按时间 按人气 按推荐

  • 当前第 1 页,共 666  个影片
  • 2021-08-24马克·哈米尔的星途How can one man embody the Galaxy’s great hero一个人怎么能既是银河系的伟大英雄 and Gotham’s ghastliest villain?又是哥谭镇最可怕的恶棍呢? This is the Evolution of Mark Hamill.这就是马克·哈米尔的成长之路 Luke Skywalker made Hamill a household name,卢克·天行者让哈米尔家喻户晓 but his outer space adventures are only half of the story.但他的太空冒险仅是故事的一部分 Throughout his career,在职业生涯中 the actor has owned some of pop culture’s most iconic roles他出演了流行文化中一些最具标志性的角色 but things started slowly during the early years但他早年的事业发展缓慢 Hamill was born in California in 1951哈米尔1951年出生于加利福利亚 but he didn’t stay there for long但他在那里生活的时间并不长 As the son of a U.S. Navy Captain, his family moved constantly.作为美国海军上校的儿子 他经常搬家 He attended nine schools in ten years,十年间他辗转就读过九所学校 and by the time he’s graduated from Hamil, he actually lived in Japan.当他从汉密尔毕业期间 实际上住在日本 Mark moved to LA at the age of 17, working various odd jobs马克17岁时搬去了洛杉矶 做着各种零工 and living in an old gardener’s shed for $55 a month住在一个老园丁的棚屋里 每月55美元租金 as he tried to make it in Hollywood.那时他努力地在好莱坞立足 His first paying role was a guest spot on a 1970’s Bill Cosby series,他的第一个有偿角色是客串1970年比尔克劳斯系列影片 and from there, he landed bit parts on various shows,从那时起 他就在各种节目中跑龙套 including “The Partridge Family”包括《鹧鸪家族》 a 9-month stint on “General Hospital”为期9个月的《综合医院》 and a co-starring role in a short-lived sitcom called “Texas Wheele”和一部担任联合主演的情景喜剧短片《德克萨斯惠勒》 ”This is the dumbest thing I’ve ever heard of“我听过最愚蠢的事情是 getting all dressed up to bury a duck.”通过盛装打扮来掩人耳目” Hamill was slowly but surely finding success in the world of television哈米尔稳扎稳打地在电视界打开了局面 but his big screen debut made him a megastar overnight然而 他的大银幕处女作让他一夜成名 thanks to a little movie called Star Wars感谢这部叫《星球大战》的小电影 When Mark Hamill first heard about当马克·哈米尔26岁时第一次听说 the casting call for an upcoming sci-fi fantasy flick,一部即将上映的科幻电影的角色招募时 he was 26 years old他只有26岁 and crashing on his friend and fellow actor Robert Englund’s couch.借宿在他的朋友兼同事罗伯特·恩格伦德的沙发上 Englund, who would later become an icon of his own as Freddy Krueger,恩格伦德后来有了自己的代表角色弗雷迪·克鲁格 had auditioned for Han Solo.当时也参加了汉·索洛的试镜 Sadly, he didn’t get the part,不幸的是 他没有被选上 but he suggested that Mark should try out但他建议马克应该试试 for the role of an idealistic farmboy named Luke.一个名叫卢克的理想主义农家男孩的角色 “but I was going to Tosche Station to pick up power converters”“但我要去托什站取一些电力转换器” ‘Star Wars’ changed the way movies are made and marketed,《星球大战》改变了电影的制作和营销方式 and its global success made Hamill a household name overnight,它在全世界的成功让哈米尔一夜成名 but he almost didn’t live to see it.但也让他差点丧命 Five months before the movie was released在电影上映前五个月 Hamill was involved in a serious car accident.哈米尔出了一场严重的车祸 His nose and cheekbones were shattered他的鼻子和颧骨都碎了 requiring surgery to repair the damage,需要手术来修复损伤 and forever altering the face that millions of fans would look up to.并永远地改变了可能被数百万粉丝仰望的颜值 You can see the difference in the ‘Star Wars Holiday Special,’你可以在《星球大战假日特辑》 and ‘Corvette Summer’, the box office bomb.和票房炸弹《克尔维特夏日》中看到前后的差别 He starred in immediately after ‘A New Hope.’他在《星球大战4:新希望》之后很快成为主演 When it came time for the Empire to Strike Back,拍《帝国反击战》这部电影时 the movie actually incorporated his accident into the script,该片实际上把他的意外融入了剧本 with a fierce Wampa attack用万帕的猛烈攻击 to explain Luke’s changed appearance.来解释卢克变脸的原因 His earnest performance as the archetypical hero他卖力地表演这样的典型英雄形象 continued to thrill fans in ‘Return of the Jedi,’在《绝地归来》中依然让影迷们兴奋不已 and after the original trilogy ended,在最初的三部曲结束后 you’d think he would have become a leading man你可能会认为他会成为像 like his co-star Harrison Ford.他的搭档哈里森·福特那样的主角 Well, that didn’t happen,但这并没有发生 because Hamill became a victim of Hollywood Typecasting因为哈米尔成了好莱坞类型选角的牺牲品 ‘Star Wars’ transformed Hamill into a teen icon,”星球大战”使哈米尔变成了青春偶像 but fame was a double-edged sword.但名利是把双刃剑 For years after the original trilogy,在最初的三部曲之后的几年里 studios were reluctant to cast him工作室不愿意让他接任何其他形象的角色 as anything but a babyfaced hero.除了娃娃脸的英雄 Luke Skywalker hounded him for years卢克·天行者困扰了他许多年 and, frustrated by the lack of meatier roles,苦于缺少更丰满的角色形象 Hamill turned his attention to Broadway,哈米尔把注意力转向了百老汇 where he appeared in stage productions of ‘ The Elephant Man, ’在那里他出演了舞台剧《大象人》 and replaced Tim Curry as Mozart in ‘Amadeus.’取代蒂姆·柯里 在《莫扎特传》里饰演莫扎特 When the latter play was adapted to film in 1984,当莫扎特传在1984年被改编成电影时 Mark was eager to reprise the role onscreen,马克很渴望在银幕上重演这个角色 but a Hollywood executive flatly refused, saying但被一位好莱坞高管断然拒绝 “I don’t want Luke Skywalker in this film.”他说“我不希望卢克·天行者出现在这部电影中” The only roles available to him were on TV shows,他只能在电视节目中出演角色 like ‘The Flash,’ or in cult sci-fi films比如《闪电侠》或者什么邪典科幻电影 like‘Midnight Ride’ and ‘The Guyver,比如《午夜骑行》和《盖弗》 “I want you to like me.”“我希望你喜欢我” “Then why are you doing this to me?””那你为什么这样对我?” “Laura, I’m not going to hurt you.“劳拉 我不会伤害你的 Just don’t run away from me, ok…Promise!”别离开我 好吗 答应我!” a far cry from the global phenomenon of ‘Star Wars.’此剧和全球现象级的星战热度相去甚远 Hamill eventually realized that哈米尔最终意识到 people couldn’t see him as Luke Skywalker如果观众根本看不到他 if they couldn’t see him at all就不会把他看作是卢克·天行者了 so he took his face out of the equation所以他让自身形象摆脱这种定式 and tried his hand at voice acting并尝试为角色配音 Hamil has actually experimented with boys of world before ‘ Star Wars,’他曾在《星球大战》之前为世界男孩配音 in Ralph Bakshi’s 1977 film ‘Wizards,’即拉尔夫·巴克希1977年的电影《巫师》 but he wouldn’t land the role that made him an icon until 1992,但直到1992年 哈米尔才迈入偶像阵营 where he appeared in another masterpiece那时他配音了另一部 that changed the course of pop culture: ‘Batman:The Animated Series’改变流行文化进程的巨作:《蝙蝠侠:动画系列》 Ironically, Hamill wasn’t the first choice to play the Joker.讽刺的是 哈米尔并不是扮演小丑的首选 Originally, Tim Curry was cast to play Gotham’s Clown Prince of Crime,一开始 配音哥谭的小丑犯罪王子的是蒂姆·库里 but after a bout of bronchitis,但由于支气管炎发作 Hamill stepped in to replace him,哈米尔代替了他 just like he did in‘Amadeus’ nearly a decade earlier.就像他近十年前在《莫扎特传》里那样 Hamill made the role his own,哈米尔用自己的风格诠释角色 with his over-the-top, cackling performance运用夸张 大笑等表演技巧 that perfectly blended merriment and menace.完美融合了欢乐和威胁的情绪 “They used to kid me”他们之前还嘲笑我 because I was the only one who would stand up.因为我是唯一一个会站着配音的 And I just thought to当时我只是想 energize the character, to shake my fist让角色有活力 挥舞我的拳头 and I felt I’ve got to stand up.”我觉得我应该站起来” For a lot of people, Hamill is the Joker,对多数人来说 哈米尔就是“小丑” and for nearly 25 years he continued to portray the character将近25年来 他一直在塑造这一形象 throughout cartoons, animated movies, and the ‘Arkham’ video games.出演卡通片 动画电影以及蝙蝠侠系列电玩游戏 Since he began as Joker,自从以小丑形象出现 Hamill has become one of animation’s most prolific voice actors,哈米尔成为最多产的动画配音演员之一 but he especially relishes playing the bad guy.但他十分享受饰演反派角色 He went on to voice supervillains across several different shows,他开始为不同电影里面的超级大反派配音 from the Hobgoblin in ‘Spider-Man,’ to从《蜘蛛侠》里面的红魔到 reprising his live-action role as the Trickster到重新出演的真人漫画角色: in ‘Justice League: Unlimited.’《无限正义联盟》中的魔术师 After his resurgence, Hamill re-embraced his status as a geek icon,复出后 哈米尔重新接受了自己偶像怪才的形象 appearing in cameos on ‘The Simpsons’, ‘Third Rock from the Sun’客串了《辛普森一家》《歪星撞地球》 and a memorable turn as ‘Cock Knocker’在《杰伊和沉默的鲍勃反击战》中 in Kevin Smith’s ‘Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back.’令人印象深刻的转型饰演了“敲鸡人” “Why do they call you Cock Knocker?”“他们为什么叫你敲鸡人?” “Actually there’s a funny story behind that.事实上 背后有一个有趣的故事 [laughs]”You’re gonna love this; True story.”[笑声]你肯定会喜欢这个的 真实的故事 [groans] See,[呻吟]看 Hamill isn’t just an actor哈米尔不仅仅是一个演员 he’s an honest-to-goodness nerd.他还是一个善良诚实的书呆子 and if you need proof of his cred,如果你想证实这个名声 just check out his sole directorial effort:只需看他独自导演的作品: the 2004 mockumentary ”Comic Book The Movie”2004年的仿纪录片《漫画书》 a love letter to fandom一封给影迷的情书 that gave many of his fellow voice actors也给了他很多配音的同行们 a chance to shine in front of the camera.一个在镜头前发光的机会 Hamill’s career could have ended here,哈米尔的演员生涯本来可以到此结束 as a beloved but mostly irrelevant pop culture relic作为一个受欢迎但和流行文化没什么关系的老演员 but in 2015, Hamill faced his biggest challenge yet:但在2015年 哈米尔面临人生中最大的挑战: Stepping back into the role that both made and cursed his career,回归这个既成就了他 也诅咒了他的角色 giving the galaxy a renewed hope给全世界带回了新“新希望” After Disney purchased Lucasfilm in 2012,自从迪士尼在2012年买下了卢卡斯电影后 they went full steam ahead on production他们全力以赴地开启制作 of the long-awaited’Star Wars’ sequel trilogy广受期待的《星球大战》续集 But first, they had to convince Mark Hamill但是 他们首先要说服马克•哈米尔 to pick up the lightsaber once again.再一次拿起光剑 George Lucas himself approached the actor, just before the deal was sealed,在敲定合同前 乔治•卢卡斯亲自联系了马克 and initially, Hamill was reluctant to return to the galaxy far, far away.起初 哈米尔不愿意回到遥远的银河系 He eventually agreed after hearing但听说哈里森·福特也会参演时 that Harrison Ford would also be involved他最终同意了出演 because he didn’t want to be the only holdout.因为他不想成为唯一的反对者 Hamill grew a beard and lost 50 pounds哈米尔蓄了胡须 减重50磅 to play the older, grizzled Luke来饰演头发花白的年迈卢克 even though he only appeared on screen尽管他只出现在了 at the very end of ‘ The Force Awakens’《原力觉醒》的最后几分钟 ‘The Last Jedi’ gave him a much meatier role,但“最后的绝地武士”给了他一个更丰满的角色 but after living with Luke for 40 years但在与卢克共同生活了40年之后 Hamill had his own strong opinions on the character.哈米尔对这个角色有他自己坚定的看法 He initially disagreed with director Rian Johnson’s他最初不同意导演里安·约翰逊的决定 decision to make Luke a broken, jaded man,让卢克成为一个伤痕累累的绝地武士 but whether you loved or hated ‘The Last Jedi,’但不管你是喜欢还是讨厌《最后的绝地武士》 Hamill’s powerful performance哈米尔富有张力的表演 helped ease the loss of the beloved hero.缓和了失去这位众人热爱的英雄的伤痛 and even though Luke himself尽管卢克本人 might have joined his father and mentors in the force可能加入了他父亲和导师的原力阵营 Mark Hamill’s Hollywood legacy will never truly die.但马克·哈米尔留下的好莱坞遗风永不消亡
  • 2021-08-24西方姓氏数目为何会逐渐减少?When you marry,结婚后 usually you take on your partner’s surname通常你会随伴侣的姓氏 or your parter takes on yours.或对方随你的姓 Two people with different surnames become两个不同姓氏的人 two people with the same.因而拥有了相同的姓氏 One surname spreads, the other one goes… …extinct?一种姓氏得到延续 另一种会走向……灭亡么? Usually not, there might be siblings, cousins,通常不会 因为可能有同姓的兄弟姐妹 堂兄弟姐妹 strangers who happen to share the surname to还有碰巧同姓的陌生人 carry it on for the one who lost it替改变姓氏的人把原来的姓氏传递下去 But if one person fails to pass on the surname,但如果一个人没能将姓氏传递下去 so might the others.那么其他人也有失败的可能 In fact, every now and then 事实上 当一个姓氏的最后一人离世 entire surnames do go extinct而未能将其传下去时 when its last bearer passes away without passing it on.这个姓氏就消失了 这一情况时有发生 According to the Daily Mail,《每日邮报》报道 in England and Wales, 200,000 surnames自1901年起 在英格兰和威尔士 were lost since 1901.已经有20万姓氏消失了 You can find lists of endangered surnames你可以在一些网站上找到濒危姓氏的名单 on websites such as Ancestry.com and myheritage.com例如 Ancestry和myheritage Ancestry counts surnames with less than 50 carriers left as endangered,Ancestry将少于50人的姓氏列为濒危姓氏 which in England and Wales, would currently be names such as在英国和威尔士 这些濒危姓氏有 Pober, Mirren, Febland (heh, Febland), Nighy – N-Nighy?Pober Mirren Febland Nighy Well, some of these names might be more of those than others,虽然其中有些姓氏的人数可能相对多些 it’s sad to think that they might all cease to exist within a few generations.但遗憾的是它们都可能在几代人后消失 Back in the days, new surnames were created as well在以前 人们会根据 based on someone’s job or father’s given name某人的工作或父亲的名字 or where they came from.还有籍贯创造新的姓氏 But that doesn’t really happen anymore,但那些情况已经不太会发生了 not on a large scale, anyway.至少不会大规模发生 So more surnames are lost than new ones are being born.所以消失的姓氏远比新产生的多 Keep this experiment going long enough,如果这种情况持续时间够长 and we will all end up with the same surname eventually, won’t we?我们最后将变成同一个姓氏 不是吗? When we look at Earth’s more ancient civilizations当我们探究地球的古代文明 even more ancient-甚至更远古的文明 intensive research reveals that深入研究表明 most Chinese surnames in use today现今使用的大多数中国姓氏 were handed down from thousands of years ago.是几千年前传下来的 While historically about 12,000 Chinese surnames have been recorded,历史上记载了约12000种中国姓氏 only a bit over 3,000 are currently in use,而目前仍在使用的却只有3000出头 it reduction of 75 percent!减少了75% And only a fraction of those所有人口中 大多数人 are taking over a majority of the entire population.只会使用一小部分姓氏 The three most common surnames in mainland China are Li, Wang and Zhang,中国大陆的三个大姓分别是 李 王 张 which make up for more than 7 percent of the Chinese population each.每个姓氏的使用人数都超过中国人口的7% Together they belong to close to 300 million people总数近30亿 and are easily the most common surnames in the world.它们无疑是世界上最普遍的姓氏 In China, the phrase”three Zhang, four Li” is used to say just”anybody.”在中国 “张三李四”被用来泛指“某人” So after thousands of years,即使历经几千年 the Chinese people aren’t down to one all-dominating surname, but several.中国人的姓氏并没有被一个大姓所占 而是几个 What’s going on here?这是为什么呢? This effect can be shown in a simulation.这种现象可以通过模拟来展示 What you see here is the result of a Galton-Watson process,这里看到的是高尔顿-沃森过程的结果 which maps out how the distribution of family names changes over time.这里绘制出了姓氏分布如何随时间而变化 It starts out with a very large number of unique family names这个模拟从大量独一无二的姓氏开始 each represented by a different color,每个姓氏用不同颜色代表 and after 40 generations or around a thousand years在40代或大约一千年后 ends with the ones which are left.以剩余的姓氏结束 When you look at the very end there,看到最后 what you see is very similar to the Chinese situation.你会发现和中国非常相似的情况 The top three names take over 20 percent of the cake.排名前三的姓氏总占比超过总人口的20% But the question is: if we keep the simulation going,那么问题来了 如果我们继续模拟下去 will we end up with only one surname?我们最终会只剩下一个姓氏吗? Mathematically, the entire population does converge to only one surname.数学计算角度上 所有人终将会变成同一姓氏 But in real life,但在现实生活中 if we start out with, say,10,000 surnames假设我们最开始有10000个姓氏 and there are actually much more than that其实远不止这些 after 40 generations we’d still be left with over 400.那么40代之后还会剩下400多个 Okay, how about 200 generations?好 那么200代以后呢? Still 93 left.还有93个 While the less frequent names are dying out quickly,虽然不常见姓氏快速消失 the more frequent ones become so widely spread但其他较常见的姓氏流传地如此广泛 that humans will probably cease to exist before they do.还没等到它们消失 人类可能已经不复存在了 The probability of extinction of a unique family name仅由一对年轻夫妇拥有的特殊姓氏 that is carried by only one young couple is 45 percent消亡的可能性是45% at least in the West至少在西方是这样 That’s the average likelihood of them having no children这个比例是他们没有孩子 or only children who won’t pass on the family name.或者他们的孩子没有把家族姓氏传下去的平均概率 But the likelihood of a family name which is held by multiple couples但是由多对夫妻共同拥有的姓氏 going extinct within one generation is 45% to the power of the number of couples.在一代之内消失的概率是45%的n次方(n=夫妻数量) So with a few more people sharing a surname所以有多人使用的姓氏 it becomes very unlikely very quickly that this surname should disappear soon.是非常不可能在短时间内迅速消失的 If you want to know how often your family name is currently in use,如果你想知道自己的姓氏如今有多少人使用 you can find that out on websites such as Forebears.可以在类似Forebears的网站上查找 According to the US census bureau据美国人口普查局数据可知 the most common family names in the US are currently美国人如今使用最普遍的姓氏是 Smith, Johnson, and Williams,Smith Johnson 还有Williams which together make up for around 2 percent of the entire US population.它们加起来约占美国人口总数的2% That’s, of course, not very impressive to China.当然 相对中国来说这个比例并不是很大 In a way, you could say that on this timeline,某种程度上 你可以说在这个时间轴上 the US is somewhere here while China is already over there.美国还在这儿 中国就已到那儿了 As fewer family names become more widely spread,随着姓氏数目变少而拥有这些姓氏的人变多 we might follow the Chinese feat或许我们会跟上中国的脚步 and become more creative about given names.并在取名上更具创造力 So instead of Tim Smith, you might be called the TalentedPeaceful Smith.你可以叫TalentedPeaceful Smith 而不是叫Tim Smith And, instead of Tom, I might be called The Rest of Us.我可以叫The Rest of Us 而不是Tom
  • 2021-08-2470人(5-75岁)的答案:你的生活目标是什么?What goal do you have in life?你有什么生活目标吗? I play Lacrosse and it has a goalie.长曲棍球运动有守门员 No.没有 I’m not really sure, actually.其实 我不是很确定 No.没有 Be very famous and very rich like变得很有名和很有钱 I’ll like to live in Connecticut.我想住在康涅狄格州 I have a lot.我有很多 I want to be famous.我想出名 To just be happy.快乐就好 I’m deciding between an actor or magician.我在演员和魔术师中犹豫 I really want to make a difference in life.我想度过不一样的人生 To be like one of the first pretty Victoria Secrets angles.成为首席维多利亚秘密秀的天使 Probably to be a very famous actress.可能是成为著名演员 To be happy.变开心 To write and publish a novel.写一部小说 然后出版 I want to be a house-husband.我想成为家庭主夫 To find somebody to spend the rest of my life with.寻找与我共度余生的另一半 I would like to raise a family我想要成家 and I would like to have a career that I’m passionate about.而且还想要一份我热爱的职业 To be happy.快乐 I want to wake up every day and love what I do.我想每天醒来 热爱我的工作 To be financially and economically independent.我希望自己经济完全独立 To be happy.快乐 To win an Oscar.拿奥斯卡奖 To travel the world.环游世界 To travel more.尽可能多地旅行 To have creative control of what I do.对我所做的有创造性的把握 I really want to like a bungalow with a backyard我很想要个带着院子的小屋 and my puppy just like running around.然后我的狗狗可以到处跑 To be okay with where I’m at in my life.随遇而安 Freedom. I just want to be able to travel when I want to travel.自由 我想去哪就去哪 I have the goal of buying a house.我的目标是买房 I was definitely like to travel more.我肯定想再去多旅行几次 I just want to get paid for being myself.我想因为做自我 而有价值 To always wake up保持清醒 with the passion for the day that’s gonna come.带着对未来的激情 Retire early and travel.早点退休 然后到处走走 Be happy and to be successful.快乐和成功 To raise my children to be respectful and successful.把我的孩子养成有教养 有成就的人 To be happy.快乐 Just be a good person.做个好人就够了 Retire and make sure my dogs in a row.退休和让我的狗听话点 I want to get to the point when the punches don’t even feel like punches.我想要到达一个更能迎接挫折的阶段 To win an Academy Award.拿到美国电影艺术学院金像奖 To pass on the things that have worked out well in my life.把我生命中成功的东西传递下去 Live like to the fulllest, don’t take anything for granted.好好生活 不要把任何事情都认为是理所当然的 To see the creative project set I’ve been working on, succeed.看到我一直在做的创意项目成功 To live an independent happy life.过独立 快乐的生活 To create and to continue my art business.创造和延续我的艺术生意 Make sure that my children are independent.确保我的孩子能独立 To be a really good mother to my children and做孩子的好妈妈 并且 be a good role model for them.给他们做个好榜样 Just be a happy man.就做个快乐的人 To make a difference.有所作为 Live a very long time, very healthy.能非常健康 长寿 World domination.统治世界 To be content.知足 Stay happy, remain happy.保持快乐 To be happy.开心 To learn as much as I can about myself.尽可能地了解我自己 Be in control of myself.能够控制自己 Continue to have my health.保持健康 I believe I’ve already done that.我觉得我已经完成目标了 Umm. Well, not totally completed it.额 也不是完全做到了 Well, but I’ve retired early.但我提前退休了 I bought a place in Manhattan我在曼哈顿买了房 and I’m living here and enjoying it.现在住在这里 很开心 To make a living singing and acting.以唱歌 表演为生 My goals right now are mostly for my son.我现在的目标主要是为了我儿子 When I die, I don’t want to regret not having done things.我不想在去世时后悔有什么事没做 Right now is happiness.现在目标是幸福 To help others’ day, be happy.乐于助人 开心 I want to try and make life better for someone else.我想努力让别人的生活变得更好 I just look forward to,我打算继续向前看 actually most of my days, it’s a good time.其实 我人生大部分时候都还挺顺心的 To leave something behind that people will say,留下一些什么 让人们会说 oh yeah, she was here.噢 她从未离去 To stay calm and not panic.保持平静 不慌不乱 To make a difference.有所作为 To win an Oscar.拿奥斯卡奖 I aim to live each day我立志过好每一天 with appreciation.带着感激 To be as much as myself as I can.尽我所能 做好自己 I want to be happy.我想要开心 I want to make the people around me happy.我想让周围的人开心 I want to go out with my boots on.我想穿上鞋子出去外面 I want to keep moving.我想继续前进
  • 2021-08-24为什么这么多电影中出现这种令人毛骨悚然的旋律Remember when Mufasa died?记得木法沙死的时候吗? Or when Luke Skywalker’s aunt and uncle were killed?还有卢克·天行者的阿姨和叔叔被杀的时候? Or even when George Bailey decided he couldn’t bear to live anymore?还有乔治·贝利觉得自己活不下去的时候? These are some of the most grim, tragic moments in film history,这些都是电影史上最残酷 最悲惨的时刻 but they have something else in common.但是它们还有点别的共同点 Once you start paying attention, these four notes are everywhere只要你仔细观察 会发现这四个音符无处不在 《善地》2019 《蝙蝠侠归来》1992 《第三类接触》1977 《指环王:护戒使者》2001 And we’ve been associating them with death for almost 800 years.而且其与死亡联系在一起已有近800年了 What you’re hearing in those movies is called the “dies irae,”你在上述电影里听到的音调叫“dies irae” A Gregorian chant created by Catholic monks around the 13th century.是天主教僧侣在13世纪左右创造出的格里高利圣歌 It was used for one specific mass: funerals.用于一个特定的弥撒:葬礼 [Latin chant plays][拉丁吟唱剧] “Dies irae” translates from Latin to “Day of Wrath.”“dies irae”从拉丁语翻译过来就是《震怒之日》 That’s the day Catholics believe God will judge the living and the dead天主教徒认为 上帝会在这一天审判生者和逝者 and decide whether they go to heaven or hell for eternity.并决定让他们是永远升入天堂还是投入地狱 It really is the sort of fire and brimstone passage that’s talking about the day of reckoning它其实是讲述末日审判炼狱之苦的文段 where in essence the decision is being made whether you’re going to heaven or you’re going to hell.本质上是决定你去天堂还是地狱的一个过程 That’s Alex Ludwig, a musicologist and professor from the这位是亚历克斯·路德维希 一名音乐学家兼教授 Berklee College of Music who keeps a big list of dies irae references in movies.他来自伯克利音乐学院 在电影中保留了大量《震怒之日》的参考书目 The musical material and the text combine together to create this sort of ominous sort of sense of dread.那音乐和文字结合在一起就营造出了那种不祥 恐惧之感 Over the next few hundred years, the Church’s influence spread considerably,在接下来的几百年里 教会的影响显著扩大 and the Day of Wrath started popping up in works of art outside the church,《震怒之日》 开始出现在教会以外的艺术作品中 like Mozart’s 1791 symphony “Requiem,” influenced by the music of funerals.比如莫扎特1791年创作的交响乐《安魂曲》 就深受葬礼音乐的影响 In 1830, French composer Louis-Hector Berlioz1830年 法国作曲家路易斯·赫克托·柏辽兹 took the dies irae’s cultural capital to a new level.把《震怒之日》的文化价值提升到了一个新的高度 In his “Symphonie fantastique,” he lifted the melody but left out the words.在他的《幻想交响曲》中 他提高了这首赞美诗的音调 但省略了歌词 Berlioz’s story isn’t set in a church or funeral柏辽兹在《幻想交响曲》中讲述的不是以教会或者葬礼为背景的故事 — it’s about an obsessive love,而是关于一场疯狂的爱情 in which the main character dreams that the lover讲述了主角梦见他谋杀的情人 he murdered has come back as a witch to torment him.变成女巫回来折磨他 The movement is called “The Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath.”这一乐章名为《女巫安息日之梦》 And so it’s set at midnight in a graveyard所以它是在午夜的墓地里进行的 and there are all these creepy spooky pieces of music, including the dies irae.这里面有很多恐怖的音乐 其中包含了“震怒之日” What better piece of spooky music to play?还有什么比这更适合做恐怖音乐? Because this is a piece of music that already had these connotations behind it.毕竟这段旋律里已经有这种内涵了 Other great composers added versions of the dies irae to their works too,其他伟大的作曲家也在他们的作品中加入了各种版本的“震怒之日” like Hungarian composer Franz Liszt’s Totentanz, or Dance of the Dead,比如匈牙利作曲家弗朗西李斯特《死亡之舞》的创作 inspired by this medieval painting depicting suffering and death,就是受到中世纪画作中描绘的苦难和死亡的启发 or Giuseppe Verdi’s Messa da Requiem.再比如威尔蒂的《安魂曲》 And then we have the early silent films.还有早期的无声电影 Where the dies irae is then extracted even further那些电影对“震怒之日”做了进一步的提取 and used as a sort of sample or sort of reference to dark ominous actions并用来暗示某种黑暗不详的行为 taking place on screen.正在上演 Silent films were often accompanied by full orchestras, playing songs无声电影经常借助管弦乐队的伴奏 that helped propel soundless stories along. Like 1927’s Metropolis,服务其无声故事情节的推进 比如1927年的《大都会》 a silent German sci-fi about a dystopia full of robots and destruction这部德国无声科幻电影 描绘了一个充满机器人和破坏的反乌托邦 — which uses the dies irae in a particularly dramatic moment.那部电影在一个格外戏剧性的时刻用到了“震怒之日” As films started incorporating sound,随着电影开始融入声音 the dies irae kept being used as a shorthand for something grim.“震怒之日” 就成了残酷的代名词 Like in It’s a Wonderful Life and Star Wars: A New Hope.比如在《美好人生》和《星球大战:新希望》中 But perhaps its most iconic use is in The Shining.但是它最具代表性的应用可能是在《闪灵》这部影片中 Everyone knows The Shining is a horror film and it’s like, that’s the perfect signifier for the dies irae.众所周知 《闪灵》是部恐怖片 而它也是“震怒之日”完美的象征 The dies irae has come a long way from 13th-century funerals to scary movies.从13世纪的葬礼到恐怖电影 “震怒之日”经历了一条漫长的路 That’s because there’s something about those four notes that makes us feel uncomfortable.那是因为里面的四个音符让我们觉得不舒服 Let’s talk about the music.我们来谈谈音乐吧 The chant is in what’s called Dorian mode — and we don’t have to dig into all the ancient modes like that这首乐曲采用的是“多利安调式”——我们不必过于纠结类似的古代调子 — but today if you would play those first four notes you would say that that’s in a minor mode.但是今天 如果你要演奏这前四个音符 你会说那是个小调式 Minor music has always had this connotation of sadness, of darkness.小调音乐总是有悲伤的 黑暗的含义 If you look at the actual notes, you’ll see that F and E are half steps apart,如果你看了实际的音符 你会发现F和E只相差了半个音调 right next to each other.彼此挨得很近 Our ears are trained not to like those sounds together.我们的耳朵不习惯听到这两个音一起出现 Plus, the notes descend, getting deeper as the phrase progresses.另外 随着乐曲进行 音调越来越低 Musical lines that descend are sad音调往下走的曲子显得悲伤 whereas music that ascends, that rises, is much happier.而音调往上走的曲子会显得欢快 Combine these three things together and you’ve got an inherently spooky song —这三点结合起来 就成了一首让人毛骨悚然的乐曲—— even without all the fire and brimstone.即便没有讲述炼狱之苦 If you talk to a music professor like Alex, they’ll tell you the dies irae is everywhere.如果你和亚历克斯这样的音乐教授交谈的话 他们会告诉你“震怒之日”无处不在 And it is — but maybe not in places untrained ears will catch.的确如此 但是未经过训练的耳朵可能听不出来 The phrase has become so culturally ingrained that even a modified version它已经深深扎根在了文化之中 以至于修改过的版本 — like the theme to The Exorcist比如《驱魔人》的主题曲 — or a shortened version, like the Nightmare Before Christmas还有删减过的版本 比如《圣诞夜惊魂》 can suggest the same scary feeling.都能传达出类似的恐怖之感 It’s just that it it fascinates me that this piece of music still gets used.让我感到神奇的是大家仍然在用这首曲子 I’m still hearing them. I’m still adding films to my list.我仍可以听到这个旋律 仍然在看这类电影
  • 2021-08-24朋友VS 霸凌在座各位有好朋友的 请举手 举手的人 请一个一个告诉我是什么让那个人成为了你最好的朋友? 好的 请 他们从未让我改变自己 他们从未要求你改变自我 还有其他人么?好的 他们总是陪伴在我身边 他们总是陪在身边 好极了 但我想问大家的是 你为什么不说是那个人取得的成绩 他们喜欢的运动 他们开的车 有钱还是没钱 会有人这样想吗? 这些都不重要 但是为什么我们会觉得这些重要呢 请问 你们去哪里会有安全感 大家在学校里感觉安全么 有人这样觉得吗? 当真?为什么呢? 因为你在那里不能做真正的自己 在那里不能做真正的自己 我以为我们是朋友 但是朋友不会说对方的闲话 这就说明你跟我从来都不是朋友 朋友? 什么朋友? 我是你的朋友 如果朋友都像你这样 谁还需要朋友呢? 没有人跟我说话 她告诉我 教室里有霸凌 她在停车场看到了霸凌 她在操场也看到了霸凌 我想知道你们在干什么 当你看见霸凌的时候 你在干什么 学校又凭什么非得为这些霸凌买单 你真的非得跟那个怪胎做朋友吗 你是我朋友 真的 那些孩子们总爱给你找茬 没心没肺的样子 为什么你总是想故意欺负别人? 因为欺负他们很有趣 这就是一种习惯而已 你知道吗 你可能也会成为那个被欺负的人 你不知道有多少人在学校吃饭时(被整得)狼狈不堪 你不知道学校里多少人想自残 他们很介意被(霸凌)的 你不知道有多少人厌恶他们的生活 你不知道为什么会这样 我尝试着躲开他 我发现到大家都看着我 还有人笑我 真的很尴尬 如果我们一起散步 还抱在一起 你朋友会怎么看? 他会嘲笑我们的 离我远点 离我远点 我尝试自杀 因为那些人觉得他们只是在开玩笑 不知道我曾经经历过的地狱般生活 你知道的 被霸凌的感觉是多么难以容忍 别孤立你那些被欺凌的小伙伴 为他们挺身而出 并告诉他们他们能活出自己想要的模样 上帝啊 冷静点 这不是他的错 他觉得很丢脸 说道 事实上 我不喜欢这样 这… 这很伤人 我只是现在感觉到很孤独 我知道你并不在乎这些 但我…… 我想我们是朋友 我们不是朋友 真正的朋友不会拒绝对方的求助 我听到他们在背后议论我 他说若是长成我这样 他宁可杀了他自己 如果实际上我们相貌如何并不是很重要 那么为什么我们互相取笑长相 其实也无关紧要 自杀不是选择 知道吗? 你很清楚这不是一个选择的 对吧 我女儿尝试自杀 因为你女儿在欺负她 当别人打算自杀时 警察只会说不要霸凌这些人了 我曾经不太懂什么是友谊 如果人们觉得跟我熟络了 就会嘲讽我 之前都是我朋友 现在一个也没有了 你看 其实现在我连一个朋友都没有 我曾一度尽力跟你好好相处 我当初怎么会遇到你这种人 我把你们当做我的朋友 我没有朋友 编辑者 Evie May Sellars
  • 2021-08-24为什么一个人拥有2371部手机涉及到我的手机时我会很感性 我见不得有人把它摔了 也见不得有人划伤它 这些是我的宝贝 收藏手机 《伟大的故事》 印度 塔那 这是贾耶什•卡利 他的收藏非比寻常 多年来贾耶什逐渐收集了大量各式各样的手机 一 二 三 四 五 六 七 八 贾耶什 你到底有多少手机? 今天我数了数 一共有2371台 我五六年前开始收集手机 从世界各地搜集 比如…… 欧洲 英国 美国 瑞士 迪拜等很多国家 我妻子对我很生气 因为她所有衣柜都被我霸占了 我所有手机 一些放在卧室里 大部分放在车里 还有些放橱柜里 总之家里每个地方都有 你好 贾耶什对这些手机的痴迷 始于他的第一部诺基亚3310手机 本是不走运的一件小事 却向他证明了该手机的耐用性 一个朋友在我打电话时推了我 手机就从学校二楼的走廊掉了下去 我跑下楼 心里很紧张 它还能不能用? 我把电池放回去 惊喜的是它还能用 从那开始我就喜欢上了诺基亚 这些手机不只是以前的老古董 贾耶什对要收藏的手机有非常严格的标准 因此每当买手机时我都会考虑几件事 一是它需是全新或近乎全新的状态 第二 功能上它要完全没问题 因为买它们不仅为了收藏 还要拥有和使用它们 是的 你没听错 我是诺基亚收藏者 你说说看 我的朋友和家人对此看法不一 有人说我疯狂 有人为我骄傲 也有人说我拿这么多钱打了水漂 但他们其实并不知道事实恰恰相反 尽管贾耶什的收藏在印度同类收藏中已被公认为规模最大 但他有个更大的目标 我要尝试吉尼斯世界纪录 在印度 我已因收藏诺基亚手机而出名 但我认为拥有吉尼斯世界纪录证书 能提高你的声望 对他来说这不仅仅是记录和认可 我非常照顾它们 我盯着它们 看着它们 我也发自内心地感到快乐 《伟大的故事》
  • 2021-08-24如何在演讲中提高自信?我爱这个国家 你们也是 约翰·麦凯恩亦如是 那些在战场上战斗的男人女人们 他们或是民主党人 或是共和党人 或无党派人士 但他们一起战斗 一起流血 甚至牺牲 在同一面光荣的旗帜下 他们不为“红洲”而战 也不为“蓝洲”而战 他们为美利坚合众国而战 乍一看 这些人似乎天生就有这样的才能 能在一大群人面前演讲 向他人传达自己的信仰 他们充满激情 吸引着观众的目光 但演讲的真相是 和其他技巧一样 它包括一些规则和原则 每个人都可以学着像他们一样演讲 甚至超过他们 许多人害怕站在台上演讲 是因为看到这样一大群观众时 他们会变得紧张 他们担忧自己准备不充分 他们开始疑惑自己到底要讲什么 由此导致许多演讲者开始恐慌 这就是人们害怕演讲的原因 告诉你吧 当你在人群面前讲话时 他们不知道你要讲的内容 所以如果你有讲稿 却忽然忘记了部分内容 不需要紧张 因为除了你 没有人知道你的讲稿 那是你的计划 你的稿子 任何错误 也只有你自己知道 无论你说了什么 人们都会认为那是提前准备好的 所以如果你忽略了自己的错误 那么就没有错误 一个成功的演讲就像一次飞行 对于一架飞机来说 起飞时是最危险的 如果起飞成功了 那么接下来的旅行也将安然无恙 演讲也是如此 如果你在前30秒就吸引了观众的眼球 那么整场演讲 他们都会聚精会神 当你意识到人们在专心听你演讲时 你将更加自信 这最初的30秒是如此重要 以至于油管也以此为依据 你点开了一段视频 观看却不足30秒 这次观看就不会被油管记入播放次数 如果一段视频在30秒内抓住了观众的眼球 那么观众很可能会看完整段视频 所以开始演讲时 你要激起观众的好奇心 你可以从一个故事开始 看电视剧时 每一集末尾都有一个让你欲罢不能的点 你心痒难耐 简直不能等到下礼拜的下一集 迫切想知道接下来到底会发生什么 所以在最初的30秒里 你以一个故事开头 你便激起了他们对故事后续发展的好奇心 这使得观众能保持专注 但这只是一种方法 另一个抓住注意力的方法是 从大多数观众不了解的奇闻轶事入手 比如 你想讨论深网 你可以这样开始 大家知道可以在深网购买核武器吗? 是的 我指的是导致许多国际问题的核武器 然后你开始说明什么是深网 它的运行原理以及用途 现在你必须记住的是 不要着急 在开口之前 确保你是冷静的 深呼吸 不要过多关注你将要讲什么 尤其是观众将如何讨论你或看待你 这不是你演讲时该关心的事 你唯一需要关心的是 记下要点 然后直接说出你的想法 不要想着你没记住或忘记了什么 那只会让事情更糟糕 在此我想指出许多人容易犯的错误 不要把演讲稿写得太详细 因为你需要随机应变 照读手稿的视频是枯燥的 没有人会听你在说什么 如果你演讲的时候不停看提词器 观众会听不懂 你也很有可能会迷惑起来 最简单便捷的方法就是写下主要观点 那些能让你想起要点的句子 所以如果你有五个要点 写下五个概括性的要点句 然后自行加入你认为重要的细节 让我们回到飞行的例子 飞机着落的危险仅次于起飞 演讲也是如此 最后的部分将在观众脑子留下印象 所以无论你想通过演讲传达什么 你必须以简短的方式做个总结 给观众留下印象 如果你曾经尝试过这些方法 请在下面评论让我知道 当然如果你也有演讲的经历 请与我们分享
  • 2021-08-24为社么千禧一代不买房子?假设召集一百名25到35岁之间 拥有平均工资水平的人 你认为多少人有自己的房子? 答案是仅仅27人 但是还在20年前 拥有者人数仍有65 这之间有着近40%的巨大落差 难道现在年轻人都不想买房? 可是 这千禧一代中一半的人把它作为首要人生目标 比孩子和婚姻都更重要 事实是 只有9%的人对买房毫无兴趣 所以年轻人究竟为何不买房了? 答案其实显而易见 他们弄错了人生的优先次序 先不提懒惰牛油果理论 问题是 千禧一代是否已被驱逐出房产阶梯 如果是 这又意味着什么? 其实 年轻人在一些方面比以前的确更晚 平均19岁参加工作 这比20年前晚了一年半 同时结婚生子的时间也更晚了 这样看来晚点买房 也许只是“放慢人生节奏”的一部分 但是别忘年轻人是想要买房的 同时 购房年龄的变化也比其它几项要大得多 所以要追根究底 我们需要算一算 请想象一名“千禧一代” 要购买一座房产 只靠平均工资 不靠外界援助 这样有可能吗? 好消息是 年轻人比20年前要更富有 财富增长了有22% 但是考虑到支出 我们来看他每月能存多少 首先是基本支出 例如税收和退休金供款 可能还有学生贷款 然后是房租 为了省钱在和别人平摊 最后是生活费 包含吃穿用度各项 此数据来自约瑟夫·朗特里基金会 他们对英国大众横断面调查后 得出了 要过上正常生活 所需的最低支出 以不至于隐居世外 诚然 这个标准的生活并不自在 但是总算是留下了总收入的将近四分之一 还行吧 那我们来选购一座普通房产 接着是坏消息 同样是二十年 房价相比原来上涨了152% 意味着 之前房价是平均收入的四倍 现在是八倍 嗯好吧 这么看还算有好有坏 但是按照平均水平每月近400磅的存款 多久能买下一座普通房产呢? 假设房产的按揭是工资的四倍 即使这样也是相当大的数额 按照这样的速率 大概是 哦 291个月! 呃 稍等 那是24年! 好吧 好吧 我知道这样评论区肯定要爆炸 并不是就没人买得起房了 仍有一些捷径存在 但是重点是 跻身房产阶梯比以前困难很多 更少人选择买房 更多人选择私人租赁 所以这意味着什么? 接下来 是你的才艺展示时间 数据显示 出生在租赁房中的儿童数量 仅十年间就翻了一倍 这并不乐观 因为研究曾指出租赁房屋 在所有选项中最不安全 质量最差 同时价格最昂贵 更加骇人的是 有人预测 三分之一的“千禧一代“在退休后仍会租房 收入在退休后一般会减半 在付完按揭的情况下还算可观 但如果仍在承担房租 情况就比较悲观了 用养老金支付房租需要更高的政府养老金预算 有研究估计接近五十万英镑 为了补偿这个差额 本来就庞大的住房改善预算 可能还需要增加154% 这一切 都表明大众对于社会不平等的关注 十名25到35岁的年轻人中 仅一人能够只靠收入购房 跨代财产也起到了很大的帮助作用 有能力买房的年轻人中 62%的人得到了父母或者朋友的援助 而55岁以上的人群里 这个情况仅有6% 这种起步经济援助的影响是如此突出 英国决议基金会曾表示 家族财产的继承可能比个人的劳动所得 对生活水平影响更大 如此也不奇怪 70%的千禧一代会认为 拥有房产是个遥不可及的幻想
  • 2021-08-24为什么不应该在左车道开慢车A few months ago I took a road trip from Chicago down to New Orleans.几个月前我开车从芝加哥到新奥尔良旅行 And on the way back up, we were somewhere either in Tennessee or Missouri,返程途中 在田纳西州或密苏里州某地 I got pulled over, it was my first time getting pulled over.我被警察拦停 这是我第一次被拦停 And it wasn’t for speeding.但不是因为超速 it was because I was driving in the left lane.而是因为我当时在左车道行驶 So there are basically two types of drivers in the world.大体上 世界上有两种司机 There are people who get really upset about all the people driving slowly in the left lane.有些人会对所有左车道慢行的人感到气愤 That’s Joey. He fits into that first group.他是乔伊 他属于第一类司机 And then there are a lot of drivers who had no idea that this is even a problem.还有许多司机甚至不知道这是个问题 Yeah, that was me.没错 就是我 Sorry about that.很抱歉 I don’t drive much.我不怎么开车 The truth is, when drivers hang out in the left lane,实际上 驾车在左车道慢行 it makes traffic worse and more dangerous for everybody involved.会使交通变得更糟并使大家都陷入危险 Here’s what that looks like.就像这样 If you have relatively slow drivers scattered amongst the right and left lanes,如果相对较慢的司机散布在左右车道 faster drivers have to repeatedly slow down,快车司机不得不反复减速 and weave back and forth changing lanes many times to pass all of them.通过多次变道来回穿梭来超过慢车 So if you’re going five miles slower than everyone else如果你比其他人慢5英里/小时 and you’re traveling in the left lane,并且在左车道行驶 it forces them to make dangerous moves trying to pass you on the right,会迫使快车做出从右侧超车的危险行为 which is more likely to cause an accident.更可能导致车祸发生 But there’s a better way for traffic to flow但有个更好的使交通畅通的方法 and that’s if we only use the left lane for passing.即我们只用左车道超车 If all the slower drivers are in the right lane,如果所有慢车都在右车道 a faster driver can pass several at once,快车可以一次性超过多辆车 and get back over to the right, which cuts down the total number of lane changes然后返回右车道 这样就会减少变道总次数 and eliminates the slowdowns.并且无需减速 Move over, or get a ticket.让开 不然就开罚单 That’s the message from state troopers to people driving too slowly in the left lane.这个警示语是州警给在左车道行驶缓慢司机的 Some people argue that as long as they’re going the speed limit ,有些人觉得只要自己不超速 they shouldn’t have to move over.就不用让道 But there’s evidence that slowing down and changing lanes但有证据表明减速和变道 is actually more dangerous than speeding.其实比超速行驶更危险 Research has shown that the strongest predictor of an accident研究表明 事故最关键的预测因素 is variance from the average speed of traffic.是车辆与交通平均速度之间的差值 And a car going five miles per hour slower than the surrounding traffic比周围车辆慢5英里/小时的车辆 has a greater chance of causing an accident比车速快上5英里/小时的车辆 than one going five miles per hour faster.更有可能引发交通事故 That’s why every state has some law on on record that所以每个州都有法律法规 restricts the use of the left lane.限制左车道的使用 In 29 states, any car that’s moving slower than the surrounding speed of traffic在29个州中 任何车速低于周边车辆的车 should be in the right lane.都应在右车道行驶 And in 11 states, the laws are stricter还有11个州 这项法律尤为严格 they say that the left lane is only for turning or passing.明确规定左车道只用于转向或超车 Historically police didn’t really pay that much attention to slow left lane drivers,在之前警察不会太关注左车道的慢车 but more recently there have been campaigns in places但最近有些地区已经有相关行动 like Washington, Texas, and Ohio例如华盛顿 得克萨斯州 俄亥俄州 where police are actually issuing tickets to people they spot traveling slowly in the left lane.警察确实向左车道开慢车的司机开了罚单 “The reason why I stopped you is“我拦下你的原因是 the law in the state of Washington is keep right except to pass.”根据华盛顿州法律 如非超车须保持右行” “This is something that has always been illegal“这样做一直是违法的 and against the law here in Michigan,同时也违反了密歇根州法律 But now officers are rolling out this new education effort to help the public understand现在官员也在进行宣传教育工作帮助民众了解 just what they can and they cannot do when it comes to this type of driving.”遇到此类情形哪些可以做哪些不可以” Now, it doesn’t have to be this way.当然也不一定是这样 A good example of this is the German Autobahn德国高速公路是很好的例子 so this is Germany’s highway network,这是德国的高速公路网 which has long stretches of road with no speed limits有很多长路段都是没有限速的 and it has surprisingly low accident rates.但事故发生率却出奇的低 One reason for this, some researchers think is研究者认为原因之一是 that German drivers are more likely to stay in the right lane for traveling德国司机更喜欢在右车道行驶 and only use the left for passing.并只用左车道超车 That shared norm helps keep them safe.这个规范保证了他们的安全 So fellow drivers I am sorry抱歉各位司机 I didn’t know the rules.我当时不知道这个规定 But I’m not alone,但不止我自己是这样 and if more people understand how this works,如果让更多人明白这一原理 we will have much fewer traffic jams.我们的交通拥堵问题将会少很多 And our roads will be a lot safer, too.道路也会更加安全
  • 2021-08-24这面镜子能够反映真实的你这是阿兰穆拉镜子 是用锡铜合金做出来的一种稀有的镜子 只有少数家族才知道制作这种镜子的秘诀 毫不夸张地说 人们都说这种独特的镜子可以照出最真实的你 “旁观者的眼睛”《伟大的故事》 印度 阿兰穆拉 我叫哈瑞达斯 我会做阿兰穆拉镜子 阿兰穆拉位于喀拉拉邦的帕塔纳姆蒂特塔 kannadi代表镜子 用来看物体的普通镜子起源于比利时 这种普通镜子的背面是水银涂层 所以镜像在通过玻璃时产生了折射 但是阿兰穆拉镜的前表面是由人工打磨的 所以镜像不会有任何偏差 众所周知阿兰穆拉镜子十分昂贵 昂贵的原因有两个 一是材料成本 二是人工成本 因为它是纯手工打造的金属镜子 制作一个需要花费更多的时间和精力 我们用黏土做成的模具制作阿兰穆拉镜子 将圆盘的一面打磨到所需的镜子厚度 在其中加入蜡 加热时 蜡的融化会使金属更好地流动 保持相同厚度的间隙并将两个模具拼起来 再用黏土把他们包裹起来 加热后的模具需要约六个小时冷却 在模具冷却之后 将它打破 打破之后 我们得到了一块阿兰穆拉镜子 然后我们开始打磨并设计镜子 阿兰穆拉镜主要是用作送人的礼品 作为宗教用品 阿兰穆拉镜会与灯一同陈列 我从爸爸那学到了阿兰穆拉镜的制作秘技 将来 这项技术会由我的儿子继续传承 这是我的恳求与愿望 《伟大的故事》
  • 2021-08-24让当代舞蹈包容所有人作为一名舞者 被告知再也不能走路 是最糟糕最可怕的事了 但跳舞其实并不一定非要站起来 而是要把你的内心表达出来 我可以舞动身体 这是和之前完全不一样的经历 《让当代舞蹈包容所有人》 我是马克•布鲁 轴心舞蹈团的艺术总监 轴心舞蹈团是一家包容所有人的公司 既有身体健全的 也有残疾的舞者 我们的核心是把健全和残疾舞者结合 让他们一起做独特的事 我们从这个动作开始 舞蹈世界里 我们用“翻译”这个词 比如 编舞老师教给我一个动作 而有些残疾舞者不能站起来 那我怎么用我自己的身体 “翻译”这个动作 现在我看看你会怎么做 每次编舞老师教我一个动作 我都会认真学 看她怎么舞动 她想用这个动作表达什么 然后我试着去领悟 琢磨怎么让我的轮椅一起舞动 换手 找到像有人在拉你那种感觉 挺起胸膛朝向天空 在我看来 德马科 非常理智而又谦逊 他是最让其他舞者信任的人 完全信赖 跳舞让我感到非常自由 归于自然之感 我在寄养环境下长大 我曾经一无所有 但那不成问题 更像是种自由的状态 有时 观众第一次看到一帮 坐在轮椅上的舞者 那一刻 他们看到的只是这些 他们会想 他们一会怎么跳 然后当这场演出开始时 观众眼中就看不到轮椅了 有天我们表演完 有个坐轮椅的孩子走向我 他告诉我 他一直梦想着跳舞 但一直以为不可能做到 而看到我们之后 他意识到自己其实可以
  • 2021-08-24用人的头发做衣服我用了被认为是垃圾的材料 我从中看到了机遇 头发不是垃圾 它其实是我们身体的衍生物 我是来自巴黎的Alix Bizet 我用人的头发做衣服 我从理发师那里拿到头发 用针毡做成静电植绒 什么头发我都能利用 除了没头发以外 我做的衣服男女都能穿 这种材质不像毛织品 它是人的 有自己的特质 我的头发 我的头发 我的头发 头发展现出了 社会的规则 不同的文化和过去的历史 在我们身上留下的印记 加勒比地区的非裔奴隶没有梳头的权力 那是我们的痛苦回忆 我们该如何解放自己的身体? 我挑战社会规则 向他们展示可能性 我认为头发是我们理解社会 和构建身份认同的一种重要方式 百分百纯人体织物 《人生百态》
  • 2021-08-24日本糕点师创造了400多种口味的Kit KatCheesecake, banana, rum raisin,芝士蛋糕 香蕉 朗姆葡萄干 purple sweet potato, wasabi?紫薯 芥末? These are just a few of the Kit Kat flavors of Japan,这些只是日本Kit Kat的几种口味 a country where the love of this crispy chocolate wafer runs deep.它在一个热爱脆巧克力威化饼的国家逐渐壮大 And one man continues to push the flavor frontier further and further.还有一个人在不断地开发新口味 But before we get to him, here’s a little background info.但在谈到他之前 先介绍点背景 Kit Kat1973年来到日本 这是一款非常受欢迎的巧克力 事实上 它是日本巧克力市场的头号产品 And there are a lot of flavors to choose from.这里有很多口味可供选择 到目前为止Kit Kats已经在日本销售了400多个品种 And those flavors can change based on where you are in the country.在这个国家的不同地区 能买到的口味会有所不同 从北海道到冲绳 每个地区都有独特的品种口味 例如北海道有甜瓜味 九州有紫薯味的 And the genius behind many of these flavors创造出这些口味的天才 is a classically trained pastry chef.是一位受过正规训练的糕点厨师 我是Yasumasa Takagi 是一名糕点师 在过去Kit Kat只有牛奶巧克力口味 自从我加入这行之后 就不再是这样了 我创造出的第一种味道是百香果味的 热带的百香果 我创造了50多种不同的口味 但是我试制过的样品比这多得多 有些口味是能让人发出“哇” “咦”这样的惊叹的 我在我店里的厨房开始工作并制作样品 首先我们准备巧克力 之后切割和准备威化饼 把巧克力倒进模子里 然后把切好的威化饼放进去 再把巧克力倒在上面 有很多客户在焦急地等待新的口味 并好奇“会是什么口味的呢?” 许多人说“我们现在就想要买” And for good reason.这是有原因的 In Japan, Kit Kats have evolved在日本Kit Kats已经进化了 into more than just a sweet treat.它不仅是一种小甜食了 Kit Kat听起来很像日语的Kittokatsu(你一定会赢) 它起源于学生参加考试时 人们会说“用Kit Kats为他们加油!” 现在人们都是给学生一根Kit Kat 然后说“祝你好运”或“相信一切都会顺利” 它的意义真的已经超越了一块巧克力 And for those of you who think it’s all business for Chef Takagi,如果你觉得这对糕点师Takagi而言只是生意 give me a break.那你就错了 我的最终目标 是要把快乐 感动和惊喜带给人们 有了花式繁多的Kit Kats 才能让不同的人找到自己喜欢的口味 从中得到快乐
  • 2021-08-24我与嗜睡症I mean, there are days that I do give up,有段日子我确实放弃了 and those days make me super sad.那时我失落到了极点 I call my mum crying, like,我打电话跟妈妈哭诉 I don’t want to do anything apart from sleep.我只想睡觉 别的什么也不想做 Narcolepsy has changed my whole life.嗜睡症改变了我整个生活 我瞌睡不断 Excessive daytime sleepiness is what I think it defines as.我把嗜睡症理解为白天严重嗜睡 They say that people with narcolepsy feel据说患有嗜睡症的人就像 like if a normal person was not to sleep for 48 hours一个48小时都没有睡觉 and then just be put in a working day.又得继续投入工作的正常人 That’s how I feel every single day.这就是我每一天的感受 If, four years ago, you were to put me in this position now,如果四年前 叫我陷入目前这种状况 and tell me,”By the way, in four years, you’ll have to sleep eight times a day,”并跟我说“四年间 你每天得睡八回 “you won’t really be able to sit down for lunch, dinner or breakfast without falling asleep,”无法清醒地坐着享用一日三餐” I’d be like,”There’s no point in living. I don’t want to live.”我会觉得“活着没有意义 我不想活了” 23岁的Belle Hutt深受嗜睡症困扰 这种病使她无法自抑地每天要睡15回 并受幻觉折磨 The narcolepsy has changed my life.嗜睡症改变了我的生活 I don’t really go out and socialise that much in the evening.夜间我不大外出和社交 I get very paranoid or, I suppose,我变得异常偏执 或者说 I get very panicky if friends invite me out,如果朋友邀请我出去 我会很恐慌 because I want to go and I want to go and experience that sort of stuff with them,因为我很想出去和他们一起尽情玩耍 but I’m so scared that I’m gonna fall asleep.但很害怕到时会睡过去 I can’t get an office job.我没法找到一份办公室的工作 I wanted to do interior design at university原本想上大学读室内设计的我 I couldn’t even finish school.连中学都没读完 I can’t even sit and have a meal without, without struggling.甚至于只有强打精神 我才能坐着吃饭 I’ve had boyfriends I’m out for dinner with,我曾有过共进晚餐的男朋友 I was starting doing something wired,当我开始做一些奇怪的事 and he really was like,他的真实反应是 “What the hell are you doing?!”“你到底在做什么” Like, made me feel so small.这让我感到非常无助 I’ve had boyfriends in the past actually,事实上我以前交往过的男朋友 who have broken up with me because of it.都因嗜睡症而跟我分手了 I would say Maikel is one-of-a-kind在应对我的问题方面 in the way that he deals with what I’ve got.Maikel可谓独一无二 Belle和Maikel已交往三年 最近 Belle决定离开英国的家人 搬去阿姆斯特丹 和他住在一起 I first met Anna Belle when I was on a skiing holiday in 2014.我初遇Belle是在2014年的滑雪度假中 We went out for some pizza that evening with a big group,那晚 我们一大群人出去吃匹萨 and came home and then, my brother Nick said,回家后 我的兄弟Nick说 “Did you notice that blonde girl just falling asleep all the time?“你注意到那个长睡不醒的金发妹子了吗?” and we were like,”Oh, she must have been so wasted.那时我们觉得“她一定是疲惫过头了 Jesus, that’s weird!”天啊 感觉怪怪的” The day after I saw her in the après ski bar again,第二天我在滑雪休息吧又看到了她 and I was like,”How drunk were you last night? “我说“昨晚你是喝得有多醉啊? You just kept falling asleep.”一直昏睡不起” And then she was like,” Well, actually, that’s not just the alcohol .”她回我“实际上 不仅是喝酒的关系” And then, when you said that you’d googled it当你说你上网搜索过嗜睡症 and it was like such all bad videos and everything结果似乎都是不怎么好的视频和内容 and then I just said,我只是说道 “Just get to know me, and trust me, it’s not like that.”“试着了解我吧 相信我 事实并非如此” We got one time we were in Paris,有一次我们在巴黎 and people were just staring kind of you are some circus act人们盯着她 就好像在看马戏表演 That was one moment where I was really close to stepping in.那一刻我真的忍不住要做点什么了 So when Belle is drifting into an episode,当Belle不知不觉地要症状发作时 I can kind of notice that straightaway,我能立即注意到 because one moment we’re talking about something因为前一刻我们还在谈论某事 and she’s quite lively, and then她还相当活跃 the other moment she’s just kind of gone,可下一刻她就走神了 and she’d be talking about a completely new subject开始讲一个全新的话题 and doesn’t really know what she’s saying.也不大清楚自己在说什么 We used to watch films together, 我们过去常一起看电影 and sometimes a series,有时看电视剧 but it’s not really fun, because…但其实不怎么有趣 … she’s just asleep most of the time.因为 她大部分时间都在睡觉 So now, I never watch a series with her any more.现在我再不和她一起看电视剧了 If she doesn’t have this sleep, she’ll stay,如果她那会儿不睡觉的话 she’ll keep fighting and fighting and fighting with you,就会跟你一直吵来吵去 she won’t snap out of it她没法摆脱这种习惯 so it’s good for her to be safe and have a sleep.所以 安心睡觉对她来说也蛮好的 I think she’s always quite sharp when she wakes up.我觉得 她醒来时总是很敏锐 She’s like… She just wakes up, and,”How long was I gone for?” is always the first question.醒来后第一个问题总是“我睡了多久” What time do you guys need to go?你们需要几点走? [SHE MUMBLES][她咕哝了一声] What time do you guys need to go?你们需要几点走? Maikel, what’s the time?Maikel 几点了? It’s 4:05.四点零五分 What time do you want to go?你想什么时候走? 20 past.再过二十分钟 Nice little power nap.打个小盹元气满满 How long did I sleep for?我睡了多久? – Er, ten. – Oh. Nice.– 十分钟 – 噢 太棒了 I needed just that little..and just ten minutes.我只需要睡那么一小会儿 十分钟 Then just back. Back now!之后就会醒过来 现在清醒啦! So I’m just packing my stuff now,我现在就收拾行李 actually going back to the UK.要回英国去 I’m really excited, I’m going to see my mum.心情很激动 我要见到妈妈了 wow!哇! I discovered I had narcolepsy when I was 17.十七岁时我发现自己得了嗜睡症 I said to my mum,”I sleep really well at night我对我妈说“晚上我睡很饱 and I’m still falling asleep in the day. Can I go to the doctor’s?”但白天还要睡 能去看看医生吗?” This one, I look like, um, a genie.这一张我看起来像只精灵 I remember, we were like,”What is narcolepsy?”我记得当时我们问“什么是嗜睡症?” I remember you saying,”Is there a cure?”我记得你说“能治愈吗?” The doctor was like, ” It will only ever actually just get worse.”医生说“这种症状只会越来越糟” At school, there were a few people in lessons that would tap each other,上学时 有个别喜欢恶作剧的同学 they would be like they would film me,他们会拍摄我打瞌睡 my friends have drawn on my face, like, countless times.朋友们在我脸上画画 太多次了 Actually, the teachers were the worst,说真的 老师才是最差劲的 because the amount of times they’d be like,因为他们总在说 “Belle,what were you doing last night?“Belle昨晚你干什么去了?” “Belle,maybe don’t go out so late.”“Belle那么晚就不要出去玩了” Actually teacher threw a pen at me once and they like,有次老师朝我丢了一支笔 说 “Don’t fall asleep in my class! Am I that boring?”“别在我的课上睡觉!有那么无聊吗?” so that’s actually why I left school.因此我退学了 My biggest concern was leaving you alone –我最担心的就是留你自己在家 are you going to fall asleep in a sort of dangerous situation?危急情况下 你会不会也睡过去呢? Yeah, because I fell asleep one time when you were in France, and I had that会的 你在法国那时 有次我睡着了 really bad hallucination, and I called you, crying my eyes out.出现严重的幻觉 我撕心裂肺地哭着喊你 The biggest scare is the hallucinations.最让人害怕的就是幻觉 Thinking that there’s somebody stood outside her bedroom,认为有人站在她的卧室外 somebody coming in her bedroom, somebody holding her down,有人进到了她的卧室里 有人把她按倒了 and when you’re not there, it’s very scary, because,当你不在时 这真的很可怕 is there somebody actually in the house? Is there somebody going into her bedroom?会不会真有人在房子里?进了她的卧室? Because she really does believe that there is somebody there.因为她真的相信有人在那里 Everyone worries about their children, it’s quite a natural thing.担心自己的孩子是人之常情 Less so now, because Maikel is an absolute huge support.现在好多了 因为Maikel给了很大的支持 接受两种药物治疗的同时 Belle发现锻炼也能帮她保持清醒 她用#energeticnarcoleptic话题与病友们建立联系 When I’m in the gym and当我在健身房 I’m doing running or high-intensity stuff,跑步或者做其他高强度运动时 that’s when I feel the most amazing, and I thought,那是我感觉最棒的时候 我想 “I want to be a personal trainer.”我要成为一名私人健身教练 Hey, Belle. Hey.嘿 Belle OK, let’s go! Make sure you stretch when you get to the top.开始吧 手抬高时 全身拉伸 Six, five, four, three…6 5 4 3 …… After I’ve done an exercise class, I literally feel –上完一节训练课后 我真的感觉— it might sound a little bit cliched – but I just feel on top of the world,听着有点老套—但就是感觉站在世界之巅 and I think that’s because I know the extreme other end.我想这是由于我感受到了相反的极致状态 I understand that some people are like, “Yeah, you feel good after exercise.”我理解有些人说的“运动后就是很舒服啊” But I’m like,”You don’t understand HOW great I feel.”但其实你无法体会我感觉有多么多么好 After I’ve done a class, instead of driving straight home,上完一节课后 我不会立马开车回家 I normally just come in here and take a quick nap.我通常都会来这里短暂小睡 And these are really convenient – I don’t actually know what they’re used for,这些用起来很方便 我不大知道它们的用途 exercise wise, but I use them as a pillow. And then,运动有关的 但我把它们当枕头用 I grab one of these blankets.然后我还会拿一条毯子 I suppose they knew I was coming when they built the gym!估计他们造这所健身房时 就知道我要来 It may be only, like, 10 or 15 minutes,只要十或十五分钟 but everyone here completely understands and knows不过这里的每个人都完全清楚并理解 and they’re like,”Belle’s in the yoga room, sleeping,”他们会说“Belle在瑜伽室睡觉呢” and it’s completely normal.这再正常不过了 I don’t think I could have got to where I am today如果没有妈妈和Maikel without my mum and Maikel.我不会走到今天 I think those two are the two that really stand out.他们二人尤为坚定地支持我 I will do everything I can我会尽我最大的努力 to overcome every aspect that hits me of narcolepsy,去战胜嗜睡症对我方方面面的打击 because I’ve got it, but it doesn’t have me.我是得了这病 但它决定不了我的人生
  • 2021-08-24养蜂人用蜜蜂做电子音乐蜜蜂正处于麻烦中 由于人类的干扰 它们正以惊人的速度灭绝 但是我们的星球需要它们 此人利用从蜜蜂声音中获取的数据 来提高人们对这一点的认知 并且他用实验性的电子音乐做到了 从我出生到现在 蜜蜂的数量消失了一半 我想通过蜜蜂的声音 吸引大家关注蜜蜂面临的困境 伟大的故事:不可思议的曲调 英国伦敦 毕欧尼是我的化名 并不是我的真名 欢迎来到我的蜂房 大约在20年前 我开始在蜂房给蜜蜂录音 我总是穿着这款经典防峰服 因为我想让大家关注我的音乐 我所有的音乐都是来源于蜜蜂的声音 都是我的蜂房里蜜蜂的声音 我将它们录制并加工成新的声音 还加上蜂蜜的声音 电流穿过蜂蜜产生的声音 毕欧尼使用自制的设备 从蜜蜂的不同声音和频率中提取数据 蜂后是高音 工蜂是中音 雄蜂是低音 我从录音中提取样本 再把他们放在合成器上 然后在表演时 我会现场播放这些音乐 我周游世界 受邀参加对生态感兴趣的音乐节 他希望有足够多的人能被他的音乐打动 进而思考他们对蜂群数量的影响 我认为蜜蜂的声音和人类有某种关联 这感觉很种情绪化 所以我认为 如果人们通过蜜蜂的声音而对它们 产生在科学和教育方面的兴趣 那人们也会对保护生态 保护蜜蜂感兴趣的 伟大的故事
  • 2021-08-24全世界最年轻的女理发师我想成为一名理发师来赚点钱 用来付房租或者买点福乐鸡 我叫做Neijae Graham-Henries 我今年九岁 是一名儿童理发师 我是世界上年龄最小的女性理发师 我不是自学成才的 但我希望我是 我必须去初级理发师学院进修 这个方法你早就给我演示过了 不 我没有 我从没教过你这个 你教过 以前我就已经做过这个了 理发店里全是男人 并无冒犯之意 但我其实并不在意 我只是想着挣到钱就好 理完啦 我专注于这个领域 我不希望任何一个客人和我说话 工作太多了 我只会跟那些名人说话 当你没完成工作时 那就是你的责任 所以要先把工作完成 其实这并不是我的爱好 理发对我来说是很平常的事 我不知道为什么 只是感觉还不错 立即订阅 查看更多 点击下方
  • 2021-08-24遭沉船诅咒的泰坦尼克号幸存者You ever hear that expression, so and so was born to do this or that thing?你是否听过这种说法 某人生来就是做某事的 Well, Violet Jessop was pretty much the opposite of that,而维奥莱特·杰瑟普几乎恰恰相反 and after surviving an incredible three separate ship accidents在经历了三次令人难以置信的船难之后 with two sinking in just five years,有两次发生在五年内 one could say that she probably shouldn’t have ever set foot on a boat in her life.有人或许会说 很可能她这辈子就不该踏上船一步 Depending on the way you look at it, Violet either had the best, or worst luck in life.维奥莱特是最幸运也是最不幸的 取决于你怎么看 Born in Argentina to Irish immigrants,维奥莱特出生于阿根廷的爱尔兰移民家族 Violet contracted tuberculosis as a child.她在孩童时感染了肺结核 This was sometime in the late 1800s,那是19世纪末 when medical technology’s best solution to tuberculosis 以当时的医疗技术 治疗肺结核的最佳方法 was getting massaged with vinegar or huffing down a can of turpentine.是用醋按摩或者吞下一罐松节油 Of course this was a rather bold scientific leap forward 跟中世纪的“皇室之触”相比 from the middle age’s tuberculosis treatment known as “the royal touch”,这当然是一个相当大的科学飞跃 where sufferers would line up and wait to be touched by an English or French king or queen.所谓皇室之触 指患者会排队等待英/法国的国王或王后的触摸 Exactly how a sufferer would be touched is unknown- was it a quick atta boy pat on the head,患者究竟是如何被碰触的我们不得而知 was it a quick atta boy pat on the head是快速地拍打额头 or a sportsman-like ‘good game’ slap on the rump?还是像运动员庆祝赢得比赛一样轻拍屁股呢 Sadly, the knowledge is lost to history.可惜的是 这些都湮没于历史了 Despite being given only months to live,尽管被告知只有几个月的生命 little Violet knew deep down in her heart that小维奥莱特内心深处知道这一点 she had a higher calling in life-她的人生有一个更高的使命—— namely to go three rounds with Poseidon himself, the angry lord of the sea,即与愤怒的海王波塞冬进行三轮较量 and beat him in each matchup.并在每一场比赛中击败他 She managed to survive her tuberculosis, though sadly her father would die and the family尽管她的父亲不幸去世 全家被迫搬回英国 was forced to move back to England.但她还是设法挺过了肺结核 Violet’s mother soon found work as a stewardess on Royal Mail Line ships不久维奥莱特的母亲在皇家邮政轮船公司当上了海乘 at a time when the British and the French were engaged in fierce competition当时英国和法国正在进行激烈的竞争 to see who could build the fastest, most luxurious passenger liner to cross the Atlantic.比较谁能建造最快 最豪华的横渡大西洋的客轮 Violet’s original plans for her life was to attend a convent维奥莱特最初的人生计划是去修道院 and give her life to religious service,在宗教服务上奉献一生 but when her mother’s health deteriorated但当她母亲健康状况恶化时 Violet became a stewardess to help support her illing mother为了帮助生病的母亲 维奥莱特也当了海乘 Soon she was working for the legendary White Star Line, putting in 17 hour days不久后 她进了传奇的白星航运公司 每天工作17小时 and being paid the equivalent of about 230 British pounds per month.每月获得约230英磅的工资 Violet was assigned to the Olympic,后来 维奥莱特被分配到奥林匹克航运公司 which at the time was the largest passenger linerin the world.它是当时世界上乘客量最大的航运公司 On September 20th, 1911, the Olympic was cruising near the British battle cruiser the HMS Hawke.1911年9月20日 奥林匹克号航行在英国战列舰霍克号附近 As the Olympic made a wide turn to starboard,当奥林匹克号向右大转弯时 the width of the turn took the captain of the Hawke by surprise,转弯的幅度让霍克号的船长大吃一惊 and he was unable to maneuver the Hawke out of the way在两船相撞之前 fast enough before the two ships collided.他没能快速将霍克号移开 A sturdy cruiser,作为一艘坚固的巡洋舰 the Hawke’s bow had been designed to smash into other ships霍克号的船头被设计用来撞击其他船只 and sink them by ramming into them,并把它们撞沉 which resulted in large tears on the Olympic’s hull这导致奥林匹克船体的巨大撕裂 and the flooding of two of her watertight compartments.并且她的两个密封舱进水了 Despite this she managed to steam back to harbor for repairs under her own power.尽管如此 她还是设法靠自己的力量回到港口修理 The Hawke meanwhile suffered so much damage that she nearly capsized on the spot,与此同时 霍克号遭受了严重的损坏 几乎当场倾覆 and had to be towed back to a shipyard for repairs.不得不被拖回船厂修理 Clearly the Hawke, designed to sink ships by ramming them, 很明显 被设计用来撞沉船只的霍克号 was not particularly good at its jobs并不特别擅长它的工作 which is probably why it was sunk by a German U-boat two years into World War I这可能就是一战爆发两年后 它被德国潜艇击沉的原因吧 The Germans, unlike the British, apparently preferred to sink ships by exploding them,跟英国人不同的是 德国人显然更喜欢炸沉船只 rather than trying to ram into them and failing miserably.而不是试图撞到它们并悲惨地失败 Violet likely suffered great trauma from the collision,维奥莱特可能在碰撞中遭受了巨大的创伤 and after seeing how horrible the Hawke had been at its job of sinking ships by ramming them,看到霍克号撞击船只的工作多么糟糕之后 she probably had serious doubts about British ship engineering.她可能对英国船舶工程产生了严重的怀疑 That’s likely why when the legendary Titanic-这可能就是为什么当传说中的“泰坦尼克号”—— billed by the British as unsinkable-被英国人称为“永不沉没之船”—— came looking for crew,前来寻找船员时 she was likely extremely skeptical of that claim and reluctant to join the crew她很可能对这种说法极其怀疑 不愿加入船员队伍 Nonetheless, her friends persuaded her to take the job on the Titanic,尽管如此 她的朋友们还是说服她接受了泰坦尼克号上的工作 officially going down in history as the worst friends in the world.他们便作为世界上最糟糕的朋友被正式载入史册 On the fourth day out, early in the morning, Violet was awakened in her bunk 出海的第四天 一大早 维奥莱特在床上 by the terrible sound of metal screaming and buckling under great pressure.被金属在巨大压力下弯折的刺耳声吵醒了 The Titanic had encountered the fatal iceberg that would be its doom.泰坦尼克号撞上了致命的冰山 那将是它的末日 Violet was immediately ordered up on to the deck,维奥莱特立即被命令上甲板 and would later tell that the passengers were strangely calm.随后却发现乘客们出奇地冷静 With the ship’s officers enforcing a strict “women and children first” policy,船上的工作人员执行严格的“妇女和儿童优先”政策 at gun point sometimes,有时候甚至动用了枪 Violet boarded a boat full of women and had a child thrust into her arms.维奥莱特登上一艘载满妇女的船 手里被塞了一个小孩 Incredibly the distraught mother of that child, lost in the chaos,难以置信 心烦意乱的孩子母亲在混乱中迷失了 would be reunited eight hours later aboard the Carpathia as it took on survivors.八小时后才在喀尔巴阡号上与幸存者团聚 What might be the strangest of all though is the fact that on the night of the sinking,可能最奇怪的是 在沉船的那天晚上 just hours before as Violet was getting ready for bed,就在维奥莱特准备睡觉的几个小时前 she had been reading from a book containing a translated Hebrew prayer.她在读一本书 里面有一段翻译过来的希伯来祷告文 The prayer had been given to her by an old Irish woman, and was rather peculiar这祈祷文出自一位爱尔兰老妇人之口 而且奇怪的是 as it was meant to help protect the reader from fire and water.它的意思是保护读者免受水火之灾 Violet read the prayer herself, and then made her roommate read it as well.维奥莱特自己读了 也让她的室友读了 Whether the prayer worked or not,不管祈祷是否奏效 Poseidon’s second attempt at murdering Violet Jessop had failed.波塞冬第二次谋杀维奥莱特·杰瑟普的企图也失败了 But he was not done trying.但他没有放弃尝试 Two years later, Germany decided it was time to kick off its favorite 20th century hobby两年后 德国决定是时候开始它在20世纪最喜欢的一项爱好了 of starting, and losing terribly, world wars.那就是发动世界大战 但却输得一败涂地 Violet volunteered to serve aboard the HMHS Brittanic,维奥莱特自愿加入不列颠尼克号 a sister-ship to the Titanic,它是泰坦尼克号的姐妹船 albeit with serious design changes after the latter’s sinking.尽管在后者沉没后进行了认真的设计更改 The Brittanic had been an ocean liner like the Titanic,不列颠尼克号曾和泰坦尼克号一样是艘远洋客轮 but at the start of the war had但在战争开始时 been pressed into British service and converted into a hospital ship.这艘船被英国海军征用 并被改装成一艘医疗船 On her sixth voyage to the Middle Eastern theater 为了把受伤的人带回英国 in order to pick up wounded and bring them back to England,在她第六次前往中东战场的旅途中 the Brittanic found itself crossing the Mediterranean Sea once more不列颠尼克号发现自己又一次穿越了地中海 As she passed by the Greek isle of Kea, an explosion shook the ship.当它经过希腊的基亚岛时 一声爆炸使船摇晃起来 Probably having an extreme case of deja vu,可能是有一种极其似曾相识的感觉 Violet immediately heeded the ship captains’ call to prepare to abandon ship.维奥莱特立即听从船长的命令 准备弃船 The Brittanic had accidentally wandered into a minefield laid down by a German U-boat.不列颠尼号不小心进入了一艘德国潜艇埋下的雷区 While hospital ships were not legal wartime targets, mines sadly don’t discriminate,虽然医疗船不是合法的战时目标 但地雷不会区分 and the Brittanic had the bad luck of running straight into one.并且不幸的是 不列颠尼号直接撞上了其中一个 The explosion was small enough that those on the opposite end of the boat simply assumed爆炸非常小 船上另一端的人都简单地以为 the ship had run over a smaller ship, and was not in any serious danger.这艘船只是撞上了一搜小船 没有什么严重的危险 The reality was that the explosion had ruptured watertight bulkheads实际情况是 爆炸击穿了水密舱壁 and flooded one of the boiler rooms.并淹没了其中一间锅炉房 Luckily for the Brittanic, the sinking of the Titanic had led to the ship going back幸运的是 不列颠尼号吸取泰坦尼克号沉没的教训 into drydock to have her watertight bulkheads elevated to rise all the way up to B Deck.把船开进了干船坞 并将水密舱壁一直升高到B甲板 This helped keep the ship afloat for a while, 这使船漂浮了一会儿 but unfortunately nurses had opened the portholes on the lower decks 但不幸的是护士们为了给病房通风 in order to ventilate the wards,打开了下层舱的舷窗 which was against standing orders.这是违反规定的 As the ship listed to her side, the open portholes allowed the sea water to rush in,当船侧倾斜时 海水涌进了开着的舷窗 adding to the flooding all across the ship.导致船上洪水泛滥 The coast of the Greek island of Kea was close, 希腊基亚岛的海岸很近 and thus despite an increasing starboard list,因此尽管船不断向右侧倾 the Captain of the ship turned her towards the far away beach.船长仍然把船转向远处的海滩 His hope was to beach the massive ship, but the explosion had destroyed the steering gear他希望让这艘巨大的船靠岸 但爆炸摧毁了舵机 which made steering by rudder impossible.导致转舵失效 Instead, the captain ordered the port shaft be cranked up to a higher speed than the starboard shaft,船长命令提高左舷轴的转速 超过右舷轴 helping steer the ship via variable power to the propellers.通过给螺旋桨提供可变动力来帮助掌舵 Slowly the ship turned towards the island and even made headway to the distant beach.船慢慢地转向小岛 甚至向远处的海滩驶去 While it had taken over an hour for the Titanic to sink though, 泰坦尼克号一个多小时后才沉没 the Brittanic was in serious trouble just fifteen minutes into her encounter with the sea mine.而不列颠尼号遇到水雷十五分钟后便陷入困境 In a state of panic, a few crewmembers lowered two lifeboats into the water 在一片恐慌中 几名船员将两艘救生艇放下水 despite not having been told to do so.尽管没人命令他们这么做 The Captain realized what was going on and immediately ordered the ship’s engine be stopped.船长意识到发生了什么事 于是立即下令关掉引擎 Sadly, the order was given too late.遗憾的是 命令下达得太晚了 The two lifeboats that had been lowered were sucked into the still turning propeller and水中的两艘救生艇被吸进了仍在转动的螺旋桨里 along with their passengers, chopped to pieces.救生艇连同乘客都粉身碎骨了 The Captain ordered no more lifeboats be launched and restarted the ship’s engines,船长下令禁止其他救生艇下水 并重新启动了引擎 hoping to still be able to beach the massive ship.希望还能让这艘巨大的船靠岸 As the sinking increased however, it became apparent然而 很明显 随着下沉的加剧 that it would be impossible to reach the shore in time,让船及时靠岸是不可能的 and thus the Captain ordered the engines cut for good,因此 船长下令把发动机永久关闭 and gave two long blasts on the ship’s steam whistle- the official order to abandon ship.并用轮船汽笛鸣两声长笛——即官方弃船命令 By then the water had already reached the bridge,这时 水已经漫过了舰桥 and the Captain was able to simply walk off the deck and into the water, 船长得以走下甲板就到了水中 swimming to a nearby boat and coordinating the rescue from there.并游到附近的一艘船上 在那里指挥救援行动 Of 1,065 people aboard, only 30 would be lost in the accident.船上有1065人 只有30人在事故中丧生 Sadly, most of these were from the lifeboats that were launched without permission, 不幸的是 其中大部分来自未经允许下水的救生艇 their passengers sucked into the massive propeller and sliced into mincemeat.艇上的乘客被巨大的螺旋桨切成碎片 Despite surviving three disasters at sea, 尽管在海上经历了三次灾难 Violet incredibly decided that she would continue her career on the ocean.难以置信的是 维奥莱特还是决定继续在海上工作 Or perhaps by this time she was pretty convinced 或许此时她已经确信 that there was really nothing left Poseidon could throw at her to kill her once and for all.波塞冬对她已无能为力 没法杀死她了 Violet would go on to spend 42 years at sea before retiring维奥莱特在海上度过了42年 直到退休 and passing away in May 1971, at the ripe old age of 83.并于1971年5月去世 享年83岁 We know you probably have a ‘sinking feeling’ that this video is over, but hey cheer up,你可能觉得这个视频已经结束了 打起精神来 because you can keep the watch party going by clicking this video over here.如果你点击此视频 你就可以一直观看啦 Or perhaps you prefer this other one over here instead.或者你更喜欢这边的这个 Either way, you can’t lose, so click one now!不管哪个 反正没坏处 点击一个吧
  • 2021-08-24为什么在美国私人可以买老虎While we’ve all been trapped inside self-isolating,当我们全都困在家自我隔离时 Netflix’s new docu-series, ‘Tiger King,’网飞公司新推出的纪录系列片“虎王” has become the latest must-watch guilty pleasure.成为最新必看的热门电视节目 The true-crime series takes us into the world of the exotic animal industry,该真实犯罪系列揭露了珍禽异兽的交易 and introduces us to some of its biggest players并向我们介绍了业内的最大玩家 – Joe Exotic, Carole Baskin, Doc Antle, and others.如Joe Exotic Carole Baskin 医生Antle等 But one big question many are left with is,系列片给我们留下了一个疑问 ‘How were these people allowed to own these animals in the first place?’“这些人最初怎样被允许拥有这些动物?” Some are endangered species, and most are extremely dangerous.其中有些是濒危动物 有些是极为危险的动物 The fact is that the exotic animal trade is a multi-billion-dollar industry,事实上 珍禽异兽交易是产值数十亿美元的产业 and it’s not limited just to big cats.交易不仅限于大型猫科动物 In different parts of the United States,在美国的不同地区 you can get bears, chimpanzees, snakes, elephants, giraffes,你能买到熊 黑猩猩 蛇 大象 长颈鹿 and it’s all totally legal.而它们全是合法的 The few federal laws regulating the possession of exotic animals,是有几部联邦法律规定了珍禽异兽的所有权 including the Endangered Species Act,其中也包括了《濒危物种法案》 the Lacey Act, and the Animal Welfare Act,《雷斯法案》和《动物福利法案》 do not regulate private ownership,但都没有规定私人所有权 and they’re mainly focused on regulating这些法律的重点是 the import and export of wild animals into the country.规范野生动物的进出口业务 There are also different laws depending on state, city, and county ordinances,各州 市 县也有些不同的法律 wherein some might ban the possession of exotic animals,其中有些也许禁止拥有珍禽异兽 others may only require a basic permit or certificate.而其它的 可能只要求有基本的许可或证书 Hawaii has the strictest animal regulations in the United States.夏威夷有全美最严厉的动物法规 Their laws are designed to protect and preserve their native plant and animal life.但他们只是为了保护本地的动植物 Meanwhile, Florida, where Carole Baskin, one of the characters in ‘Tiger King,’“虎王”主角之一Carole Baskin所在的佛罗里达州 maintains an animal sanctuary,设有动物保护区 classifies non-domesticated animals into one of three classes.他们把未驯化的动物分为三类 Class 1 animals cannot be ‘pets,’ due to the dangers involved.第一类动物因具有危险 不能作为宠物 While, class 2 animals can be obtained with a permit for personal use.第二类动物可以获得许可后 成为私人拥有 Both Class 1 & 2 animal permits and licenses require additional standards,取得一级二级动物许可和执照都有附加条件 like caging and veterinary requirements.如笼子规格和兽医健康证明等 Class 3 animals can be obtained as pets第三级动物只要申请人通过许可和问卷调查 by applying for a permit and filling out a questionnaire.就可成为私人拥有的宠物 Additionally, all the classified animals along with venomous reptiles此外 所有的分类动物和有毒的爬行动物 require a license to capture, possess, or exhibit.应有执照才能捕捉 占有或展出 These licenses and permits are pretty easy to get.这些执照和许可都很容易取得 In spite of the different regulations,尽管有各种法律规定 some people have been able to sidestep the few existing laws,有些人善于打法律的擦边球 by labeling their exotic pets as Emotional Support Animals,比如把稀有宠物说成是伴侣动物 or by becoming licensed breeders or exhibitors,或是成为持证养殖者或展出者 and of course, people often buy animals in less restrictive states,当然 人们通常在控制宽松的州购买动物 and illegally transport them to their more restrictive home states.然后非法运输到严格限制的所在州 And if you’re wondering where these people even get the wild animals in the first place?你想知道这些人最初从哪里得到野生动物? Well, apart from directly obtaining them from poachers,这么说 除了直接从偷猎者手中购买 traffickers, breeders, zoo owners, and so on,也可以从动物贩子 养殖者 动物园主手中得到 the advent of online shopping has really opened the door to exotic animal ownership.网络购物也给购买珍禽异兽打开另一途径 A quick Google search will give you websites like,谷歌一下 很快就能搜索到一些诸如 exoticanimalsforsale.net, hoobly.com, and petzlover.com,exoticanimalsforsale.net hoobly.com和petzlover.com的网站 all of which have classified ads for wild animals.所有这些网站都有野生动物分类广告 The good news is, there have been some changes to exotic animal laws in recent years.好消息是 近年更新了一些稀有动物的法律 Several states have banned or restricted such pets.几个州开始禁止或是限制这些宠物 ‘Tiger King’ mentions Zanesville, Ohio,“虎王”中提及的俄亥俄州赞斯维尔 where a local man let loose 50 of his wild animals, before taking his own life.有当地人在自杀前放走了他的50只野生动物 Most of the animals were killed by local law enforcement,其中大部分被执法部门杀死 and in the aftermath, Ohio totally banned the ownership of exotic pets.事后俄亥俄州完全禁止拥有稀有宠物 There’s also the Big Cat Public Safety Act,还有一部《大型猫科动物公共安全法》 which has 227 co-sponsors including这个法案由227人提议发起 Sen. Bernie Sanders and Rep. Nydia Velazquez.其中有参议员Sen. Bernie Sanders 和共和党议员Nydia Velazquez If enacted, this law would ban nearly all private ownership of big cats一旦颁布 这部法律将几乎完全禁止私人拥有大猫 and prohibit public contact with them.并禁止公众接触大型猫科动物 In order to ban the private possession of wild animals,为了禁止私人拥有野生动物 existing federal and state laws need to be reformed.需要修改现有的联邦和州法律 States need to adopt uniform regulations on individual ownership of exotic animals,总之 各州要对珍禽异兽的私有和交易 and the trade industry, in general.制定统一的法规 But these laws are difficult to change,但法律修改会有困难 as animal trade industry groups, spend huge amounts of money lobbying congress,因为动物交易集团会花巨资游说国会 and they can tie up court cases on the issue,他们会用漫长的申诉程序 with a lenghty appeals process.阻碍该议题的案件裁决 Thanks to the viral success of Netflix’s ‘Tiger King,’由于网飞成功推出“虎王”并广为传播 a tremendous amount of attention has been brought to this issue,这个问题引起了公众的极大关注 and ultimately that attention may actually cause a shift in public perception,这种关注最终可能使公众改变观念 and end the wild animal trade industry once and for all.从而彻底结束野生动物交易
  • 2021-08-24客服人员内心真的想和你打电话吗?– Yes, I know how long you’ve been holding对 我知道你已经等了很久 and I don’t care.可我不在乎 如果让客服人员说实话 – Why yes, I’d love to spend the next 10 minutes of my life为什么不 我很乐意浪费10分钟 being told what a horrible person I am by a stranger.被一个陌生人骂 说我有多讨厌 – I’ll definitely transfer you to my supervisor我一定会把电话转到我的主管那 who will give you the same information I’ve just give you他的答复就和我刚刚告诉你的一模一样 – As soon as you started yelling, I zoned out.你一大喊大叫 我就会走神 – I’m not sorry I placed you on hold for five minutes.让你等个5分钟我也不会觉得抱歉 I was hoping you’d hang up.我希望你挂断电话 – Oh, you’re never going to use our company again?噢 你将不再和我们公司合作? Great, that means I’ll never have to talk to you again.太好了 那意味着我再也不用和你说话了 – I’m going to tell you the issue is resolved (laughs)我会告诉你问题已经解决了[轻笑声] so that I can go on break.这样我就可以小憩会儿 – I’m telling you that I’m finishing up with another customer, 我跟你说我刚才在和别的客户通电话 but really I’m just catching up on office gossip.但我其实是在聊办公室八卦 – I asked you to repeat that because I was too busy texting on my phone. 我让你重复一遍是因为我忙着在手机上聊天 – I’m going to hang up on you 我会挂断你的电话 and pretend it was an accident.假装是不小心碰到了 – I’m attempting to sound empathetic我假装很热情 because quality assurance is listening.是因为经理在监听 – The only perk of my job is not seeing your face这份工作唯一的好处就是看不到你的脸 – Please stop telling me this pointless story.请你停止跟我说这些没用的故事 Just tell me your problem告诉我你的问题是什么就行 so we could both get on with our day.这样我们就可以继续各自的愉快生活了 – I’m saying this with confidence,我说得十分自信 but I have no idea if this information is true.但我其实也不确定这个信息的真假 – I fully intend to look you up on Facebook after this我真的很想过会儿去脸书上找你 just to see how much of an (censorship beep) hole you are.只想看看你到底是个多大的傻蛋 – I’m not sorry you feel that way.我并不抱歉让你有这种感觉 – I’m not sorry that happened.我并不抱歉发生这样的事 – Oh, no, I understand. I just don’t care.哦 不是的 我懂的 我只是不在意 – This job has made me dead inside.这工作真的让我烦死了 – This job has given me a fear of talking on the phone.这份工作让我害怕打电话 – Listen, babe, call me hun one more time,听着 小家伙 再敢叫我一次亲爱的 and I’ll burn this place down.我就放把火烧了这里 Have a great day.祝你生活愉快
  • 2021-08-24法国制钟师家族塞夫里耶 法国 我们的钟声响了200多年 法德瑞·帕卡德厂创始至今已制造了大约120000只钟 我们的钟声响彻全世界 感谢捷恩斯对本期节目《伟大的故事》的大力支持 敲响时代之钟 我叫皮埃尔·帕卡德 是帕卡德铸造厂的第六代继承人 我叫菲利普·帕卡德 是帕卡德铸造厂的第七代继承人 我叫克莱恩·帕卡德 是帕卡德铸造厂的第八代继承人 法德瑞·帕卡德厂的故事开始于1796年 当时所有在法国大革命中被摧毁的钟 都需要重新制作 我的祖先想 “我?创建铸钟厂?为什么不呢?” 于是铸钟便代代相传至今 我们的钟大量出口国外 在加拿大 我们有10000多只钟 在美国 也有超过10000只钟 我们最大的钟叫做“世界和平钟” 它是世界上最大的摆钟 你甚至可以说全世界每分钟都有帕卡德的钟声 如今的帕卡德钟仍采取 公司创建之初的原始铸造技术 我们的铸钟法依赖于三个关键特点: 第一 钟的形状或轮廓 第二 金属的品质 我们的钟是青铜做的 第三 也是最重要的一点 是要有一位技术娴熟的调音师 钟的声音是主音 需由其他和音围绕着 为了制造出好听的钟声 和声需要作为一个整体 进行完美的调音 这里有重达4吨的火炉 可以直接加热金属 整个步骤中我最喜欢的一步 就是浇铸金属 你可以感受到熔化的金属传来的热量 也可以看到它流入模具之中 这是一个十分激动人心又美丽的时刻 我应该是在6 7岁时 就开始在厂子里到处乱跑 如今我已经16岁了 但我还在上学 不能每天都来厂子里工作 你在这世上肯定不会遇到许多的钟制造厂 它们都很不寻常 在我非常年少时 我就将造钟视为我的使命 我一直对自己说 “我要来这里工作” 我为我的孩子们延续这一传统感到自豪 重要的是这一传统激励着他们使他们快乐 这是一个要求你有热情的职业 我有个愿望 希望我们的钟声在未来许多年里声响不停 法德瑞·帕卡德基业长青!
  • 2021-08-24为什么人们这么不擅长送礼物?What’s the worst holiday gift you’ve ever received?你收过的最糟的节日礼物是什么? For me, it’s pretty easy.就我来说 这很好回答 My mom used to consider Chanukah我妈曾认为光明节 like a belated back-to-school holiday.就是一个迟来的返校节日 We would get binders, pens, staplers.我和我妹会收到活页夹 笔 订书机 Once my mom wrapped this huge mystery present for my sister有一次 我妈给我妹妹包了一个神秘巨大的礼物 that she thought was a dollhouse.我妹妹原以为那是个玩具屋 But it wasn’t a dollhouse.但并不是 It was a trash can.它只是个垃圾桶 Most of us are actually terrible at giving gifts.实际上 大多数人在送礼物时做的都很糟糕 About $70 billion dollars worth of presents 在美国每年会有 are returned every year in the U.S.价值约七百亿美元的礼物被退货 So how do we get… less terrible?那怎样才能不那么糟糕呢? Here are 3 ways to improve your gift-giving game around the holiday我将介绍3条送出更佳节日礼物的方法 One, stop trying to make your gifts so delightful.方法1 别再送华而不实的礼物了 Research has shown that givers are obsessed研究表明送礼物的人太在意 with the moment of unwrapping a gift,礼物被拆开的那一瞬间 even more than the gift itself.而忽视了礼物本身 We envision the look of delirious happiness on their faces,我们预想对方拆开礼物时脸上的惊喜表情 and the ecstatic exclamations, 和狂喜的尖叫 like, wow! Oh my gosh! You really know me!就像 哇哦!我的天呐!你太懂我了! Ironically, givers are selfish.讽刺的是 这种送礼物的人是自私的 We want something from giving:他们想要的是对方收到礼物时 those looks of delight, those exclamations.流露出的喜悦和赞叹 This is why items like hyper-specific kitchen gadgets,这就是像非常特殊的厨房小玩意 and fancy vintage clocks all seem like fantastic gifts.和华丽的古董时钟这类礼物看起来很赞的原因 But it turns out, recipients often want things但实际上 收礼者经常更希望收到比较实用的礼物 that are far more practical — things they can actually use.——他们能真正用的上的东西 In one study, researchers asked givers and recipients在一项研究中 研究人员要求送礼者与收礼者 to rate gifts along two metrics:从两方面来评价礼物: Desirability, like a complicated but fancy coffee maker一方面是吸引力 比如一台操作复杂但华丽的咖啡机 and feasibility另一方面是实用性 like a coffee maker you can actually use 比如一个你不需要看好几个小时说明书 without studying the instructions for several hours.就能使用的咖啡机 They found that givers reliably chose the desirable gifts.结果表明送礼者更乐意选择有吸引力的礼物 But recipients just prefer feasibility.而收礼者比较喜欢更实用的礼物 So what’s the most practical gift you can give所以你能送出的能让对方真正感激你的 that people might actually be grateful for?最为实用的礼物是什么呢? Two, when in doubt, give cash.方法2 当你不知道送什么好时 给现金吧 When economists study gift giving,当经济学家研究送礼时 they’re very concerned with one thing: waste.他们很关心一件事情:浪费 Let’s say hypothetically 假设 that my grandmother buys me a sweater that I hate, 我奶奶给我买了一件我不喜欢的毛衣 and your grandmother buys you a sweater that you hate.你奶奶也给你买了一件你不喜欢的毛衣 Sorry, grandmothers.对不起啦 奶奶们 Before long, we’re talking about billions of dollars in waste in the economy.不久 我们将面临数百万美元的经济损失 Economists call it “deadweight loss”经济学家称之为“无谓损失” and they estimate that up to 30% of the value of all gifts is wasted.据估计高达所有礼物总价值的30%都浪费了 That means — the companies wasted time making the gift,这意味着——工厂浪费了时间生产这些礼物 It means the givers wasted time giving it out,送礼者浪费了时间把礼物送出去 and it means the recipients wasted time returning it.收礼者也浪费了时间退礼物 There’s a way to fix this.有个方法可以解决这个浪费问题 There is a very specific gift that is always worth the exact same有一种礼物对送礼者和收礼者来说 to both the giver and the receiver.总是具有相同价值的 It’s called cash.那就是现金 The good thing about cash is 送现金的好处是 that the receiver can always make use of 100 percent of its value.现金的价值能够完全被收礼者利用起来 The bad thing about cold, hard cash is that… it’s cold.坏处是给冷冰冰的现金显得冷漠 It doesn’t say anything except, 送现金缺少人情味 “Here, take some money.”只能表示“这是给你的钱” So this is a conundrum.所以我们面临一个难题 How do we design a gift-giving formula如何找到一条送礼法则 that is as efficient as cash,使其和现金一样实用 and as sentimental as you want to be?又能充分体现人情味 Three, just give people what they ask for方法3 送对方要的东西 A good way to get what you want得到你想要的礼物的一种好的方法就是 is–shocker!–to tell people what you want.别不信——就是告诉对方你想要什么 A 2011 study looked at Amazon wish lists to determine2011年有一个针对亚马逊上的愿望清单的研究 if people were more appreciative of gifts that were on their wish lists 探究人们是更喜欢自己清单上的礼物 versus gifts that were total surprises.还是那些出乎意料的礼物 It turned out that when people got gifts that weren’t on their list,研究表明当人们收到清单之外的礼物时 they considered them less thoughtful and less personal.他们会认为这些礼物送的不明智也没个性 Surprise is overrated 我们高估了所谓的惊喜 — we’re happier to get what we ask for.——我们更高兴收到自己想要的东西 We do everything we can to keep gifts top secret:我们总是尽力去维持礼物的神秘性: We wrap them so they don’t look like they came from a store.我们精心包装礼物使它们看上去不像是从商店买来的 We tear the price tags off.我们撕掉礼物的价格标签 But we are spending money here.但是包装礼物的同时我们也在多花钱 If you want to make your gift count,如果你想要你的礼物有价值 stop obsessing about the moment of unwrapping and surprise.不要仅仅在意对方打开礼物的瞬间和惊喜 Find out what the people that you love want而是要弄清楚你爱的人想要的东西是什么 and get it for them.然后把它作为礼物送给他们 This is You Are Here,这就是You Are Here本期的内容 a show about the science of everyday life.You Are Here 带你关注日常中的科学 I’m Derek Thompson.我是 Derek Thompson Thank you for watching.感谢您的观看
  • 2021-08-24如何快速改进会议59 Seconds《五十九秒》 Let’s imagine you’re about to hold a meeting想象下你要召开一个会议 to make an important decision.做一个重大决定 And you are in a hurry.而时间非常紧张 Is it better to hold the meeting standing up or sitting down?站着开会和坐着开会 哪个更好? Researchers from University of Missouri asked groups of people密苏里大学的研究者让几个组的人 to imagine that they’d crashed on the moon,想象他们撞击了月球 and then only a few pieces of equipment had survived the crash.然后只有一些设备在撞击后保留了下来 The groups were asked to identify这些组被要求识别出 which bits of equipment were most important,哪些设备最重要 and their decisions were compared to the correct answers supplied by NASA.再将他们的决定与美国国家航空航天局提供的正确答案进行比较 Some of groups held their meeting standing up,一些组站着开会 and the others held them sitting down.另一些坐着开会 sit-down meeting lasted 34% longer,坐着开的会议时间延长了34% but two types of meeting produced the same number of correct decisions.但两类会议产生的正确决定的数量是一样的 And so next time you need to hold a meeting in order to make an important decision,所以下次你需要为重要决策开会时 you can save time by simply standing up.你通过站着开会就能节省时间
  • 2021-08-24“影子舞团”|连线杂志And three, two, one.三 二 一 You never know where a good idea is gonna come from.你永远不知道灵感会从哪冒出来 Good ideas are like, a mouse in your house.灵感就像一只住在你家里的老鼠 You know it’s there, but you don’t know when you’re gonna see him你知道它在那儿 但你不知道什么时候能遇见它 or where he’s gonna be,也不知道它要去哪 so you just set lots of traps and just be patient.所以你只能设很多陷阱 耐心等其上钩 We are the artistic directors of Pilobolus.我们是Pilobolus舞团的艺术总监 -Renee Jaworski -and Matt Kent.-我是Renee Jaworski -我是Matt Kent Pilobolus started in 1971 up at Dartmouth.Pilobulus舞团于1971年在达特茅斯 It was started by four men, who had no dance training.由4名未接受过舞蹈培训的男性创立 It’s a dance company, traditionally.就传统意义而言 它是一个舞蹈机构 We make things with our bodies,我们使用肢体来诠释事物 and that can go from dances它可以是舞蹈形式 to being part of theatrical productions也是戏剧作品的一部分 to what a lot of people see online,也是许多人在网上看到的 our shadow work.我们的影子舞 As the artistic directors作为艺术总监 we’re trying to bring the group together around a shared vision.我们试着组建一个拥有相同愿景的团队 One of the great things about having a partner is that而拥有搭档的其中一个好处是 while one of us is totally in the moment,当我们中的一个人止步不前时 but the other person is going like…ah.其他人就会… What should we do next, or like,我们下一步该做什么 或是 already kind of, in that editing process已经在构思着过程了 The performers, like,对于表演者们 their job is to just be interested in everything.他们要做的就是保持对任何事物的兴趣 Sometimes, you have to like, kind of rein people in.有时 你必须得管好他们 – because they’re gonna just keep… – Generating,-因为他们会一直保持… -思维活跃 you have to go “Wait! No, do that! That’s the one! Let’s work on that.”你要说等等就这样 “对 就是这样 我们就这么干” A lot of people identify Pilobolus with the idea很多人把Pilobolus定义为 that when you brought Pilobolus dancers together,当你把Pilobolus的舞者们聚在一起时 you couldn’t tell where one body started你无法分辨出每个人 and the other one started,身体的开始处 With shadow, it’s sort of the same thing.而影子也一样 You’re just overlapping them in the shadow,你只是把身体重叠在阴影中 and you don’t know where one’s head is and where one’s butt is.你不知道一个人的头在哪里 屁股在哪里 So it’s the same type of physicality,所以这是同类型的肉体性 just exploded.只是身体聚集在了一起 When we started working with the shadows,我们最初接触影子舞时 we didn’t really know what the rules were并不知晓其中规律 So you’re playing with this new medium所以是在和这个新媒介打交道 and slowly discovering these very simple rules.然后慢慢发现这些非常简单的规则 When you move closer to the light source, you get bigger,离灯源越近 影子就越大 If you move towards the screen, you get smaller.离屏幕越近 影子就越小 We have a cone of light that we call.我们有一个所谓的锥形灯 That’s the cone.那就是个锥形灯 That’s made from the light that shines out.它是由射出的光所构成的 How do you come in and out of that如何进出锥光灯 cone is a big part of the discussion.是我们讨论的一个重点部分 We also started to realize that我们也开始意识到 we could use not just our bodies我们不仅能利用我们的身体 but cloth and props.也可以利用服装和道具 And we can make things look 3D when they’re not really 3D.我们能使非3D事物拥有3D的视觉效果 So the more we played in it,而我们这样表演得越多 the more the rules started to open up.越多的规则也开始出现 And we had more of a vocabulary to work within.我们有了更多可以工作时用的的词汇 To see the human bodies first先看到人的躯干 and then see the image click in is magical.再看到躯干构成的图象显现 很神奇 We found that if we shortcut that,我们发现 如果直接呈现出最后的图象 then some of the magic gets lost.那么那些神奇的感受就消失了 There is a sense of three moments.就像有三个瞬间 Getting into place is usually a roll-in,第一 进入一个地方通常是滚进去 we have coronas, just prior to the creation第二 在创造之前 我们先用光晕 and a corona is something that sprays outward.第三 光晕是向外漫开的 So, four, it comes together to create the composite image,第四 结合在一起便创造了复合的图像 Then we have the composite image.然后我们得到了复合的图像 And then the roll-out at the end.然后舞者在结尾时滚动退出 Seven principles of creating shadows表演影子舞有7个信条 One of them is to understand其中一个是明白 what is flat depending on where you are.什么是平的取决于你在哪里 In fact, in order to make people look straight,事实上 为了让人体看起来是平直的 sometimes they have to be in a kind of weird position.舞者们有时不得不做很奇怪的姿势 If you look at the flower, the guy that’s at the top,例如你看这朵花 在最顶上的人 he’s leaning back so that he can match everybody else.他必须要向后仰才能与其他人保持一致 You can shorten or lengthen a body part你可以通过稍微向屏幕移动或稍微远离屏幕 by moving it slightly toward the screen or slightly away from the screen.来缩短或加长身体部分 We use clothes that have stretch to them,我们采用具有弹性的服装 so that we can expand and create以便于延展和创造出 bellies and stuff like that.肚子之类的东西 As you get closer to the projector,你越靠近锥光灯 your image gets larger and larger.影像就会变得越来越大 As you get closer to the screen,而你越靠近屏幕 your image gets smaller and smaller.影像就会变得越来越小 So if you bring two people所以如果你把两个人放到中心 from the center and they start to move apart然后他们开始分开 it can give the illusion that one is growing and one is shrinking这样会给人一种幻觉 即一个在放大 一个在缩小 When you’re making these composite sheets,当你把这些片段组合起来时 there’s a whole other, kind of, dance and choreography而从幕后看 that happens on the other side.这是一种完全不同的舞蹈和编舞 There are times that literally,有时为了效果 people are in a shape, and they are,舞者会摆出某种动作 就像这样 your final job, and you’re in some weird thing你最后的姿势可能会很奇怪 is to take your hand and go做出这种姿势然后伸出手 because you’re covering some tiny little因为你要遮住一些细微的 pinprick of light that’s ruining it.会影响观感的针孔光 Two, one, face.二 一 脸 The amount of teamwork that the dancers and the performers have舞者和表演者的团队合作 if there’s one person who’s not paying attention,只要有一个人不注意 the whole thing can come crashing down.那么整体就都会垮掉 Everybody has to pay attention所有人都必须全神贯注 and sort of be, watching each other’s back就像是 互相小心注意对方行动 Three, two, one. Show me the… Bye.三 二 一 展示… 再见 Wired challenged Pilobolus to create images《连线》杂志挑战Pilobolus舞团 they’ve never seen before表演一种他们从没见过的图案 Challenge #1挑战1 -Oh, Dinosaur. -That’s right.-哦 恐龙 -对 All right, let’s do it.好了 来吧 -I’m gonna work on the head. -I’m gonna do a tail.-我要做头 -我要做尾巴 -Who do we need for tail?谁来做尾巴? -We need teeth. -Yeah.-我们需要牙齿 -对 I think, the person doing the edge can make the teeth.我觉得在边缘部分的人能做牙齿 What about this?那这个行吗? I think we can do a finger. 我想我们能做成爪子 – Well, Let’s go.好了 来吧 Challenge #2挑战2 Oh, it’s snakes, I can do it.哦 是蛇 这个我可以 -It’s a beholder. -It looks like Medusa.-是个旁观者 -看起来像美杜莎 Maybe that’s a sidepiece.这可能是个侧面 Profile. 这是侧面 Basically, that’s Heather’s head and then we just have hands and hair.简单来说 那是Heather的头 我们做手和头发就行 -Just the hair around it. -I know.-做周围的头发就行 -明白 It’s the hair, it’s the hair.头发 就头发 Zack, you gotta be bigger with the eyeball.Zack 你做的眼球一定要再大一点 There we go.开始吧 -Okay, there, let’s do that. Yeah, yeah, yeah. -Here we go.-行了 干活吧 -开始吧 Gets sucked in!快进来 And the orbs are coming out and the eyeballs opening up.神球将至 魔眼将睁 To the left.向左 To the right.向右 Forward.向前 Crazyyyyyy!抓狂! And close up.停下 And come out.结束 Who’s next?下一个呢 Challenge #3挑战3 I think we just switch space.我想我们只要转换地方 It’s like a nice dome, a flat top, with two little…它像个漂亮的圆顶 上面是平的 和两个小…… -We need three men. -Tubes will come out.-我们需要3个人 -管子要伸出来 Let’s focus on the head, because that’s the identifier.让我们关注头部 因为那是恐龙特征所在 Limitations are awesome for creativity.困境造就创造力的蓬勃发展 They are super helpful,困境是非常有帮助的 because if the world is your oyster,因为如果你可以随心所欲 then it’s really hard to make a decision.那就很难做决定了 But when there are limitations, there are rules.但是当有限制的时候 就会有规则 and you work within those rules,而你要利用那些规则 and suddenly, you have to be creative突然 你只有灵感迸发 to sort of bend those rules,才能够改变这些规则 and push the boundaries of what is possible in that world.而后在这世界里突破可能的局限 When we’re tackling a new idea,当我们在实践一个新的想法时 we are challenged.就是在直面挑战 we don’t have one person who’s directing the group.这个团队并没有一个指挥者 Our ideas come from我们的想法来源于 all the peripheral and as they coalesce into the center,当所有的影子外围合并到中心时 that’s when they start to merge,那就是它们开始融合的时候 and that’s when we start to see what it actually is.也就是我们开始看到它实际上是什么的时候 The information isn’t always at the beginning.信息并非总在开头 The information sometimes, is all the way at the end,有时 信息也会在最后 and that informs the rest of the piece,同时还启发我们剩下的部分 or somewhere in the middle,或者是中间的某段剧情 or it’s like, in this little moment又或是 在某个 that doesn’t even end up in the piece,甚至没有出现在作品中的时刻 but somehow it informed what we were doing.但不知怎么的 它告诉了我们在做什么 Sometimes we’ll be putting something together,我们有时会揉合一些事物 and it’s just not clicking.但就是没有灵感 We will look at it. We will be, Yes,我们会看着 说 对 that sort of looks like an elephant,看起来有点像大象 but there’s a defining element that’s missing但它缺少了关键元素 and we can’t figure out what that is.我们想不出那是什么 and sometimes it’s the way the thing moves,有时是物体移动的方式 sometimes, it’s a very specific, detail.有时 是一个非常具体的细节 It’s like the eating of the hay, like,比如就像是 when the elephant eats.大象在吃干草 It’s not really necessary,这并非关键 but like, just to watch the trunk feed the mouth,但就像 只是看着大象用鼻子喂进嘴里 and then that hay just disappears,接着干草就不见了 it makes you feel like这会让你感到 it’s got throat, like it went somewhere.它有喉咙 好像去了什么地方 I think it’s about being agile and我认为这是关于灵活处理 responding in real-time to what’s happening in the room和实时响应发生在房间里 and what’s happening with the performers和表演者身上的事 that you’re working with.这就是我们要做的 Recognizing when an idea is working知道一个主意什么时候行得通 and when it’s not什么时候行不通 and being able to change course,并能够改弦更张 that’s the agility part of it.这就是它的灵活性 -It’s kind of like maddening, -Yeah.-这有点令人抓狂 -对 sometimes, because, you’re kind of like balancing from this like, crazy optimism因为有时你要在疯狂的乐观中求取平衡 to like “that’s never gonna work” to “this is it”.从“这绝对行不通‘’到“就是它了‘’ You also have to be willing to fail.你也必须乐于接受失败 That’s our guard against mediocrity.这种心态使我们不落窠臼 It’s fun to be able to bring delight.能够带来快乐相当有趣 Most of the time you’re not enjoying在大多数时间你并不享受 what you’re doing and what you have to do那些你每天都要做 that come on day-to-day.且必须做的事情 So to be able to enjoy it所以能享受它 and to allow other people to enjoy it,让其他人也能享受它 and invite other people to enjoy it is very special.并邀请其他人来享受 这是非常特别的 Without the audience,没有观众 You are just in a barn making cool stuff.你只是在闭门造车 And they’re like the last collaborators for us.他们像是我们最后的合作者 They’re the thing that makes it great.这些就是使它完美的东西 We need them to make it be a Pilobolus show.我们需要他们来使其成为一场Pilobolus的表演 Hi, I’m David Kwan嗨 我是David Kwan And I’m gonna show you how to make a crossword puzzle.接下来我将为你们展示如何制作一个填字游戏 Puzzles are all around us.谜题无所不在 There are problems everywhere.难题处处皆是 But a good puzzle makes the solver feel smart.但一个好谜题能使解答者感到机智如我 As an enigmatist, somebody who performs puzzles,作为一个密码家 一个玩谜题的人 I’m presenting them to you.我将为你呈现谜题 I’m challenging your brain,我将挑战你的大脑 and get you to think outside the box.让你跳出思维定势 And hopefully, have that aha moment when you can feel smart.希望你的大脑能有一个感觉自己很聪明的顿悟时刻
  • 2021-08-24”疯狂的”蜗牛女士如果你有150个蜗牛 你就会被归入疯女人那一类 我的朋友压根不会干预 我叫Pepper Apollo 我四十岁了 我是那个疯狂的蜗牛女士 别 别发脾气 我大概10年前开始收集蜗牛 我在工作之余发现了一些蜗牛 然后它们变得像滚雪球似的越来越多 养蜗牛实际上一点也不费力 有些蜗牛非常外向 一些十分内敛 有时候它们脸上有着怪异的表情 它们在思考自己在宇宙中所占的位置 很久以来 人们都认为它们没有大脑 然而它们并不是慢悠悠 傻乎乎的小团子 它们有着复杂的情感 有复杂的记忆 还能够做决定 它们非常干净 关于蜗牛我们仍然有很多东西需要了解 也许人们可以学着像蜗牛一样 活在当下 《人生百态》 动物 现在订阅 看更多
  • 2021-08-24艺术家完全凭记忆画出详尽的都市景观图[light music][轻快的音乐] I’m Stephen Wiltshire.我是史蒂芬·威尔夏 I do drawings.我从事绘画工作 Stephen is an artist史蒂芬是一个画家 who creates incredibly intricate drawings of cityscapes.他能创作极其复杂的城市景观图 I love drawing tall buildings,我喜欢画高的建筑物 tall skyscrapers, skylines, street scenes.摩天大楼 天际线 街景 And he does this entirely from memory.他画这些全凭记忆 《伟大的故事》 英国 伦敦 When Stephen was three, he was diagnosed as autistic.史蒂芬在三岁的时候被确诊为自闭症患者 He was completely mute他完全不和外界交流 and lived entirely in his own world.只是沉浸在自己的世界里 Early on, Stephen’s teachers noticed he loved to draw.早先 史蒂芬的老师发现他热爱绘画 He had found his way to connect with others.他找到了与他人交流的途径 Stephen has the ability to look at a subject once史蒂芬能够只看一眼 and then draw an accurate and detailed picture of it,就画出物体精确而富有细节的图画 including panoramas of entire cities包括飞快地看一眼城市 based off just a quick look.他就能画出整个城市的全貌 I go up in the helicopter我乘直升机到上空 and then memorize it.然后记住所看到的景象 And then after being on the helicopter,下了直升飞机后 and then straight back at the hotel立马回到酒店 and then start to do draw.开始作画 His incredible talent他凭着惊人的天赋 launched an artistic career开启了他的艺术生涯 that has taken him around the world.在这过程中他得以环游世界 Los Angeles, Dubai, Houston, Texas,洛杉矶 迪拜 休斯顿 德克萨斯州 and Tokyo in Japan.还有日本的东京 And that’s just to name a few.这只是提到的一小部分城市 New York’s my favorite,我最喜欢纽约 Empire State Building, Chrysler Building,那儿有帝国大厦 克莱斯勒大厦 and there are lots of yellow New York taxicabs.还有许多纽约特色的黄色出租车 And Stephen has no plans of stopping anytime soon.史蒂芬打算一直画下去 Someone told me that people like me drawings,有人告诉我人们很喜欢我的画 I feel good, always be happy about it.我对此感到十分高兴 人类观察 《伟大的故事》 [electronic music][电子音乐]
  • 2021-08-24盲人棒球赛在盲人的能力范围内 这是最为极限的运动之一了 它做起来很难 也很危险 继续加油 在这项运动中 人们的自主性得到增强 棒极了 盲人棒球不仅仅是一种爱好 它实际上是一项严肃的运动 有个视力正常的投手 负责给盲人投球 会发出嘟声的球被打出后 你必须跑向 发声的棒球垒 比赛队伍的另一方都是盲人 他们努力寻找球的位置 若你在对方捡起球前 触碰到了棒球垒 那你就赢了 若对方已举起球 你则出局 哇 哇 哇哦 四处奔跑努力抢球 对盲人来说并不简单 但盲人也有能力 而不是仅仅依赖于导盲犬 我是杰森·埃斯特瑞森 我是圣盖博美洲黑豹队的 一名盲人球员 我并没有绰号 我只是杰森罢了
  • 2021-08-24虚假写作的时代已然来临A mildly fun thing to do when you’re bored无聊的时候 你可以做件有趣的事 is start the beginning of a text message,即仅在开始时输入某个词 and then use only the suggested words to finish it.然后只使用提示词来完成整条信息 “In five years I will see you in the morning and then you can get it.”五年内 我会在早上见到你 然后你就可以得到它 The technology behind these text prediction is called of language model文本预测背后的技术叫做“语言模型” A computer program that uses statistics这是一个利用数据来预测句中 to guess the next word in a sentence.下一个单词的电脑程序 And in the past years,过去几年里 some other newer language models其他一些较新的语言模型 have gotten really, weirdly good at不可思议地变得非常擅长 generating text that mimics human writing.生成类似人类写出的作品的文本 “In five years, I will never return to this place“五年内 我不会返回此地 He felt his eye sting and his throat tighten.”他感到眼睛刺痛 喉咙发紧” The program completely made this up.这完全是程序编出来的 It’s not taken from anywhere else这不是从什么地方抄来的 and it’s not using a template made by humans.也不是使用人类制作的模板来完成的 For the first time in history,历史上第一次出现了 computers can write stories.电脑也能写故事的现象 The only problem is that唯一的问题在于 it’s easier for machines to write fiction than to write facts.机器更容易虚构出文本 而不是描述事实 OPEN SOURCED recode by Vox开放源码软件 由Vox重新编码 Language models are useful for a lot of reasons.出于多种原因 语言模型是有实用价值的 They help “recognize speech” properly 在声音模糊的情况下 when sounds are ambiguous in speech-to-text application它们能帮助语音转文本程序正确识别语音 And they can make translations more fluent当某词在另一语言中有多个对应词汇时 when a word in one language maps to multiple words in another.它们还能使译文更加流畅 But if you asked language models to simply generate passages of text,但如果仅让语言模型生成文章段落 The result never made much sense.生成的段落基本读不通 So the kinds of things that made sense to do当我们令它生成下列文本 were like generating single words比如单个单词或者极短的短语时 or very short phrases.它才能生成有意义的语句 For years, Janelle Shane has been experimenting with language generation多年来 Shane一直尝试为她的博客AI Weirdness for her blog AI Weirdness.生成语言文本 Her algorithms have generated paint colors, “Bull Cream”她的算法生成了油漆的颜色“公牛奶油” Halloween costumes, “Sexy Michael Cera”还有万圣节服装“性感的迈克尔·赛拉” And pick-up lines. “You look like a thing and I love you.”以及“你看起来不错 我爱你” But this is what she got in 2017但这是她2017年得到的文本: when she asked for longer passages,当她在创作如小说的第一句 like the first lines of a novel这类更长的段落时 The year of the island is discovered the Missouri of the galaxy小岛的这年 被发现是银河系的密苏里州 like a teenage lying像是躺着的少女 and always discovered the year of her own class-writing bed.总是发现自己的课堂写作床的年份 Shane: It makes no sense.这压根读不通 Compare that to this opening line from 把它跟新语言模型GPT-2 a newer language model called GPT-2.生成的开场白做个对比: It was a rainy, drizzling day in the summer of 1869.那是1896年夏天里下着毛毛雨的一天 And the people of New York,以及纽约的人们 who had become accustomed to the warm, kissable air of city已经习惯了这座城市温暖拂面的空气 were having another bad one.又要碰上一件不好的事了 Joss: It’s like it’s getting better at bullsh*tting它好像更擅长鬼扯了 Shane: Yes, yes, it is very good at generating scannable, readable bullsh*t.对啊 它很擅长生成这些通俗可读的瞎话 Going from word salad to pretty passable prose从“沙拉”一类的单词 到通顺的散文 took a new approach in the field of natural language processing.它在自然语言处理领域中实践了一种新的方法 Typically, language tasks have required carefully structured data.通常 语言任务的完成需要精心构造的数据 You need thousands of correct examples to train the program.你需要成千上万的正确例文来训练程序 For translation you need a bunch of samples of the same document in multiple languages.需要同一文档的一组多语言样本来翻译 For spam filters, you need emails that humans have labeled as spam.需要被人们标记过的垃圾邮件来完成它们的过滤 For summarization, you need full documents plus their human-written summaries.你需要完整的文档以及人工编写的摘要来完成概要 Those data sources are limited这些数据来源受限 and can take a lot of work to collect.所以收集它们要花大量功夫 But if the task is simply to guess the next word in a sentence,但如果任务仅仅是预测句子中的下一个单词 the problem comes with its own solution.解决方案本身就带来了问题 So the training data can be any human-written text,训练材料可以是各种人工文本 no labeling required.没有类别要求 This is called self-supervised learning.这叫“自我监督式学习” That’s what makes it easy and inexpensive to gather data,这使收集数据既简单还成本低 which means you can use a lot of it.这也意味着你可以找到大量数据 Like all of Wikipedia, or 11,000 books,包括所有维基百科条目或11000本书 or 8 million web sites.或者800万个网站 With that amount of data, plus serious computing resources,这些庞大的数据加上完备的计算资源 and a few tweaks to the architecture and size of the algorithms,和对算法的结构和规模的一些改进 these new language models build vast mathematical maps帮助了这些新语言模型构建庞大的数字地图 of how every word correlates with every other word,该地图有关单词与其他所有单词间的联系 all without being explicitly told any of the rules of grammar or syntax.但没有被明确告知任何语法和句法规则 That gives them fluency with whatever language they’re trained on,无论是哪种语言的文本它们都能写得很流畅 but it doesn’t mean但这并不意味着 they know what’s true or false.它们能够区分真假 To get language models to generate true stories,为了让语言模型生成内容真实的文章 like summarizing documents or answering questions accurately,如总结文档或准确地回答问题 it takes extra training.则需要对它额外训练 The simplest thing to do without much more work最简单方便的方法就是 is just generate passages of text, 让它生成那些看起来连贯 which are both superficially coherent and also false.但内容虚假的文本段落 GEITGEY: So give me any headline that you want a fake news story for.随便给我一个你想要的假新闻标题 JOSS: Scientists discover Flying Horse.科学家发现了会飞的马 Adam Geitgey is a software developerAdam Geitgey是一个软件开发者 who created a fake news website他创建了一个假新闻网站 populated entirely with machine generated text.里面的新闻全是机器生成的文本 He used a language model called Grover,他用的语言模型是Grover which was trained on news articles它是由五千多份 from 5,000 publications.已出版新闻文章训练出来的 So go and see what we’ve got.看看我们得出了什么 “More than 1,000 years ago,“一千多年前 archaeologists unearthed a mysterious flying animal in France考古学家在法国发现了一种会飞的神秘动物 and hailed it the ‘Winged Horse of Afzel’并称其为“有翅膀的阿夫泽尔之马” or ‘Horse of Wisdom’.或”智慧之马” GEITGEY: This is amazing, right? like, this is crazy.这很神奇对吧 让人惊讶 JOSS: Its so crazy like…确实很让人惊讶 就像…… GEITGEY: It remains coherent all the way to the end, you know.要知道 文章通篇都很流畅啊 GEITGEY: “The animal, which is the size of a horse, was not easy.”“这种动物有马那样大 这很难得” If we just Google that Like there’s nothing在谷歌上搜索不到它 JOSS: It doesn’t exist anywhere.毕竟它也不存在 GEITGEY: And I don’t want to say this is perfect.我并不认为这是完美的 But just from a longer term point of view但从更长远的角度看 of what people were really excited about three years ago人们三年前所感兴趣的东西 versus what people can do now, like, 和人们现在可能感兴趣的东西之间 this is just like a huge, huge leap.存在着非常非常大的差距 If you read closely, you can see that如果你仔细阅读 你会发现 the model is describing a creature该模型描述的是一种 that is somehow both mouse-like and the size of a horse既像老鼠相像又跟马差不多大的生物 That’s because it doesn’t actually know what it’s talking about.它实际上并不清楚自己在讲些什么 It’s simply mimicking the writing style of a news reporter.它只是在模仿新闻记者的写作风格 These models can be trained这些模型经过训练 to write in the voice of any source, like a twitter feed,可以写出任何东西 比如推文 “I’d like to be very clear about one thing.“我想澄清一件事 shrek is not based on any actual biblical characters, 史瑞克的原型不是任何一个圣经人物 not even close.” 甚至都不相似” Or whole subreddits.它们还能在reddit上发帖 “I found a potato on my floor.”“我在家里地板上发现了一个土豆” “A lot of people use the word ‘potato’“很多人使用’土豆’这个词 as an insult to imply they are not really a potato,来侮辱别人 暗示说 他们不是土豆 they just ‘looked like’ one.”只是像一个土豆而已” “I don’t mean insult, I mean as in as in the definition of the word potato.”“我没有侮辱的意思 我说的土豆就是字面意思” “Fair enough. The potato has been used in various ways for a long time.”“很好 土豆在很长一段时间内有着各种用途” But we may be entering a time when AI-generated text 但我们可能进入了这样一个时代: isn’t so funny anymore.人工智能生成的文本变得严肃了 “Islam has taken the place of Communism as the chief enemy of the West.”“伊斯兰已经取代了共产主义 成为西方的要敌” Researchers have shown that研究人员发现 these models can be used to flood government websites这些模型的产物可能会充斥政府网站 with fake public comments about policy proposals,如就政策提议发表虚假公众评论 they can post tons of fake business reviews,发布大量虚假商业评论 argue with people online,在网上与他人争论 and generate extremist and racist posts发布极端主义和种族主义的帖子 that can make fringe opinions seem more popular than they really are.让这些边缘观点看起来更加盛行 实则不然 GEITGEY: “It’s all about like taking something you could do这都是我们可以做的事情 and then just increasing the scale of it,而其规模的增加 making it more scalable and cheaper.”使它更广泛易得 The good news is that some of the developers who built these language models好消息是 一些发明这些语言模型的开发者 also build ways to detect much of the text generated through these models.也发明了侦测这些模型所产生文本的方法 But it’s not clear who has the responsibility to fake-check the internet.但我们仍不清楚网上虚假信息应由谁检查 And as bots become even better mimics with随着机器更加善于模仿 faces like ours, voices like ours,我们的面孔 声音 and now our language,现在还有我们的语言 Thoes of us made of flesh and blood may find ourselves 我们这些有血有肉的人会发现 increasingly burdened with not only detecting what’s fake,变得越来越难的不仅包括辨别什么是“假”的 but also proving that we’re real.还有 证明我们是“真”的
  • 2021-08-24这位11岁少年可以让你的车的味道很新鲜我想向人们证明我足够强大 我想教我的黑人兄弟姐妹们 走入正途 你能去做 也会成功 闻起来还不错 我是Joshua Danrich 11岁 来自密苏里州圣路易斯市 我会制作空气清新剂 十岁时 我想拿到运动跑车经销权 我征询妈妈的意见 她说 “不要 Jush” 于是我问她我能制作汽车空气清新剂吗 她说可以 我喜欢新车的味道 我想让所有人的汽车 一天都充满着我制作出来的味道 我想在这个世界留下我的足迹 我的清新剂和除臭剂公司 让我在情感上和经济上都更加成熟 同时也培养了我的自尊心 奋斗不止 永不止步 你终会成功 我全身心地经营我的事业 我制作的香味日久不散
  • 2021-08-24为海马打造一个秘密世界他们称我为“海马私语者” 我一年潜水221次 好 出发吧 如果你和我一起去 五千万人中将只有我们两个人能看到一只海马 那真是万中无一啊! 勒住你的“马” 《伟大的故事》 加利福尼亚州长滩 从幼时住在爱荷华州起 我就已经对大海充满了幻想 我虽不是科班出身的科学家 但一直对科学有着浓厚的兴趣 我叫罗杰·汉森 我在太平洋海马身上所花的时间 大概比世上任何人都多 第一次看到海马是在这 南加州的阿拉米托斯湾 那天是2016年1月30日 我当时完全惊呆了 但也意识到眼前的生物多么的独一无二 我知道它们当时多么稀有 担心它们会从这离开 于是那天晚上我潜下水去 用树枝 棕榈叶和松枝造了第一个海马家园 并命名为亚特兰蒂斯 它们非常喜欢那些树枝 把小尾巴缠在上面 看来我猜中了海马可能喜欢的东西 所以我又建了两个姐妹生态群落 分别命名为维加斯和贝拉吉奥 不久 根据海马的数量 我发现它们在这安家了 猜怎么着? 如果你建造了生态圈 它们就会来 加利福尼亚乃至全世界的人都对海马兴趣十足 在离海岸线这么远的地方找到这种海马太难得了 我开始学习测量事宜 如何做好数据记录 四年以来我记录了每只海马的一切活动 我有四本笔记 每年的研究都有一本 我在里面记录了潮汐 水温 紫外线强度 当时的月相 因为这些因素都会影响海马 据我所知 世上只有我一个人 以这种方式追踪这个物种的情况 卡布利洛海洋生物馆 做这件事没有工资 大概每月还得开1500英里的车 我为什么这么做呢?有两个原因 一是为了科学 二是觉得这就像喂养 小区里的小野猫一样 我真的很喜欢它们 我们之间产生了一种感情 它们也喜欢我 我开始了解它们 并意识到它们是多么高级的物种 它们从不打斗 从不会 时时都带着柔和与优美 和柔和又优美的生物生活久了 对自己有很大的正面影响 大到让我开始这么说 罗杰 你为何不能更友善地对待别人 向这些彼此善待的小生物学习? 事情真的就是这样 我认为自己是它们的一员 只是块头大点 年龄更大而已 对的 我们是朋友
  • 2021-08-24暴力行为与电游无关There’s no way anyone beats him.他是无懈可击的 Video games are everywhere nowadays.如今电子游戏无处不在 Invading your living rooms, storming your phones,当你在客厅聚众玩游戏或是独自玩手游的时候 even taking the blame for society’s ills.你也许会遭受到社会的谴责 “These video games dehumanize individuals.“这些电子游戏使人堕落” Like after the recent wave of shootings就拿最近的一起枪击案来说 when American politicians shared thoughts, prayers and concerns about video games.美国政客借此表达了他们对电子游戏的担心 “This was a maybe a video game to this evil demon.”“这可能是由电子游戏导致的糟糕情况 He wanted to be a super soldier他想成为游戏中 for his Call of Duty game.”身负重任的超级士兵” Even the president urged us to stop the glorification of violence in our society甚至总统也敦促我们停止对社会暴力的美化 including “the gruesome and grisly video games that are now commonplace.”包括“现在普遍的恐怖电子游戏” Let’s debunk this whole “video games causes violence” red herring once and for all.让我们彻底推倒“电子游戏导致暴力”的张冠李戴型谬论 I’m Charle Goldberg.我是查尔·戈德堡 I’ve been reporting on video games for eight years.我做游戏视频已经有8年了 I’ve been a lifelong video game player.是一名终身电子游戏玩家 I have amassed nearly two million subscribers on my gaming YouTube channel.我还在油管上拥有将近两百万粉丝 And, well, I play a lot of video games.此外 我玩过许多电子游戏 The violent ones, the shooter ones more specifically.特别是暴力游戏和射击游戏 I also love LEGOs.我也喜欢乐高 I’m a father.我已为人父 I know I’m just one gamer,我只是一名玩家 but I’m not a threat to society 并不会对社会造成威胁 and neither are the millions of other people who play video games.并且其他绝大多数玩家也不会 Let’s take a look at the world of evidence.我们来看一下世界各处的证据 American video game sales per person are on similar levels美国电子游戏的人均销费与其他国家 to countries like South Korea, Japan, or Germany.如韩国 日本 德国大致相当 But our rate of violent gun deaths is 10 to 100 times但我们的枪支暴力事件致死数是他们的10-100倍 higher than any of those countries’.这比任何国家都要高 Even within America, 即使在美国 there is zero empirical evidence也没有任何证据指明 that video games are linked to mass shootings.电子游戏与大量的枪击事件有关 Decades of research from the American Psychological Association美国心理协会的数十年研究 have shown there’s no link between playing violent video games and participating in violent crime.表明玩暴力电子游戏与参与暴力犯罪事件没有关联 This all looks normal.一切正常 No link, no evidence.没有关联也没有证据 Now, it’s true that some research shows a relationship现在 的确有一些研究表明 between video games and aggression,电子游戏与攻击行为之间的关系 but aggression is also linked to lots of things,但是攻击行为也受很多因素影响 including organized sports.包括体育竞赛 Now, maybe you’re thinking, what about Columbine.现在 也许你会想 科隆比纳事件如何呢 Didn’t the two shooters in that also play the violent video game Doom?那两个枪手不也在玩暴力游戏吗 And yes, they did,的确 他们有玩 but violent criminals also watch但那两个暴力罪犯 movies, they read books and digest the news, real or fake.同样看电影 读书 接触真假新闻 As one A.P.A. expert put it, “The data on bananas causing suicide正如一位美国心理学会的专家所说“香蕉导致的死亡数据 is about as conclusive.”几乎是令人信服的” In fact, in 2017 an A.P.A. committee事实上 2017年 一名为A. P. A. 的委员会 issued a statement discouraging politicians and journalists发表了一则申明来劝阻政客和新闻工作者 from trying to connect video games and shootings不要将电子游戏和枪击案联系在一起 precisely because they feared the rhetoric would distract us from addressing issues正是因为他们担心这种谬论会使我们分散 that we know contribute to real-world violence.对现实世界中暴力事件的注意力 So why, against the objections of science and ethics,所以为什么在科学和道德的反对下 do politicians still insist on deflecting our attention?政客仍然坚持转移我们的注意力呢 Because it’s easy. It works.因为这样做很容易 很有效 And it’s time tested.而且历史上有迹可循 In 1915, the Supreme Court supported censorship of movies在1915年 最高法院支持对电影的监督 because they could “cause evil.”因为电影可能会“制造邪恶” Film didn’t become a form of protected speech until the ’50s,直到50年代 电影才成为一种受保护的演讲形式 just when politicians turned their energies to a new scapegoat —comic books.就在这时 政客把精力投向新的替罪羊——漫画 Now fast-forward to the paranoias about heavy metal in the 1960s在60年代 矛头很快转向了重金属音乐 Dungeons and Dragons in the ’80s,80年代 转向《龙与地下城》 hip-hop in the ’90s.90年代转向嘻哈 “Here we go again.”“又是老一套” Solutions are hard找寻解决方法是困难的 and we like simple answers to complicated questions.而我们喜欢用简单的答案去应对复杂的问题 And it doesn’t take much to get disgruntled parents frustrated by their kids’ screen time本身就不满的父母很容易为他们孩子沉迷游戏而感到苦恼 and Fortnite addiction to believe that video games are evil.并且《堡垒之夜》让玩家上瘾更证明了电子游戏是有害的 The fact that politicians are so removed from video game culture政客们如此疏离电子游戏文化 is another reason we should ignore their deflections.是我们应该忽视他们结论的另一个原因 Would you listen to a book critic who’s never read a book?你会相信书评家对从未读过的书的批判吗? “Shut your pie hole.”“不可能” And just like books,和书一样 video games are actually an art form protected by the First Amendment.电子游戏实际上是一种被《第一修正案》保护的艺术形式 The Supreme Court made that clear in 2011最高法院在2011年做过声明 when Justice Scalia reminded us that violence is not novel to gaming.当斯卡利亚法官提醒我们暴力对游戏来说并不新奇时 It’s as old as the plots of Cinderella and Snow White.就像《灰姑娘》和《白雪公主》的故事一样古老 Gamers don’t really have an issue deciphering fantasy from the real world.玩家从现实世界中进行幻想并没有什么问题 But politicians seem to have lost themselves in a politically convenient fiction.但当我们需要政客关注现实危机时 Just when we need them to focus on the crisis of our reality.他们似乎沉迷于创造方便自己的谎言

译学馆所有视频和图片来自互联网版权归原创者所有。