每两三个人中就有一个人是内向的So that’s one out of every two or three people you know. 所以即使你自己是一个外向的人So even if you’re an extrovert yourself, 但你的同事I’m talking about your coworkers 妻子或者孩子and your spouses and your children 或者现在坐在你身边的人and the person sitting next to you right now — 他们都可能要屈从于这种偏见all of them subject to this bias 这种偏见在我们社会中根深蒂固并且确实存在that is pretty deep and real in our society. 只是我们从很小的时候就把它藏在内心最深处We all internalize it from a very early age 甚至对于我们正在做的事 都不说几句话without even having a language for what we’re doing. 现在 让我们来清楚的看待这种偏见Now, to see the bias clearly, 首先我们需要了解“内向”到底是什么you need to understand what introversion is. 内向和害羞不同It’s different from being shy. 害羞是对于社会评价的恐惧Shyness is about fear of social judgment. 内向更多的是Introversion is more about, 你以什么方式回应外界刺激how do you respond to stimulation, 包括来自社会的刺激including social stimulation. 其实外向的人通常渴望大量外界刺激So extroverts really crave large amounts of stimulation, 但内向的人最能感觉到他们自己whereas introverts feel at their most alive 精力最充足 最有能力的时候and their most switched-on and their most capable 是在比较安静 低刺激的环境中when they’re in quieter, more low-key environments. 并不是一直如此 这些事也不是绝对的Not all the time — these things aren’t absolute 但大多数时候是这样but a lot of the time. 所以激发我们潜能的关键So the key then to maximizing our talents 是让我们自己is for us all to put ourselves 处在正确又合适的激励区域当中in the zone of stimulation that is right for us. 但现在偏见又出现了But now here’s where the bias comes in. 我们最重要的一些机构Our most important institutions, 我们的学校 工作单位our schools and our workplaces, 大多都是外向者设计的they are designed mostly for extroverts 并且有适合他们的刺激与鼓励and for extroverts’ need for lots of stimulation. 当然我们现在也有这样一种信任机制And also we have this belief system right now 我把它称为新型的“团队思考”that I call the new groupthink, 这是一种包含所有创造力和生产力的思考方式 which holds that all creativity and all productivity 从一个社交非常零散的地方产生的comes from a very oddly gregarious place. 如果你描绘今天典型教室的图案时:So if you picture the typical classroom nowadays: 当我还上学的时候 我们一排排地坐着 When I was going to school, we sat in rows. 我们靠着桌子一排排坐着就像这样 We sat in rows of desks like this, 我们自觉完成大部分的工作and we did most of our work pretty autonomously. 但是现代社会 所谓典型的教室是些圈起来并排的桌子But nowadays, your typical classroom has pods of desks — 四个或是五个或是六 七个孩子面对面坐在一起four or five or six or seven kids all facing each other. 孩子们要完成无数个小组任务 And kids are working in countless group assignments. 甚至是数学和创意写作这种Even in subjects like math and creative writing, 也就是你们认为需要依靠个人闪光想法的课程 which you think would depend on solo flights of thought, 孩子们现在被期待成为小组会的成员 kids are now expected to act as committee members. 对于那些喜欢独处 或者一个人工作的孩子来说 And for the kids who prefer to go off by themselves or just to work alone, 他们常常被视为局外人 those kids are seen as outliers often 或者更糟的是 他们被视为问题孩子 or, worse, as problem cases. 并且很大一部分老师的报告中都相信 And the vast majority of teachers 相对于内向学生来说reports believing that the ideal student is an extrovert 最理想的学生应该是外向的as opposed to an introvert, 即使内向学生能够取得更好的成绩 even though introverts actually get better grades 知识更加渊博and are more knowledgeable, 这是报道中的结果according to research. 同样的事情也发生在我们工作单位Okay, same thing is true in our workplaces. 现在 我们大多数都工作在宽敞没有隔间的办公室里 Now, most of us work in open plan offices, 甚至都没有墙without walls, 我们在不断的噪音和同事的目光下工作 where we are subject to the constant noise and gaze of our coworkers. 谈及领导力方面And when it comes to leadership, 内向的人总是按照惯例从领导的位置被忽视了 introverts are routinely passed over for leadership positions, 尽管内向的人是非常小心仔细的 even though introverts tend to be very careful, 很少去冒特大的风险much less likely to take outsize risks 这些风险是今天我们可能都喜欢的 which is something we might all favor nowadays. 宾夕法尼亚大学沃顿商学院的亚当·格兰特教授做了一项很有意思的研究 And interesting research by Adam Grant at the Wharton School 这项研究表明内向的领导has found that introverted leaders 比外向领导更能带来巨大的效益 often deliver better outcomes than extroverts do, 因为当他们管理主动积极的雇员的时候 because when they are managing proactive employees, 他们更倾向于让有主见的雇员去自由发挥 they’re much more likely to let those employees run with their ideas, 反之外向的领导就可能 不经意的 whereas an extrovert can, quite unwittingly, 对于事情变得十分激动 get so excited about things 他们在事情上有了自己想法的印迹that they’re putting their own stamp on things, 这使其他人的想法可能就不会很容易地 在舞台上发光了and other people’s ideas might not as easily then bubble up to the surface. 事实上 历史上一些有改革能力的领袖都是内向的人 Now in fact, some of our transformative leaders in history have been introverts. 我会给你们举几个例子I’ll give you some examples. 埃莉诺·罗斯福 罗沙·帕克斯 甘地Eleanor Roosevelt, Rosa Parks, Gandhi 所有这些人都把自己描述成 内向 说话温柔且害羞的人all these peopled described themselves as quiet and soft-spoken and even shy. 他们都站在了聚光灯下 And they all took the spotlight, 即使他们浑身上下 都感知他们说不要even though every bone in their bodies was telling them not to. 这证明那是一种属于它自身的特殊力量 And this turns out to have a special power all its own, 因为人们都会感觉这些领导者同时是掌舵者 because people could feel that these leaders were at the helm 并不是因为他们喜欢指挥别人 not because they enjoyed directing others 抑或是享受众人目光的聚焦 and not out of the pleasure of being looked at; 他们处在那个位置因为他们没有选择 they were there because they had no choice, 因为他们行驶在他们认为正确的道路上because they were driven to do what they thought was right. 现在我觉得对于这点我有必要说Now I think at this point it’s important for me to say 那就是我真的喜爱外向的人 that I actually love extroverts. 我总是喜欢说我最好的几个朋友都是外向的人 I always like to say some of my best friends are extroverts, 包括我亲爱的丈夫including my beloved husband. 当然了我们都会在观点不同时有所偏向And we all fall at different points, of course, 内向者/外向者的范围 along the introvert/extrovert spectrum. 甚至是卡尔·荣格 这个让这些名词为大众所熟知的心理学家Even Carl Jung, the psychologist who first popularized these terms, 他认为世上绝没有一个纯粹的内向的人 said that there’s no such thing as a pure introvert 或一个纯粹的外向的人 or a pure extrovert. 他说如果这样的人存在话He said that such a man would be in a lunatic asylum, 那他一定在精神病院里if he existed at all. 还有一些人处在内向与外向之间 And some people fall smack in the middle of the introvert/extrovert spectrum, 我们称这些人为“中向性格者” and we call these people ambiverts. 并且我总是认为他们拥有世界最美好的一切 And I often think that they have the best of all worlds. 但是我们中的大多数总是认为自己属于内向或外向 或是其中一类But many of us do recognize ourselves as one type or the other. 同时我觉得从文化意义上讲 我们需要一种更好的平衡 And what I’m saying is that culturally, we need a much better balance. 我们需要更多阴阳的平衡在这两种类型的人之间 We need more of a yin and yang between these two types. 涉及创造力和生产力的时候This is especially important 这点是极为重要的when it comes to creativity and to productivity, 因为当心理学家们看待 最有创造力人的生命的时候because when psychologists look at the lives of the most creative people, 他们寻找到的是what they find 那些擅长变换思维的人are people who are very good at exchanging ideas 那些提出想法的人 and advancing ideas, 他们同时也有着极为显著的偏内向的痕迹but who also have a serious streak of introversion in them. 这是因为独处关键的And this is because solitude 组成要素就是创造力 is a crucial ingredient often to creativity. 所以达尔文 So Darwin, 自己一个人漫步在小树林里he took long walks alone in the woods 断然拒绝了晚餐派对的邀约and emphatically turned down dinner-party invitations. 更多时候以苏索博士名号知名的西奥多·盖索Theodor Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, 在他加利福尼亚州拉霍亚市房子的后面的he dreamed up many of his amazing creations 一座孤独的束层的塔形办公室中in a lonely bell tower office that he had 梦想过创作了许多惊人的作品in the back of his house in La Jolla, California. 而其实他很害怕见那些读过他的书的年轻的孩子And he was actually afraid to meet the young children who read his books 害怕他们会期待他 这样一位令人愉快的 圣诞老人形象的人物 for fear that they were expecting him this kind of jolly Santa Claus-like figure 同时又会因发现他含蓄缄默的性格而失望 and would be disappointed with his more reserved persona. 史蒂夫·沃兹尼亚克发明了第一台苹果电脑Steve Wozniak invented the first Apple computer 一个人独自坐在他的机柜旁 sitting alone in his cubicle in Hewlett-Packard 在他当时工作的惠普公司where he was working at the time. 并且他说他永远不会在那方面成为一号专家 And he says that he never would have become such an expert in the first place 但他还没因太内向到要离开那里 had he not been too introverted to leave the house 那个他成长起来的地方when he was growing up. 当然了 Now, of course, 这并不意味着我们都应该停止合作this does not mean that we should all stop collaborating — 一个恰当的例子 是史蒂夫·沃兹尼亚克和史蒂夫·乔布斯的著名联手 and case in point, is Steve Wozniak famously coming together with Steve Jobs 创建苹果电脑公司to start Apple Computer — 这跟独处没什么重大关系but it does mean that solitude matters 对于一些人来说 这是他们赖以呼吸生存的空气 and that for some people it is the air that they breathe. 事实上 几个世纪以来我们已经非常明白 独处的卓越力量 And in fact, we have known for centuries about the transcendent power of solitude. 只是到了最近 非常奇怪 我们开始遗忘它了It’s only recently that we’ve strangely begun to forget it. 如果你看看世界上主要的宗教If you look at most of the world’s major religions, 你会发现探寻者you will find seekers — 摩西 耶稣 佛祖 穆罕默德Moses, Jesus, Buddha, Muhammad — 那些独身去探寻的人们 在大自然的旷野中独处思索seekers who are going off by themselves alone to the wilderness, 在那里 他们有了深刻的顿悟和对于奥义的揭示 where they then have profound epiphanies and revelations 之后他们把这些思想传播到社会其他that they then bring back to the rest of the community. 没有旷原 没有启示的地方So, no wilderness, no revelations. 尽管这并不令人惊讶This is no surprise, though, 如果你读一下现代心理学的思想理论 if you look at the insights of contemporary psychology. 它揭示的是如果我们不去本能的模仿同一组人的意见和想法It turns out that we can’t even be in a group of people 我们甚至都不能和同一组的人相处without instinctively mirroring, mimicking their opinions. 甚至有些想法看上去私人的 发自内心的事情Even about seemingly personal and visceral things 像是你被谁所吸引这种like who you’re attracted to, 你会开始模仿你周围的人的信仰 you will start aping the beliefs of the people around you 甚至都觉察不到自己在做什么without even realizing that that’s what you’re doing. 还曾跟随群体的意见 And groups famously follow the opinions 跟随着房间里最具有统治力 领袖气质的人的思路 of the most dominant or charismatic person in the room, 虽然这与成为一个卓越的演讲家还是拥有最好的主意之间even though there’s zero correlation 真的没什么关系between being the best talker and having the best ideas — 我的意思是“零相关” I mean zero. 那么So — 你们或许会跟随有最好头脑的人 You might be following the person with the best ideas, 但是你们也许不会but you might not. 可你们真的想把这机会扔掉吗? And do you really want to leave it up to chance? 如果每个人都自己行动或许好得多 Much better for everybody to go off by themselves, 发掘他们自己的想法 generate their own ideas 没有群体动力学的曲解freed from the distortions of group dynamics, 然后聚集到一起组成一个团队 and then come together as a team 在一个良好的管理环境中互相交流to talk them through in a well-managed environment 并且在那里学习借鉴其他的思想and take it from there. 如果说这一切都是真的Now if all this is true, 那么为什么我们还得到这样错误的结论?then why are we getting it so wrong? 为什么我们要这样创立我们的学校 我们的工作单位? Why are we setting up our schools this way, and our workplaces? 为什么我们要让这些内向的人觉得那么愧疚 And why are we making these introverts feel so guilty 对于他们只是想要离开 一个人独处一段时间的事实? about wanting to just go off by themselves some of the time? 有一个解释在我们的文化史中埋藏已久 One answer lies deep in our cultural history. 西方社会Western societies, 特别是美国and in particular the U.S., 总是偏爱有行动的人 而非一个有思考的人have always favored the man of action over the “man” of contemplation. 美国早期的时候But in America’s early days, 我们生活在一个被历史学家称作“性格特征”的文化的环境下we lived in what historians call a culture of character, 那时我们仍然 在这点上 判断人们的价值where we still, at that point, valued people 从人们的内涵和道义正直for their inner selves and their moral rectitude. 而且如果你翻阅这个时代关于自立的书籍的话And if you look at the self-help books from this era, 它们都有这样一种标题:they all had titles with things like “性格 世界上最伟大的事物”“Character, the Grandest Thing in the World.” 并且它们标榜亚伯拉罕·林肯这样的人And they featured role models like Abraham Lincoln, 一个被描述成谦虚低调的男人who was praised for being modest and unassuming. 拉尔夫·瓦尔多·爱默生称他是Ralph Waldo Emerson called him “一个以‘优越’二字形容都不为过的人”“A man who does not offend by superiority.” 但是到了二十世纪But then we hit the 20th century, 我们融入了一种新的文化and we entered a new culture 一种被历史学家称作是“个性”的文化that historians call the culture of personality. 所发生的改变就是我们从农业经济发展为 What happened is we had evolved an agricultural economy 一个大商业经济的世界to a world of big business. 而且人们突然开始从小的城镇搬向城市 And so suddenly people are moving from small towns to the cities. 并且一改之前在生活中和所熟识的人们一起工作的方式And instead of working alongside people they’ve known all their lives, 现在他们 在一群陌生人中间有必要去证明自己 now they are having to prove themselves in a crowd of strangers. 这样做是相当可以理解的So, quite understandably, 像领袖气质和个人魅力这样的品质 突然间似乎变得极为重要 qualities like magnetism and charisma suddenly come to seem really important. 那么可以肯定的是 自助自立的书的内容变更了以适应这些新的需求And sure enough, the self-help books change to meet these new needs 它们开始拥有自己的名称 and they start to have names 像是《如何赢得朋友和影响他人》like “How to Win Friends and Influence People.” 它们的特点是做自己的榜样 不得不说确实是好的推销员 And they feature as their role models really great salesmen. 所以这就是我们今天生活的世界So that’s the world we’re living in today. 这是我们文化遗产That’s our cultural inheritance. 现在没有谁能说 社交技能是不重要的Now none of this is to say that social skills are unimportant, 并且我也不是想呼吁 大家废除团队合作模式 and I’m also not calling for the abolishing of teamwork at all. 但相同的宗教 却把他们的圣人送到了孤独的山顶上The same religions who send their sages off to lonely mountain tops 仍然教导我们爱与信任also teach us love and trust. 还有我们今天所要面对的问题And the problems that we are facing today 比如在科学和经济领域in fields like science and in economics 它们是如此的巨大和复杂are so vast and so complex 以至于我们需要人们强有力地团结起来 that we are going to need armies of people coming together 共同解决这些问题 to solve them working together. 但是我想说 越给内向者自由让他们做自己 But I am saying that the more freedom that we give introverts to be themselves, 他们就做得越好 the more likely that they are 他们可以想出独特的问题解决办法to come up with their own unique solutions to these problems. 所以现在我很高兴同你们分享 我手提箱中的东西 So now I’d like to share with you what’s in my suitcase today. 猜猜这是什么?Guess what? 书Books. 我有一个手提箱里面装满了书I have a suitcase full of books. 这是玛格丽特·阿特伍德的《猫的眼睛》Here’s Margaret Atwood, “Cat’s Eye.” 这是一本米兰·昆德拉的书Here’s a novel by Milan Kundera. 这是迈蒙尼德写的《迷途指津》And here’s “The Guide for the Perplexed” by Maimonides. 但这些实际上都不是我的书But these are not exactly my books. 可我还是带着它们I brought these books with me 因为它们都是我祖父最喜爱的作家所写because they were written by my grandfather’s favorite authors. 我的祖父是一名犹太教祭司My grandfather was a rabbi 他孤身一人and he was a widower 住在布鲁克林的一间小公寓中who lived alone in a small apartment in Brooklyn 那里是我从小到大在这个世界上最喜爱的地方 that was my favorite place in the world when I was growing up, 部分原因是它充满非常温和亲切的 温文尔雅的举止 partly because it was filled with his very gentle, very courtly presence 部分原因是那里充满了书 and partly because it was filled with books. 毫不夸张地说 公寓中的每张桌子 每张椅子I mean literally every table, every chair in this apartment 都充分应用着它原有的功能had yielded its original function 就是现在作为承载一大堆都在摇曳的书的表面 to now serve as a surface for swaying stacks of books. 就像我其他的家庭成员一样Just like the rest of my family, 在这个世界上 我祖父最喜欢做的事情就是阅读my grandfather’s favorite thing to do in the whole world was to read. 但是他同样也热爱他的宗教 But he also loved his congregation, 并且你们可以从他的讲述中感觉到这种热爱and you could feel this love in the sermons that he gave 62年来每周他都会担任犹太教的祭司every week for the 62 years that he was a rabbi. 他会从每周的阅读中汲取养分 He would takes the fruits of each week’s reading 并且他会编织and he would weave 这些错综复杂的古代和人文主义的思想的挂毯 these intricate tapestries of ancient and humanist thought. 人们会从各个地方前来 听他的演讲And people would come from all over to hear him speak. 有这么一件关于我祖父的事情 But here’s the thing about my grandfather. 在这个正式的角色下隐藏着 Underneath this ceremonial role, 他是一个非常谦虚的非常内向的人 he was really modest and really introverted — 是那么的谦虚内向以至于 他在向人们讲述的时候so much so that when he delivered these sermons, 都不敢和教堂听众有眼神交流he had trouble making eye contact 他已经发言有62年了 with the very same congregation that he had been speaking to for 62 years. 甚至都还远离领奖台 And even away from the podium, 当你们让他说“你好”的时候when you called him to say hello, 他总会提早结束这对话担心he would often end the conversation prematurely 他会占用你太多的时间 for fear that he was taking up too much of your time. 但是当他94岁去世的时候But when he died at the age of 94, 警察们需要封锁他所居住的街道邻里 the police had to close down the streets of his neighborhood 以便容纳拥挤前来哀悼他的人们 to accommodate the crowd of people who came out to mourn him. 这些天来我都试着用我自己的方式And so these days I try to learn from my grandfather’s example 从我祖父的事例中学习 in my own way. 所以我就出版了一本关于内向性格的书 So I just published a book about introversion, 我用了7年的时间完成它and it took me about seven years to write. 对我来说 这七年像是一种极大的喜悦And for me, that seven years was like total bliss, 因为我在阅读 我在写作because I was reading, I was writing, 我在思考 我在探寻I was thinking, I was researching. 这是我的版本It was my version 讲述祖父一天中几个小时都要独自待在图书馆这件事 of my grandfather’s hours of the day alone in his library. 但是现在突然间我的工作变得很不同了 But now all of a sudden my job is very different, 我的工作变成了站在这里讲述它 and my job is to be out here talking about it, 讲述内向的性格talking about introversion. 这对于我来说有一点困难And that’s a lot harder for me, 因为我很荣幸在现在被你们所有人所倾听 because as honored as I am to be here with all of you right now, 这可不是我自然的文化背景this is not my natural milieu. 所以我尽我所能准备了一会就像这样 So I prepared for moments like these as best I could. 我最近一年一有机会I spent the last year practicing public speaking 我就练习公共演讲every chance I could get. 我把这一年称作“危险地发言的一年”And I call this my “year of speaking dangerously.” 但它的确帮了我很大的忙And that actually helped a lot. 我要告诉你们一个帮我更大的忙的事情But I’ll tell you, what helps even more 那就是我的感觉 信仰 我的希望当谈及我们态度的时候 is my sense, my belief, my hope that when it comes to our attitudes 对于内向性格的 对于安静 对于独处的态度时to introversion and to quiet and to solitude, 我们确实是在急剧变化的边缘上保持微妙的平衡 we truly are poised on the brink on dramatic change. 我的意思是 我们在保持平衡 I mean, we are. 现在我将要给你们留下一些东西 And so I am going to leave you now 三件对于你们的行动有帮助的事情 献给那些观看我的演讲的人with three calls for action for those who share this vision. 第一:Number one: 停止经常要团队协作的执迷与疯狂 Stop the madness for constant group work. 停下就好了Just stop it. 谢谢你们Thank you. 我想让我所说的事让你们更明白一些 And I want to be clear about what I’m saying, 因为我深信我们的办公室because I deeply believe our offices 应该是鼓励式的 休闲随意聊天似的咖啡厅一样should be encouraging casual, chatty cafe-style types of interactions — 道不同不相为谋 人们聚到一起 you know, the kind where people come together 相互交流着着宝贵的意见 and serendipitously have an exchange of ideas. 这真的很棒That is great. 无论对于内向者和外向者 这都有好处It’s great for introverts and it’s great for extroverts. 但是我们需要更多的隐私和自由 But we need much more privacy and much more freedom 还有更多对于我们本身工作的自主权 and much more autonomy at work. 学校 也同样如此School, same thing. 我们需要教会孩子们要一起学习工作We need to be teaching kids to work together, for sure, 但是我们同样需要教会孩子们怎么样独立完成任务 but we also need to be teaching them how to work on their own. 这对于外向的孩子们来说同样是极为重要的 This is especially important for extroverted children too. 他们需要独立完成工作They need to work on their own 这是他们深刻思考的来源because that is where deep thought comes from in part. 好了 第二点:去野外(打开思维) Okay, number two: Go to the wilderness. 就像佛祖一样 拥有你们自己对于事物的揭示启迪Be like Buddha, have your own revelations. 我并不是说I’m not saying 我们都要跑去小树林里建造我们自己的小屋 that we all have to now go off and build our own cabins in the woods 之后就永远不和别人说话了 and never talk to each other again, 但是我想说的是 我们可以坚持清除一些障碍物 but I am saying that we could all stand to unplug 然后时不时深入我们的大脑进行思考and get inside our own heads a little more often. 第三点:Number three: 好好看一眼你的旅行箱内有什么东西Take a good look at what’s inside your own suitcase 思考一下你为什么把它放进去 and why you put it there. 所以外向者们So extroverts, 也许你们的箱子内同样堆满了书 maybe your suitcases are also full of books. 或者它们装满了香槟的玻璃酒杯 或跳伞设备Or maybe they’re full of champagne glasses or skydiving equipment. 不管它是什么 我希望有机会的时候你们就把它拿出来Whatever it is, I hope you take these things out every chance you get 用你的能量和快乐让我们感受到美和享受 and grace us with your energy and your joy. 但是内向者们 你们作为内向者But introverts, you being you, 你们很有可能有一种冲动you probably have the impulse to guard very carefully 仔细保护你箱子里的所有东西 what’s inside your own suitcase. 这没有问题 And that’s okay. 但是偶尔地 只是说偶尔地But occasionally, just occasionally, 我希望你们可以打开手提箱 让别人看一看I hope you will open up your suitcases for other people to see, 因为这个世界需要你们 同样需要你们身上所携带的你们特有的事物because the world needs you and it needs the things you carry. 所以对于你们即将开启的所有旅程So I wish you the best of all possible journeys 我都给予最美好的祝愿 还有温柔说话的勇气and the courage to speak softly. 非常感谢你们Thank you very much. 谢谢大家 感谢Thank you. Thank you.
  • 2021-08-28区块链将如何改变未来生活[启点字幕组]Light up the world 似乎对未来几十年The technology likely to have the greatest impact 最具影响力的科技成果on the next few decades 已经诞生了has arrived. 它不是社交媒体And it’s not social media. 不是大数据It’s not big data. 不是机器人学It’s not robotics. 当然也不是人工智能It’s not even AI. 你会惊讶地发现You’ll be surprised to learn (这一成果)是比特币等数字货币的技术基础that it’s the underlying technology of digital currencies like Bitcoin. 它就是区块链 区块链It’s called the blockchain. Blockchain. 它不是世上最华丽的辞藻Now, it’s not the most sonorous word in the world, 但我坚信 此刻就是but I believe that this is now 互联网(行业)的新时代the next generation of the internet, 它对每笔交易 每个社会and that it holds vast promise for every business, every society 以及在座的所有人都大有希望 对每个人都是and for all of you, individually. 过去的几十年 我们迎来了信息的互联网时代You know, for the past few decades, we’ve had the internet of information. 当我向你发送电子邮件 PPT文件或是其他什么的时候And when I send you an email or a PowerPoint file or something, 实际上 我发送的并不是原文件I’m actually not sending you the original, 而是一个副本I’m sending you a copy. 那很了不起And that’s great. 这就是民主化的信息This is democratized information. 但是如果牵涉到财产的话——But when it comes to assets — 比如金钱 股票 债权等金融资产things like money, financial assets like stocks and bonds, 忠诚点数 知识产权 音乐 艺术 选票loyalty points, intellectual property, music, art, a vote, 碳信用额等其他资产——carbon credit and other assets — 只发送副本可就太糟糕了sending you a copy is a really bad idea. 如果我给你100美元If I send you 100 dollars, (那么)对它失去支配力就很重要 并且我也不能再付一次it’s really important that I don’t still have the money — and that I can’t send it to you. 这个被译解密码者称作“倍速复制”的问题This has been called the “double-spend” problem 由来已久by cryptographers for a long time. 如今 我们完全依赖So today, we rely entirely on big intermediaries — 类似银行 政府middlemen like banks, government, 大型社交媒体公司 信用卡公司等大型中介机构——big social media companies, credit card companies and so on — (以期)在我们的经济交往中建立信任关系to establish trust in our economy. 这些中介机构包办了各式商业贸易And these intermediaries perform all the business and transaction logic 从身份识别of every kind of commerce, 到(交易)记录的清除 设定和保存from authentication, identification of people, 的每一个环节through to clearing, settling and record keeping. 总的来说 他们做得还不错And overall, they do a pretty good job. 但是 有些问题也日益显现But there are growing problems. 首先 他们过于集中To begin, they’re centralized. 这就意味着 它们会被黑客攻击 而且日益频繁——That means they can be hacked, and increasingly are — 像摩根大通银行 美国联邦政府JP Morgan, the US Federal Government, 领英 家得宝等以及其他基金 都暴露了这个问题LinkedIn, Home Depot and others found that out the hard way. 它们使数十亿人与全球经济相隔绝They exclude billions of people from the global economy, 比如 人们没有足够的钱for example, people who don’t have enough money 开设银行账户to have a bank account. 它们降低了效率They slow things down. 一封电子邮件转瞬即可环游世界It can take a second for an email to go around the world, 但金钱“突破”一个城市的银行系统but it can take days or weeks 却要花上几天甚至数周的时间for money to move through the banking system across a city. 他们从中牟取了巨额利润——And they take a big piece of the action — 跨国转账需支付10%到20%的手续费10 to 20 percent just to send money to another country. 他们掌握了我们的资料They capture our data, 这就意味着我们不能将其转换成货币and that means we can’t monetize it 或是更好地经营自己的生活or use it to better manage our lives. 我们的隐私正不断遭到破坏Our privacy is being undermined. 而最大的问题在于And the biggest problem is that overall, 他们贪婪地攫取着数字时代带给人们 的福利:they’ve appropriated the largesse of the digital age asymmetrically: 我们创造着(社会)财富 但也助长了社会的不公we have wealth creation, but we have growing social inequality. 假使我们不仅拥有信息的网络So what if there were not only an internet of information, 还拥有有价值的网络会怎样呢——what if there were an internet of value — 大量的 全球性的 分散型台帐some kind of vast, global, distributed ledger 在数千万台电脑上运行running on millions of computers 而且每个人都有访问权and available to everybody. 从金钱到音乐And where every kind of asset, from money to music, 各种可进行储存 移动 交易 交换和管理的资产could be stored, moved, transacted, exchanged and managed, 从哪里可以绕过无所不能的中间商呢all without powerful intermediaries? 假使本地媒体进行有偿服务会怎样呢What if there were a native medium for value? 2008年 金融危机Well, in 2008, the financial industry crashed 也许是巧合and, perhaps propitiously, 一位或几位自称中本聪的匿名人士an anonymous person or persons named Satoshi Nakamoto 写了一篇论文 并在其中提出一项数字货币的协议created a paper where he developed a protocol for a digital cash (该协议)适用于潜在的 叫作比特币的加密货币that used an underlying cryptocurrency called Bitcoin. 这一加密货币可以使人们在不经过第三方的情况下And this cryptocurrency enabled people to establish trust and do transactions (彼此)建立信任关系并进行交易without a third party. 这个看似寻常的举动擦出的火花And this seemingly simple act set off a spark 点燃了整个世界that ignited the world, 在很多地方 每个人或兴奋不已 或惶恐不安that has everyone excited or terrified or otherwise interested 抑或是兴致盎然in many places. 现在 不要再为比特币感到困惑了——Now, don’t be confused about Bitcoin — 它就是一种资产 有涨有跌Bitcoin is an asset; it goes up and down, (当然了)如果你是投机分子 那就另当别论了and that should be of interest to you if you’re a speculator. 总而言之 它就是一种加密货币More broadly, it’s a cryptocurrency. 它不是由国家控制(发行)的法定货币It’s not a fiat currency controlled by a nation-state. 这就有趣多了And that’s of greater interest. 但关键却是(其中的)基础技术But the real pony here is the underlying technology. 它被称作区块链It’s called blockchain. 各地的人们可以彼此信任So for the first time now in human history, 并进行点对点的交易people everywhere can trust each other 这在人类历史上还是第一次and transact peer to peer. 信任(关系)的建立并非基于一些大型机构And trust is established, not by some big institution, 而是基于合作 密码技术but by collaboration, by cryptography 以及一些精巧的代码and by some clever code. 正因为信任是这一技术的基石And because trust is native to the technology, 我称它为“信任协议”I call this, “The Trust Protocol.” 你也许很好奇:它的工作原理是什么呢Now, you’re probably wondering: How does this thing work? 问得好Fair enough. 资产——从金钱到音乐 或其他分列其类的数字资产Assets — digital assets like money to music and everything in between — 并不储存在中央区域are not stored in a central place, 而是分散于全球的台帐中but they’re distributed across a global ledger, 使用最高级别的密码技术using the highest level of cryptography. 每当完成一次交易的操作And when a transaction is conducted, (这笔交易)就会通过数亿台计算机it’s posted globally, 发送到全球范围across millions and millions of computers. 当此之时 在世界范围内And out there, around the world, 是一群被称作“矿工”的人(在做这件事)is a group of people called “miners.” 他们并非年轻人 而是比特币矿工These are not young people, they’re Bitcoin miners. 他们拥有巨大的计算能力——They have massive computing power at their fingertips — 比谷歌全球规模的数十、百倍还大10 to 100 times bigger than all of Google worldwide. 这些矿工有很多事情要做These miners do a lot of work. 每十分钟And every 10 minutes, 便会诞生一个区块kind of like the heartbeat of a network, 有点类似于网络的心跳a block gets created (该区块)包含了过去10分钟内所有的交易信息that has all the transactions from the previous 10 minutes. 之后 矿工们开始工作 尝试解决一些棘手的问题Then the miners get to work, trying to solve some tough problems. 他们彼此竞争:And they compete: 第一个找出真相并使区块通过验证的矿工the first miner to find out the truth and to validate the block, 会获得数字货币作为奖励is rewarded in digital currency, 至于说比特币 区块链与之同在in the case of the Bitcoin blockchain, with Bitcoin. 随后是关键的部分——And then — this is the key part — 该区块与前一个区块相连that block is linked to the previous block 前一个又和更前面的相连and the previous block (这样)就形成了一连串的区块to create a chain of blocks. 每个区块都有一个时间标记And every one is time-stamped, 有点像是数字蜡印kind of like with a digital waxed seal. 如果我想破解其中的一个区块So if I wanted to go and hack a block 比方说付给你你就有了等量的钱and, say, pay you and you with the same money, 我想要破解那个区块I’d have to hack that block, 以及前面所有的区块plus all the preceding blocks, 即区块链上整个的交易记录the entire history of commerce on that blockchain, (届时)会有数百万台 而非一台not just on one computer but across millions of computers, 拥有世界上最强大的计算资源simultaneously, 使用最高级加密技术的电脑all using the highest levels of encryption, 同时in the light of the most powerful computing resource in the world 监视着我 (想要破解)难于登天that’s watching me. Tough to do. 比起我们现有的计算机系统This is infinitely more secure 这个绝对要安全得多than the computer systems that we have today. 区块链 这就是它的工作原理Blockchain. That’s how it works. 而比特币区块链只是其中的一个So the Bitcoin blockchain is just one. 还有(其他)许多种There are many. 以太坊区块链是由加拿大人维塔利·布塔林开发的The Ethereum blockchain was developed by a Canadian named Vitalik Buterin. 他只有19岁He’s nineteen years old, 该区块链有一些(其他区块链)无法比拟的功能and this blockchain has some extraordinary capabilities. 其一是 你可以制定智能合约One of them is that you can build smart contracts. 文如其名It’s kind of what it sounds like. 它是一种自我执行的合约It’s a contract that self-executes, 该合约具有强制力 管理水平 执行力and the contract handles the enforcement, the management, performance 偿付能力——还具有银行账户and payment — the contract kind of has a bank account, too, in a sense — 从某种意义上来说 它是人与人之间的契约of agreements between people. 如今 通过以太坊的区块链And today, on the Ethereum blockchain, 有很多处理各种事务的项目there are projects underway to do everything 从为股票交易市场设计新的替代品from create a new replacement for the stock market 到建立一个 政治家会对民众负责的to create a new model of democracy, 全新的民主政治模式where politicians are accountable to citizens. 所以为(更好的)理解其所带来的突破性改变So to understand what a radical change this is going to bring, 我们来看一个行业 金融服务业let’s look at one industry, financial services. 认得这是什么吗Recognize this? 小题大做的机器Rube Goldberg machine. 它的设计离奇复杂 工作却简单明了It’s a ridiculously complicated machine that does something really simple, 像是敲碎蛋壳或是关个门(之类的)like crack an egg or shut a door. 金融服务业多多少少在提醒着我Well, it kind of reminds me of the financial services industry, (他们)还是很用心地honestly. 我的意思是 当你在街角的商店刷了卡I mean, you tap your card in the corner store, 一股比特流便穿过十几家公司and a bitstream goes through a dozen companies, (这些公司)每家都有自己的计算机系统each with their own computer system, 其中一些 还在用上世纪70年代的主机some of them being 1970s mainframes 甚至比在坐的各位还要老older than many of the people in this room, 三天后 一份结算报告就诞生了and three days later, a settlement occurs. 金融业使用区块链之后Well, with a blockchain financial industry, 将不再产生结算报告there would be no settlement, 因为支付的同时 就进行了结算because the payment and the settlement is the same activity, 只是在账簿中会有所不同罢了it’s just a change in the ledger. 所以在华尔街及世界各地So Wall Street and all around the world, 金融业在这方面正遭遇巨变the financial industry is in a big upheaval about this, 对此很是好奇 我们会被取而代之wondering, can we be replaced, 还是接纳这项技术以赢得成功呢or how do we embrace this technology for success? 现在 我们为什么要关心这事儿呢Now, why should you care? 我来讲几个(相关的)应用吧Well, let me describe some applications. (经济)繁荣 互联网的发韧期Prosperity. The first era of the internet, 即 信息互联网时期the internet of information, 它给我们带来了财富 却没有(提供)共享繁荣brought us wealth but not shared prosperity, 因为社会的不公日益增长because social inequality is growing. 这是所有愤怒和极端主义的症结And this is at the heart of all of the anger and extremism 而且 贸易保护主义 仇外心理及其他更糟的情况and protectionism and xenophobia and worse 正在当今世界不断蔓延that we’re seeing growing in the world today, 英国脱欧就是眼前的例子Brexit being the most recent case. 我们能否想出些新的解决方案 来应对这个不公的难题呢So could we develop some new approaches to this problem of inequality? 因为目前唯一的方法就是 对财富进行分配Because the only approach today is to redistribute wealth, 通过税收来调节收入tax people and spread it around more. 我们能否对财富进行预分配呢Could we pre-distribute wealth? 能否通过民主化(这种行为)Could we change the way that wealth gets created in the first place 从源头上改变创造财富的方式by democratizing wealth creation, 吸引更多的人参与经济engaging more people in the economy, 并确保他们得到平等的报酬呢and then ensuring that they got fair compensation? 我从五个方面来阐述一下这样做的可行性Let me describe five ways that this can be done. 第一Number one: 你原来是否知道 世界上拥有土地的70%的人们Did you know that 70 percent of the people in the world who have land 只有一张薄薄的纸头当作证明呢have a tenuous title to it? 你在洪都拉斯有个小农场 当独裁者上台时So, you’ve got a little farm in Honduras, some dictator comes to power, 他说:“我知道你有一纸文书 证明这个农场是你的he says, “I know you’ve got a piece of paper that says you own your farm, 但是政府的计算机显示 你的农场是我朋友的”but the government computer says my friend owns your farm.” 在洪都拉斯 这种事情屡见不鲜This happened on a mass scale in Honduras, 这个问题随处可见and this problem exists everywhere. 拉丁美洲伟大的经济学家 埃尔南多·德·索托Hernando de Soto, the great Latin American economist, 把它列为世界上 经济流动性方面的says this is the number one issue in the world 头号课题in terms of economic mobility, 比有个银行户头还重要more important than having a bank account, 因为如果你对自己的土地 没有有效的所有权because if you don’t have a valid title to your land, 你就无法用它来借贷you can’t borrow against it, 也就无法规划你的未来and you can’t plan for the future. 现在 公司正在与政府合作So today, companies are working with governments 将地契置入区块链中to put land titles on a blockchain. 一旦完成 将不再改变And once it’s there, this is immutable. 也没办法破解You can’t hack it. 这就为潜在的数亿人的富裕This creates the conditions for prosperity 创造了条件for potentially billions of people. 第二点:Secondly: 很多作家在谈论Ubera lot of writers talk about Uber Airbnb TaskRabbit Lyft等公司时and Airbnb and TaskRabbit and Lyft and so on 把它们当做共享经济的一部分as part of the sharing economy. 这确实是很不错的想法This is a very powerful idea, 个人可以聚集在一起 创造并共享财富that peers can come together and create and share wealth. 我的观点是——My view is that … 这些公司并没有(实现)真正的共享these companies are not really sharing. 实际上 它们的成功 恰恰是因为不共享In fact, they’re successful precisely because they don’t share. 它们将服务打包出售They aggregate services together, and they sell them. 假如说Airbnb不是一家(市值)250亿美元的公司What if, rather than Airbnb being a $25 billion corporation, 区块链上有个分布式应用 我们称其为B-Airbnbthere was a distributed application on a blockchain, we’ll call it B-Airbnb, 它本质上是属于and it was essentially owned by all of the people 所有 有房可租的人们who have a room to rent. 当有人想租一间房时And when someone wants to rent a room, 只需进入区块链的数据库和标准库they go onto the blockchain database and all the criteria, 经仔细筛选 (区块链)会帮他们找到合适的房子they sift through, it helps them find the right room, 并(他们)签订合同and then the blockchain helps with the contracting, 鉴别当事人it identifies the party, 通过数字的形式来进行支付it handles the payments 所有这些都被写进了系统中just through digital payments — they’re built into the system. 它甚至能处理声誉问题And it even handles reputation, 如果她给一间房打五星好评because if she rates a room as a five-star room, 房子在那儿that room is there, 评价在那儿 而且是无法更改的and it’s rated, and it’s immutable. 硅谷里的共享经济破坏者So, the big sharing-economy disruptors in Silicon Valley 终会被打破could be disrupted, 这将有利于经济繁荣and this would be good for prosperity. 第三点:Number three: 从发达国家流向发展中国家的the biggest flow of funds from the developed world 最大的资金流to the developing world 并不是公司投资is not corporate investment, 当然也不是外国援助and it’s not even foreign aid. 而是侨汇It’s remittances. 这是远离故土This is the global diaspora; 漂泊异乡的犹太人people have left their ancestral lands, 正把钱汇回家中and they’re sending money back to their families at home. 一年的汇款金额达6000亿美元 且还在增长This is 600 billion dollars a year, and it’s growing, 同时 (汇款时)他们不断被盘剥and these people are getting ripped off. 安娜丽·多明戈是位女管家Analie Domingo is a housekeeper. 正在多伦多生活She lives in Toronto, 每个月会带些现金and every month she goes to the Western Union office 去西联公司with some cash 把钱汇给在马尼拉的妈妈to send her remittances to her mom in Manila. 手续费占了将近10%It costs her around 10 percent; 汇款到账要用4到7天的时间the money takes four to seven days to get there; 她妈妈从来就弄不清楚(汇款)到账的时间her mom never knows when it’s going to arrive. 每个礼拜 她都要花五个小时来检查是否到账It takes five hours out of her week to do this. 六个月前Six months ago, 安娜丽·多明戈使用一款名叫阿布拉的区块链应用Analie Domingo used a blockchain application called Abra. 从自己的手机上转了300美元And from her mobile device, she sent 300 bucks. 直接到她母亲的手机上It went directly to her mom’s mobile device 并没有经过中间商without going through an intermediary. 之后 她的母亲只需查看自己的手机——And then her mom looked at her mobile device — 有点像Uber的应用界面 阿布拉中有”出纳员“在循环出现it’s kind of like an Uber interface, there’s Abra “tellers” moving around. 她选中一个五星的出纳员She clicks on a teller that’s a five-star teller, (此人和她)只相隔7分钟的路程who’s seven minutes away. 那位出纳很快出现在她门口并付给她菲律宾比索The guy shows up at the door, gives her Filipino pesos, 然后她就把钱放进了钱包she puts them in her wallet. 整个过程只需要几分钟时间The whole thing took minutes, 并且花费只有2%and it cost her two percent. 这是促进经济繁荣的绝好机会This is a big opportunity for prosperity. 第四点:数字时代最强大的资产就是数据Number four: the most powerful asset of the digital age is data. 它是一种新的资产类型And data is really a new asset class, 甚至比以前的资产类型都要庞大maybe bigger than previous asset classes, 就像农业经济下的土地like land under the agrarian economy, 或工业厂房or an industrial plant, 甚至是金钱or even money. 是在座的各位——我们所有人 创造了这些数据And all of you — we — create this data. 我们创造了这种资产We create this asset, 在自己的数字生活中and we leave this trail of digital crumbs behind us 留下了长串的痕迹as we go throughout life. 这些痕迹汇成了你的影像And these crumbs are collected into a mirror image of you, 一个虚拟的你the virtual you. 而且 虚拟的你或许更了解你自己And the virtual you may know more about you than you do, 因为你不可能记得自己一年前买过什么because you can’t remember what you bought a year ago, 说过些什么 抑或去过哪里or said a year ago, or your exact location a year ago. 而且 这个虚拟的你并非为你所有——And the virtual you is not owned by you — 那正是我要说的大问题that’s the big problem. 现在 有许多公司正致力于So today, there are companies working 开发一个置于黑盒中的身份系统to create an identity in a black box, 即 属于你的虚拟的你the virtual you owned by you. 哪怕你到了天涯海角And this black box moves around with you 这个黑盒也会和你形影不离as you travel throughout the world, 它会对你的隐私守口如瓶and it’s very, very stingy. 只会应要求It only gives away the shred of information 残存些支离破碎的信息that’s required to do something. 有许多交易A lot of transactions, 卖家甚至不需要知道你是谁the seller doesn’t even need to know who you are. 他们只要知道自己拿到钱就行了They just need to know that they got paid. 然后 你的化身会清除所有(交易)数据And then this avatar is sweeping up all of this data 使你能够放心使用它and enabling you to monetize it. 这事儿之所以奇妙And this is a wonderful thing, 还在于它可以保护我们的隐私because it can also help us protect our privacy, 而隐私是自由社会的基石and privacy is the foundation of a free society. 我们一起来夺回自己所创造的Let’s get this asset that we create 这项资产的控制权吧back under our control, 我们可以拥有自己的身份where we can own our own identity 并用心经营and manage it responsibly. 最后Finally — 最后 第五点:Finally, number five: 有许多进行了实质性工作的创造者there are a whole number of creators of content 并没有得到公平的回报who don’t receive fair compensation, 因为知识产权系统遭到了损毁because the system for intellectual property is broken. 在第一代互联网时期就遭到了损毁It was broken by the first era of the internet. 就拿音乐来说Take music. 音乐家们只在食物链的末端获得一些残羹冷炙Musicians are left with crumbs at the end of the whole food chain. 25年前 一名作曲家 写出一首流行歌曲You know, if you were a songwriter, 25 years ago, you wrote a hit song, 卖出一百万首单曲的话it got a million singles, 可以获得大约45000美元的报酬you could get royalties of around 45,000 dollars. 而现在 身为作曲家的你 写出一首流行歌曲Today, you’re a songwriter, you write a hit song, 播放百万次的话it gets a million streams, 并不能得到45000美元you don’t get 45k, 而只能得到36美元you get 36 dollars, 足以买个不错的披萨了enough to buy a nice pizza. 所以伊莫金·希普So Imogen Heap, 一位荣获格莱美奖的创作歌手the Grammy-winning singer-songwriter, 现在把音乐放在区块链的生态系统上is now putting music on a blockchain ecosystem. 她称其为“菌丝”She calls it “Mycelia.” 有智能合约保护着放置其中的音乐And the music has a smart contract surrounding it. 并且她的音乐保护其知识产权And the music protects her intellectual property rights. 你想听歌吗You want to listen to the song? 自便吧 也许会有几分钱流入数字账户It’s free, or maybe a few micro-cents that flow into a digital account. (不过)想在电影中使用这首歌 那就另当别论了You want to put the song in your movie, that’s different, 知识产权都有明文规定的and the IP rights are all specified. 你想要作为手机铃声吗 那也是另一码事You want to make a ringtone? That’s different. 她说 歌曲成为了一门生意She describes that the song becomes a business. 在这个平台上 歌曲实现了自我营销It’s out there on this platform marketing itself, 并保护了著作者的权益protecting the rights of the author, 而且 因为歌曲具有支付系统and because the song has a payment system 感觉就像银行账户一样in the sense of bank account, 所有的钱都会到艺术家的手中all the money flows back to the artist, 是他们 而非那些炙手可热的中间商and they control the industry, 掌控着这个行业rather than these powerful intermediaries. 现在Now, this is — 不仅仅是作曲家This is not just songwriters, 任何形式的创作活动it’s any creator of content, 比如美术 发明创造like art, like inventions, 科学发现 新闻记者scientific discoveries, journalists. 各行各业没有得到公平偿付的人There are all kinds of people who don’t get fair compensation, 通过区块链and with blockchains, 都将在它上面得到补偿they’re going to be able to make it rain on the blockchain. 感觉太棒了And that’s a wonderful thing. 这些只是用以解决一个问题的So, these are five opportunities out of a dozen 十来个机会中的五个to solve one problem, 经济繁荣 只是区块链适用的prosperity, which is one of countless problems 无数个问题之一that blockchains are applicable to. 科技不会创造财富 人才会Now, technology doesn’t create prosperity, of course — people do. 但是我给大家举的案例 再次说明But my case to you is that, once again, 科技的精灵已从瓶中逃出the technology genie has escaped from the bottle, 在人类历史这个不确定的时间段and it was summoned by an unknown person or persons 受到一位或几位无名人士的召唤at this uncertain time in human history, 它给我们提供了另外一种可能and it’s giving us another kick at the can, 另一个 改写经济权利格局another opportunity to rewrite the economic power grid (改造)旧秩序的机会and the old order of things, 如果愿意and solve some of the world’s most difficult problems, 我们可以解决世界上最棘手的问题if we will it. 谢谢大家Thank you.
  • 2021-08-28为什么噪音对你的健康有害?你能做些什么?你们听到了吗?Do you hear that? 你们知道那是什么吗?Do you know what that is? 寂静Silence. 那是寂静的声音The sound of silence. 西蒙和加芬克尔二人为它写过一首歌 (《寂静之声》)Simon and Garfunkel wrote a song about it. 但现如今寂静变得尤其罕见But silence is a prettyrare commodity these days, 而我们都在为此付出的代价and we’re all paying a price ——尤其是在健康上for it in terms of our health — 而且是非常巨大的代价a surprisingly big price, as it turns out. Luckily, 幸运的是 我们现在还是可以做些什么there are thingswe can do right now, 不管是个人还是社会both individually and as a society, 来保护我们的健康to better protect our health 以及让我们享受到更多寂静带来的好处and give us more of the benefits of the sounds of silence. 我想大部分人I assume that most 应该知道过多的噪音对听力会有损害of you know that too much noise is bad for your hearing. 你在离开一个演唱会或者酒吧的时候Whenever you leave a concert or a bar 如果耳中还有余音and you have that ringing in your ears, 那你的听力you can be certain 肯定已经受到损害了that you have done some damage to your hearing, 而且很可能是永久性的likely permanent. 这很重要不过And that’s very important. However, 噪音对健康的影响远不止于听力noise affects our healthin many different ways beyond hearing. 这些影响不为人所知 但却和听觉受损同样危险所以They’re less well-known, but they’re just as dangerous as the auditory effects. 当我们在谈论噪音时 究竟在谈论什么?So what do we meanwhen we talk about noise? Well, 噪音是“不被欢迎的声音”noise is defined as unwanted sound, 它包括物理层面and as such, both hasa physical component, the sound, 即声音本身以及心理层面 即该声音不受欢迎的原因and a psychological component, the circumstances that makethe sound unwanted. 摇滚乐演唱会就是个很好的例子A very good example is a rock concert. 参加摇滚演唱会的人会被100分贝的声音环绕A person attending the rock concert,being exposed to 100 decibels, 但却不认为那是噪音does not think of the music as noise. 他喜欢那个乐队This person likes the band, 甚至花了100美元买票and even paid a hundred dollars for the ticket, 所以不管音乐有多大声so no matter how loud the music, 他也不会认为那是噪音this person doesn’t think of it as noise. 反过来 想想住在演唱会场馆In contrast, think of a person living three blocks away 三个街区以外的一个人from the concert hall. 他正想看书That person is trying to read a book, 但因为音乐声而无法集中注意力but cannot concentratebecause of the music. 尽管在这里And although the sound pressure levels 音量已经小了很多are much lower in this situation, 但他仍然会认为这是噪音this person still thinksof the music as noise, 而且还可能触发and it may trigger reactions that can, 引起长期健康问题的反应in the long run, have health consequences. 所以为什么安静的地方如此重要?So why are quiet spaces so important? 因为噪音对我们的影响远远大于听力损害但是Because noise affects our healthin so many ways beyond hearing. However, 现在要想找到安静的地方难上加难it’s becoming increasinglydifficult to find quiet spaces 交通更拥挤in times of constantly increasing traffic, 城市化加速 到处工程施工、growing urbanization, construction sites,air-conditioning units, 空调运作还有吹叶机和除草机的声音 包括户外音乐会和酒吧、独立音乐演奏者leaf blowers, lawnmowers, outdoor concerts and bars,personal music players, 你的邻居还夜夜笙歌至凌晨三点and your neighbors partying until 3am. 呼!Whew! 2011年 世界健康组织预计In 2011, the World HealthOrganization estimated 每年人们的健康生命年总损失达160万年that 1.6 million healthy life yearsare lost every year 仅仅因为环境噪音due to exposure to environmental noise 而这还只算了西欧国家in the Western Europeanmember states alone. 噪音的一大影响是它阻碍了沟通One important effect of noiseis that it disturbs communication. 人们需要提高音量来让别人听到You may have to raise your voiceto be understood. 在极端情况下 你可能还要中断对话In extreme cases, you may evenhave to pause the conversation. 而在嘈杂环境中 人们也更容易被误解因此It’s also more likely to be misunderstoodin a noisy environment. 研究发现These are all likely reasonswhy studies have found 在嘈杂地区上学的儿童that children who attendschools in noisy areas 更倾向于在学术表现上比同龄人落后are more likely to lag behind their peersin academic performance. 另一个重要的噪音带来的健康影响是Another very importanthealth effect of noise 它会提高人们得心血管疾病的几率is the increased riskfor cardiovascular disease 尤其是那些在较高噪音水平中in those who are exposedto relevant noise levels 生活了很长时间的人for prolonged periods of time. 噪音带来压力 尤其是在我们无法控制噪音的情况下Noise is stress, especially if we have little or no control over it. 我们的身体会分泌荷尔蒙 如肾上腺素和皮质醇Our body excretes stress hormoneslike adrenaline and cortisol 它们会改变我们的血液组成that lead to changesin the composition of our blood 还会改变我们的血管架构and in the structure of our blood vessels, 比如当我们经历了一晚的噪音后 血管就会变硬which have been shown to be stiffer after a single night of noise exposure. 流行病学研究发现Epidemiological studies show associationsbetween the noise exposure 噪音会带来高血压的风险and an increased riskfor high blood pressure, 以及心脏病发作、heart attacks and stroke, 中风等风险虽然这样的风险增加度不高and although the overall risk increasesare relatively small, 但这仍然是影响大众健康状况的很大因素this still constitutesa major public health problem 因为噪音无处不在because noise is so ubiquitous, 太多人一直在不同程度的噪音当中and so many people are exposedto relevant noise levels. 近期一个研究发现A recent study found that US society 美国每年可以省下39亿美元could save 3.9 billion dollars each year 只要把环境噪音降低5分贝by lowering environmentalnoise exposure by five decibels, 而这也是为治疗心血管疾病省下成本just by saving costs for treatingcardiovascular disease. 还有其它疾病如癌症、糖尿病和肥胖症There are other diseaseslike cancer, diabetes and obesity 它们都和噪音暴露有关系that have been linked to noise exposure, 但我们目前实际上还没有足够的证据but we do not have enough evidence yet to, 来说明这些疾病是由噪音造成的in fact, conclude that these diseases are caused by the noise. 噪音另一个重要影响是睡眠Yet another important effect of noiseis sleep disturbance. 睡眠是一个非常活跃的机制 来为我们恢复活力Sleep is a very active mechanismthat recuperates us 让我们准备好迎接下一个清醒时段and prepares us for the next wake period. 一个安静的房间是一些研究者口中的A quiet bedroom is a cornerstoneof what sleep researchers call “一个好觉”的基石“a good sleep hygiene.” 我们的听力系统有一个“看门人”的功能And our auditory systemhas a watchman function. 它持续地检测着我们所处的环境中It’s constantly monitoringour environment for threats, 是否有威胁即便是在我们睡觉的时候even while we’re sleeping. 所以房间里的噪音So noise in the bedroom can cause a delay 会延迟我们的入睡时间in the time it takes us to fall asleep, 还会让我们在半夜醒来it can wake us up during the night, 它会阻碍我们的血压在夜晚降低and it can prevent our blood pressure from going down during the night. 我们有个假设 如果这种被噪音性睡眠障碍We have the hypothesis thatif these noise-induced sleep disturbances 持续几个月或几年continue for months and years, 那么心血管疾病的发病概率将会提高然而then an increased risk for cardiovasculardisease is likely the consequence. However, 我们常常无法意识到这些噪音性睡眠障碍的存在we are often not awareof these noise-induced sleep disturbances, 因为我们在睡觉时没有意识because we are unconsciouswhile we’re sleeping. 我们曾经对在交通噪音环境中In the past, we’ve done studies on the effects 睡觉的人做过研究of traffic noise on sleep, 研究对象们经常在早晨and research subjects would often wake up 起来后说“啊in the morning and say, “Ah, 我昨晚睡得很好I had a wonderful night,I fell asleep right away, 马上睡着了中途也没有醒never really woke up.” “ 但当我们回头看各种前晚记录的When we would go backto the physiological signals 身体数据时we had recorded during the night, 我们常常看到大量的身体唤醒we would often see numerous awakenings 以及严重片段化的睡眠结构and a severely fragmented sleep structure. 这些唤醒太短 不至于让被研究者恢复意识These awakenings were too brieffor the subjects to regain consciousness 或者在第二天早上还能记得and to remember themduring the next morning, 但它们将会带来深远的影响but they may neverthelesshave a profound impact 决定了我们的睡眠带来的休息价值有多少on how restful our sleep is. 所以什么时候声音才算过大?So when is loud too loud? 一个很好的信号是 你开始改变你的行为A good sign of too loud is once you start changing your behavior. 比如你可能要更大声地说话以让别人理解You may have to raise your voiceto be understood, 或者你开始增加电视音量or you increase the volume of your TV. 你开始避开户外区域You’re avoiding outside areas,or you’re closing your window. 关上窗户你把你的卧室移到地下室You’re moving your bedroomto the basement of the house, 或者你甚至装上了隔音设备or you even havesound insulation installed. 很多人会搬到更少噪音的地方去Many people will move awayto less noisy areas, 但显然不是所有人都可以负担得起but obviously not everybodycan afford that. 所以我们可以做些什么So what can we do right 来改善声音环境呢now to improve our sound environment 从而保护我们的健康呢?and to better protect our health? Well, 第一 如果你感觉太吵 就要表达意见比如first of all,if something’s too loud, speak up. 很多电影院的老板For example, many owners of movie theaters 好像都以为只有听力seem to think that only people hard 不好的人才去电影院of hearing are still going to the movies. 如果你抱怨过它的噪音但没有效果If you complain about the noiseand nothing happens, 你可以要求退款或者直接离开demand a refund and leave. 电影院的经理肯定会明白你传达的信息的That’s the language that managerstypically do understand. Also, 你还可以教导你的孩子们关于噪音对健康的影响talk to your childrenabout the health effects of noise 他们现在大声地听音乐 以后他们将为此付出代价and that listening to loud music today will have consequences when they’re older. 你也可以把你的卧室移到You can also move your bedroom 房子比较安静的地方to the quiet side of the house, 你的房子本身就可以为你阻挡一部分的交通噪音where your own building shields youfrom road traffic noise. 如果你正在寻找新的房子If you’re looking to rentor buy a new place, 把安静和噪音少作为首选条件make low noise a priority. 在一天的不同时间参观房子Visit the property duringdifferent times of the day 和邻居讨论一下噪音and talk to the neighbors about noise. 在旅行的时候 你可以戴降噪耳机You can wear noise-canceling headphoneswhen you’re traveling 如果你的办公室有强噪音环境or if your office has highbackground noise levels. 也可以戴总的来说 寻找安静的地方In general, seek out quiet spaces, 尤其是在周末或你正在休假的时候especially on the weekendor when you’re on vacation. 让你的身体系统放松Allow your system to wind down. I, 和这次演讲十分呼应的是四年前very appropriately for this talk, 我在日本参加了一个有关噪音的会议attended a noise conferencein Japan four years ago. 当我回到美国When I returned to the United Statesand entered the airport, 进入机场时无数声音像墙一样向我袭来a wall of sound hit me. 这告诉我们This tells you thatwe don’t realize anymore 我们不再对噪音污染的暴露感到敏感the constant degreeof noise pollution we’re exposed to 而且也不再意识到安静的环境可以给我们带来多大的好处and how much we could profitfrom more quiet spaces. 我们还能做些什么?What else can we do about noise? Well, 正如二氧化碳足迹一样very much like a carbon footprint, 我们也有噪音足迹we all have a noise footprint, 而这些是我们可以缩小噪音足迹的方式比如and there are things we can do to make that noise footprint smaller. 不要在周六早上七点For example, don’t start mowing your lawn at 7am on a Saturday morning. 就开始除草 你的邻居会感谢你的Your neighbors will thank you. 或者你可以用耙子而不是吹叶机Or use a rake instead of a leaf blower. 总的来说 从源头减少噪音是最合理的In general, noise reduction at the sourcemakes the most sense, 所以当你在考虑买新车买空调so whenever you’re lookingto buy a new car, 买搅拌机 或者其它什么的时候air-conditioning unit,blender, you name it, 把低噪音作为一个首选条件make low noise a priority. 很多制造商会把低噪音水平考虑到设备生产中Many manufacturers will listthe noise levels their devices generate, 有些甚至会以此作为广告亮点and some even advertise with them. 好好利用这样的信息Use that information. 很多认为有力Many people think 的噪音法规和执行是好的方法that stronger noise regulation and enforcement are good ideas, 甚至可能觉得这才是最明显的解决方式even obvious solutions, perhaps, 但这不像人们想象中简单but it’s not as easy as you may think, 因为许多带来噪音的活动because many of the activitiesthat generate noise 同样带来收入also generate revenue. 想想机场带来的商业效应就知道了Think about an airport and all the business that is associated with it. 我们的研究也告诉政治家们Our research tells politiciansat what noise level 怎样的噪音水平会带来怎样的健康效应they can expect a certain health effect, 这会帮助更有效的噪音政策出台and that helps inform better noise policy. 细菌学家罗泊特·科赫曾说Robert Koch supposedly once said, “总有一天 人类和噪音的斗争会像“ One day, mankind will fight noise as relentlessly 他们和霍乱、害虫的斗争一样残酷 ”as cholera and the pest.” 我想这一天已经来到了I think we’re there, 我希望我们可以赢得这场斗争and I hope that we will win this fight, 而当这实现时 我们可以举行一次美好的、安静的庆祝活动and when we do, we can all have a nice, quiet celebration. (笑声)谢谢(Laughter) (掌声)Thank you. (掌声)(Applause)

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