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  • 2021-09-01白金汉宫的内部结构Buckingham Palace is home to the Queen of England and to the Royal Family.白金汉宫是英格兰女王和皇室家族的府邸 In this video, we’re gonna take a look at the different parts of the palace,本视频将带领大家参观宫殿的不同区域 where the Queen lives, 包括女王住所 and the areas you are allowed to go as a tourist.和允许游客参观的区域 [electricity buzzing][电流嗡鸣声] [explosion booming][爆炸声] This video is sponsored by Dashlane.本视频由Dashlane赞助 Download Dashlane today to easily manage your digital identity,现在就下载Dashlane来轻松管理您的数字身份 and keep you safe as you browse online. 保障您的网络安全 More on that later.稍后详细介绍 [lively classical music][欢快的古典音乐] Buckingham Palace is located in Europe.白金汉宫地处欧洲 This group of islands is called the United Kingdom这组岛屿被称为联合王国 or U.K. for short.或简称英国 It’s made up of England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.它是由英格兰 苏格兰 威尔士 以及北爱尔兰组成的 Buckingham Palace is in London白金汉宫位于伦敦 which is the capital of England.即英格兰的首府 The palace is surrounded by roads.宫殿周围被道路环绕 The Victoria Memorial is right out front.维多利亚女王纪念碑就在宫殿前方 This area is usually quite crowded with tourists.该区域通常被游客堵得水泄不通 The palace gardens are directly behind the palace.王宫花园就在宫殿正后方 This building here is called the Royal Mews.这栋建筑被称为皇家马厩 It’s responsible for the travel arrangements for the Royal Family.它负责王室的出行安排 Even in modern times, you’ll still find plenty of horses there.即使在现代 你还能在那里看到很多马 Buckingham Palace is huge, 775 rooms.白金汉宫很大 足有775个房间 This includes over 200 bedrooms, 92 offices, 包括200多间卧室 92间办公室 and 78 bathrooms.以及78间盥洗室 I imagine it’s quite easy to get lost in there.我想在里面 肯定很容易迷路 I won’t be able to show you what every room is used for.我没法向你们展示每一个房间的用途 Not everything is publicly available,因为不是所有区域都对外开放 but we’ll do our best here.但我们会尽可能 Let me show you what I can.把我知道的展示给你们 The palace can be split into a few different parts.宫殿可分为几个不同区域 This is the east front of the building,这是宫殿的东侧正面 the first thing that most people see when visiting Buckingham Palace.是大多数人游览时 最先看到的建筑 This is the Queen’s private apartments,这是女王的私人住所 and this is the central block of the building.这是宫殿的中心区 If you take a tour of Buckingham Palace,如果你来游览白金汉宫 this is the area that you’ll get to see.这便是你能参观的区域 If you go through any of these archways at the east front of the building,如果你穿过宫殿东侧任意一个拱廊 you’ll get through to the courtyard in the middle here,你就会来到中庭 also called the quadrangle.又称方庭 Before we start our tour,在开始游览前 let’s be clear on terminology here.让我们先来明确一下术语 In the United States, we would call this the first floor在美国 我们管这层叫一层 and the second floor.这层叫二层 But here in England, this is the ground floor,但在英格兰 这层是底层 and this is the first floor.而这一层才是一层 So keep this in mind as we go through each part of the building.所以当我们游览宫殿时 请记住这点区别 We’re gonna start by going through this entrance here.我们将从这个入口开始游览 The first room you’ll see is called the Grand Entrance,你首先看到的房间被称为入口大厅 designed to impress guests as they enter the palace.为了在进入宫殿时给宾客留下深刻印象 This is the Marble Hall and the Bow Room.这是大理石厅和弓形室 Guests will pass through here to get to the garden parties.宾客们通过这里 去参加花园宴会 Now, if we go this way, you’ll walk towards the Grand Staircase.现在 如果往这边走 我们就走向了豪华的楼梯 These stairs go from the ground floor up to the first floor.这些楼梯从底层通向一层 This is the Green Drawing Room.这里是绿会客厅 Many of the walls and furniture are actually green.许多墙面和家具确实是绿色的 It serves as a waiting room before entering the Throne Room.绿会客厅相当于是进入王座室前的等待室 Notice the two chairs here.注意这两把椅子 the Queen will sit on the left and the Duke will sit on the right.女王会坐在左边 公爵会坐在右边 This hallway is the Picture Gallery.这条走廊是画廊 Lots of expensive and antique artwork here.许多昂贵的古老艺术品陈列在此 This is the White Drawing Room,这里是白会客厅 another room for small gatherings.是另一间用于小型聚会的房间 The Queen can enter this room from a secret door in the wall here.女王可以从这面墙上的暗门 进入这间房间 It’s disguised as a mirror.而门被伪装成了一面镜子 The Music Room, which of course, has a nice grand piano音乐室里 理所当然 有一台漂亮名贵的钢琴 and next here is the Blue Drawing Room,其隔壁是蓝会客厅 the State Dining Room,再旁边是国宴厅 and the East and West Galleries are here.以及这里的东廊和西廊 And this large room is the Ballroom.这间大房间是宴会厅 Many fancy dinner parties are held here很多豪华晚宴都在这里举行 with close to 200 guests in attendance.出席宾客可达近200名 The Ball Supper Room is used for smaller gatherings.舞会晚宴厅用于更小型的聚会 There’s also a large kitchen somewhere below these rooms to supply all the food.这些房间下面有个大厨房 用于提供所需食物 This area is the Queen’s private apartments.这个区域是女王的私人住所 This room on the first floor is called the Queen’s Study,一层的这个房间是女王的书房 and members of the Royal Family live in the surrounding area.而皇室其他成员 则住在周围区域 As you can imagine, there are no public tours of this area.正如你所想象的 这个区域不对游客开放 The front of the palace is mostly what the public sees.公众大多看到的是宫殿正面 When the Royal Family wants to make a public appearance,当皇室家族想在公众面前亮相时 such as after a royal wedding, 比如皇室婚礼后 they will do it on this balcony which is on the first floor.他们会在一层的这个阳台露面 This is known as the Centre Room.这就是所谓的中心室 We don’t know what all these other rooms are used for,我们不知道剩下其他房间的用途 but we can guess they are probably offices 但我们能够猜测 这些房间可能是办公室 for many of the staff members that live and work here.供下属官吏生活和工作 This one is called the Chinese Luncheon Room.这间被称为中式午宴厅 And this is the Yellow Drawing Room.而这里是黄会客厅 Buckingham Palace also has a post office, swimming pool,白金汉宫还配备有邮局 游泳池 movie theater, and a doctor’s office.电影院和医生办公室 If I had to guess, I would say most of these are probably in the Queen’s apartments.要我猜的话 上述设施多数都应在女王住所区内 When the Queen is home, you’ll see this flag waving in the wind.当女王在家时 你会看到这面旗帜迎风飘扬 This is known as the Royal Standard.它正是皇家旗帜 Now, we have to keep the palace safe,因为要保护宫殿安全 so you’ll see some of the Queen’s Guards post around the palace所以你会看到一些女王的护卫在宫殿周围 and in a few different places.或其他一些区域站岗放哨 These guards wear red uniforms这些卫兵身穿红色制服 with tall and furry black hats.头戴高高的黑毛帽 Despite what the public thinks,不管公众怎么想 the Queen’s Guards are highly trained and will use force if necessary.女王的护卫队其实都训练有素 并且必要时会动用武力 It’s probably best not to pester them.最好不要去招惹他们 Now, the main job of these guards is security.这些护卫的主要职责是保障宫殿安全 Keep the bad guys out, right?防止坏人进来 对吧 This can be a problem on the internet today,现如今 在网络上也有这样的问题 especially if you use the same password for everything.尤其是如果你所有密码都一样 This means that if someone can get into one of your accounts,这意味着 如果有人能入侵你其中一个账号 they can likely get into other accounts as well.他们也能入侵其它账号 Not cool.这可不妙 This is why we need Dashlane.因此我们需要Dashlane Dashlane easily and securely stores all your passwords,它能简单 安全地储存您的所有密码 making managing your digital life much more secure across all devices.管理您的数字生活 使其在所有设备上都更加安全 It integrates with your browser它与浏览器集成 so it can automatically login for you.就可以帮您自动登陆 It will help you generate strong passwords它会帮您生成强密码 that would otherwise be difficult to remember. 不然的话将很难记住它们 It will then alert you when it’s been a while since you’ve changed a password.当您有段时间没有更改密码时 它会提醒您 And Dashlane isn’t just for passwords.Dashlane不只是密码管理器 It helps store personal and credit card information它还能帮助存储个人和信用卡信息 and will autofill them when entering forms to save you tons of time.并且在填表时能自动填入 节省您的诸多时间 They also have a VPN so that you can securely browse the internet without prying eyes.它还自带VPN 可以助您安全浏览互联网 不受人窥探 It can even alert you when your account has been hacked甚至当您的账号被黑时 它能向您发出警告 so that you know right away and can take action.以便您立刻得知 好采取措施 Most importantly, Dashlane has a patented security architecture which encrypts everything最重要的是 Dashlane有专利安全架构 能加密一切 so that no one except you can see your information.所以除您之外 没人能看到您的信息 You can try if for free by visiting Dashlane.com/JaredOwen.访问Dashlane.com/JaredOwen 您就可以免费试用 If you then decide to upgrade, 如果您决定升级 you can get 10% off your first year by using promo code jaredowen at checkout.使用折扣码jaredowen下单 在第一年您即可享受9折优惠 [lively classical music][欢快的古典音乐]
  • 2021-09-01PS魔幻时刻:在PS中运用调整边缘笔刷这里是《PS魔幻时刻》This is a Photoshop magic minute. 我是Meredith StatsnurI’m Meredith Statsnur. 你可以用调整边缘画笔工具和选定的蒙版You’ll find edge brushe and selected mask 来吸附细节处的边缘lets you pull in edge details 比如皮毛 头发like fur and hair. 当用它时 就是在告诉PSWhen you use it you’re telling Photoshop 你想它来决定所刷区域you want it to decide if the area brushing 是主体还是背景is subject or background. 就这样来使用PSThere you go,photoshop,you decide. 但是 怎么看你已经操作过的部分呢?But, how do you see where you’ve brushed already? 点击这个神奇的小显示边缘复选框This little magical Show Edge checkbox reveals 就会显示出你用调整边缘笔刷where you’ve told Photoshop to look for edges 让PS找边缘的区域with a refine edge brush. 如果你使用了边缘检测设置This also works the same way 也会有同样的作用if you’ve used Edge Detection settings. 里面就是你所选区域Inside is the area you’ve selected, 外面则是你没有选择的outside is what’s not selected. 而这个边缘区域And this edge area, 就是需要抓取的地方it’s what’s up for grabs. 它很有用This can be helpful, 因为你只需要用PS去决定because you really only want Photoshop to have to decide 那些你不确定的边缘和区域the edges and the areas you’re not sure about. 我可以点击这个减号I can use this minor setting on the brush 用笔刷去恢复那些不需要边缘检测的区域to restore areas that I don’t need edge detection. 切换边缘显示功能Toggling the show edge functionality 能检查已经刷了的部分lets you check on where you’ve brushed, 这样就能确保得你到了你想要的so you can be sure you’ve got what you want.
  • 2021-09-01冷色,渐变ps教程所有库存下载链接都在简介中All stock download links are in the description. 切换然后选择快速选择工具Head over and select the Quick Selection Tool. 仔细选择整个对象模型Carefully select the entire model. 按住ALT键从选区内删减所选内容Hold ALT to subtract from selection. 选择蒙版Head up to Select and Mask. 确保选择了细化半径工具Make sure Refine Radius Tool is selected. 选择模特周围的头发Select around the models hair. 输出到:新图层Output To: New Layer. 点击确定Then hit OK. 创建一个新图层Head down and create a new layer. 向下拖至背景副本图层以下Drag it below the Background Copy. 重命名该图层为BackgroundI will rename this layer to Background. 编辑 填充Head up to Edit > Fill. 将内容改为白色Change Contents: White. 确定Then hit OK. 选中顶部图层Have our top layer selected. 重命名为EffectI’m going to rename this layer to Effect. 右击 复制图层Right click > Duplicate Layer. 重命名为ManRename it to Man. 确定Then hit OK. 隐藏顶部图层Hide our top layer. 然后选择Effect图层Then select the Effect layer. 滤镜 液化Then head up to Filter > Liquify. 选中前端变形工具Have the Forward Warp Tool selected. 像这样向外拉伸模型Warp the model outwards like so. 这样会确定效果范围的大小This will determine the size of the effect. 完成后 确定When you’re done, hit OK. 按Alt键选蒙版Hold ALT + Click on Mask. 确认蒙版是黑色Make sure the mask is black. 再次使得顶部图层可见Make the top layer visible again. 选定Then select it. 调回来再选择蒙版Head back down and select mask. 确保选定顶层蒙版图层Make sure our top layer mask is selected. 前景色设定为黑色Foreground color set to black. 然后选择笔刷工具(B)Then select the Brush Tool. (B) 选择粒子笔刷Select a particle brush. 打开笔刷面板Open up the brush panel. 把笔刷的尺寸调小一些I’m going to bring down the size of the brush a tad. 开始遮挡人物外面的部分Start masking the outer areas of the man. 使用不同笔刷改善效果Use different brushes to better the effect. 调整尺寸使得粒子不要过大Adjust the size so the particles aren’t too big. 旋转笔刷 使它不会看上去雷同I will rotate the brush, so it doesn’t look like a pattern. Ctrl +Z撤销CTRL + Z to undo. 此处快进节约时间I will speed this part up to save your time. 完成后选择效果蒙版Once you’re done, select the effect mask. 确保前景色设为白色Make sure your foreground is set to white. 选择另一个粒子笔刷Select another particle brush. 添加效果Now we can add the effect. 放大笔刷] 缩小笔刷[Increase brush ] decrease brush [ 节约时间Take your time! 确认选择不同的笔刷Make sure to choose different brushes. 为节约时间我会将这个部分快进I will speed this part up to save your time. 完成后选择effect图层When you’re done, select the effect layer. 然后选择混合器画笔工具Then select the Mixer Brush Tool. 潮湿:25% 嵌入:42% 混合:100% 流量:100%Wet:25% | Load: 42% | Mix: 100% | Flow 100%. 我想将颜色进行混合I want to mix some of the colors. 这样效果更好So that the effect flows better. 只需要多花点时间 进行多种操作Just take your time and mix it up a bit. 好啦 现在它看起来更好了There we go, that looks pretty good! 我会清除一部分图片I’m going to clean up the image a bit. 点击最顶层mask图层Click on our top mask layer. 然后选择画笔工具Then head over and select the Brush Tool. (B) 接下来选择一个比较小的柔边圆笔刷Then select a small brush with soft edges. 确认前景色为白色Make sure your foreground is set to white. Here, 我们会遮挡住不需要的部分we’ll be able to mask out areas we don’t need. 这部分我会加速I will speed this part up. 现在看起来好多了That looks much better. 接下来我要增加冰纹理I’m going to add an ice texture. 选择移动工具Make sure your Move Tool is selected. 然后拖动到项目当中Then drag and drop onto our project. 将纹理居中Center the texture. 然后CTRL+T 选择冰纹理CTRL + T to select the ice texture. 按住ALT+SHIFT不松手的同时拖动一角向外拉Hold ALT + SHIFT and drag a corner outwards to resize. 完成后点ENTER键When you’re done, hit enter. 混合模式改为叠加Change the Blending Mode to Overlay. 将不透明度降到70%左右Then bring down the opacity to about 70%. 如果你想将纹理放在不同的位置选择移动工具VUse your Move Tool (V) if you want to positon the texture differently. 将纹理图层重命名为ice textureI’m going to rename our texture layer to ice texture. 现在看起来不错That looks good there. 我将为相机添加第二层材质I’m going to add a second texture to the camera. 选中移动工具拖动目标Using your Move Tool. Drag and drop onto our project. 对纹理进行CTRL+TCTRL + T to select the texture. 按住AIT+SHIFT键对图片进行缩放到适合相机的大小为止Hold ALT + SHIFT while scaling the image to fit the camera. 按回车键Hit Enter when you’re done. 按住ALT+蒙版工具Head down and hit ALT + Mask. 选择笔刷工具Select the Brush Tool. (B) 确认前景色为白色Make sure your foreground is set to white. 开始添加材质Start adding back the texture. 混合模式改为叠加Change the Blending Mode > Overlay. 将顶层图层重命名为Lens TextureI’m going to rename our top layer to Lens Texture. 创建新图层Head down and create a new layer. 新图层重命名为Flare or LightRename the new layer > Flare or Light. 改变混合模式为颜色减淡Change the Blending Mode > Color Dodge. 改变前景色为漂亮的蓝色Change our foreground color to a nice blue. 色值为00c66ffColor Code: 00c6ff 确定Then hit OK. 选择笔刷工具Select the Brush Tool. 在镜头上增加更多的色彩Click on the lens to add more color. 这样会让蓝色更为突出This will make the blue color stand out more. 如果太显眼 降低不透明度If it’s too overwhelming, bring down the opacity a tad. 60%的不透明度就可以了60% seems to work well. 选择顶层图层Have our top layer selected. CTRL+SHIFT+ALT+E(合并所有可见图层)CTRL + SHIFT + ALT + E (Merge all visible layers.) 图层重命名为MergedI’m going to rename this layer to Merged. 右键点击 转化为智能对象Right click > Convert to Smart Object. 打开滤镜-滤镜库Head up to Filter > Filter Gallery. 选择画笔描边菜单Click on the Brush Strokes drop down menu. 点击强化的边缘Click on Accented Edges. 边缘宽度1 边缘亮度38 平滑度3Edge Width 1 | Edge Brightness 38 | Smoothness 3. 回车Then hit OK. 按住ALT然后点蒙版Hold ALT then click on mask. 确定在蒙版层Make sure you’re on the mask. 前景色应为白色Foreground color should be white. 选择笔刷工具Brush Tool selected. 开始增加效果Start adding the effect back. 这样我们可以手动更改This way, we can do it manually 然后给我们想要的部分添加滤镜and apply the filter to parts we want. 这部分我会加速I will speed this part up. 接下来添加其他光效I’m going to add another lens flare. 使用移动工具(V)拖动Using your Move Tool. (V) Drag and drop. 将它拖动到相机上Positon it over the camera. 改变混合模式为滤色Change the Blending Mode > Screen. 将图层重命名为Lens FlareI’m going to rename this layer to Lens Flare. 接下来锐化图像I’m going to sharpen the image up a tad. 选择最顶层图层Have the top layer selected. 一起按住CTRL SHUFT ALT 和E 键CTRL + SHIFT + ALT + E. (Merge all visible layers.) 我将重命名需要锐化的这个图层I’m going to rename this layer to Sharpen. 选择滤镜>锐化>进一步锐化Head up to Filter > Sharpen > Sharpen More. 如果它太尖锐 稍微降低透明度If it’s too sharp. Bring down the opacity a tad. 非常感谢您的观看Thank you so much for watching!
  • 2021-09-01开始平面设计:字体排布字體排印Typography. 在我們的日常生活中隨處可見It’s everywhere we look. 在我們所讀的書中In the books we read, 在我們所造訪的網頁上——甚至在我們的生活中 街道標識on the websites we visit—even in everyday life, on street signs, bumper stickers, 車尾貼紙和產品包裝上and product packaging. 簡單來說 字體排印就是文字的樣式或風格Simply put, typography is the style or appearanceof text. 它也可以是運用文字的藝術It can also refer to the art of working ——可能是你一直都在做的事with text—something you probably do all the time 如果你爲工作、學校、或你自己創建文檔或其它項目if you create documents or other projects for work, school, or yourself. 字體排印可能聽起來會很嚇人 但實際上也不一定Typography can be an intimidating subject, but it doesn’t have to be. 你只需要瞭解一些簡單You only need to know a little to 知識便可給你的作品帶來巨大改善make a big difference in the stuff you do every day. 那我們開始吧首先:So let’s get started. First: 一些基本的字體類型Some common types of fonts, 以及你所需要瞭解的and what you need to know about them. 襯線字體在字母主要部分的末端有一些Serif fonts have little strokes called serifs attached 叫做襯線的筆觸to the main part of the letter. 因爲它們經典的外形Because of their classic look, 所以襯線體是傳統項目的一個不錯之選they’re a good choice for more traditional projects. 襯線體也普遍用於印刷物 比如雜誌和報紙They’re also common in print publications,like magazines and newspapers. 黑體沒有額外的筆觸 其名稱是法語的「無襯線」之意Sans serif fonts don’t have that extra stroke—hencethe name, which is French for”without serif.” 比起襯線體 這種樣式給人一種更加整潔和現代的感覺此外This style is considered more clean and modernthan serif fonts. Also, 黑體在包括電腦、it tends to be easier to read 手機和平板在內的螢幕上更加易讀on computer screens, including smartphones and tablets. 標題字體有多種不同的樣式Display fonts come in many different styles, like script, blackletter, 比如手寫體 哥特體all-caps, and just 大寫字體以及花樣字體plain fancy. 因爲他們的裝飾性Because of their decorative nature, 所以標題字體最適合少量文本display fonts are best for small amounts of text; 比如用在各種標題和要突出視覺效果的設計中for example, titles and headers, and moregraphic-heavy designs. 在某種程度上 字體也有它們自己的語言In a way, fonts have their own language. 它們都有自己所要傳達之意 不僅僅是紙面上的文字They all have something to say, beyond the words on the page. 它們可以表達出隨意 或者中性 異國風性 或者……強烈的視覺效果They can come across as casual or neutral;exotic or… graphic. 所以這就是爲什麼你需要好好考量你所想傳達的訊息That’s why it’s important to think about your message, 並挑選一款適合的字體and pick a font that fits. 一些字體就像超重的行李顯得有些多餘 比如 Comic SansSome fonts come with a extra baggage, like Comic Sans, Curlz, Curlz PapyrusPapyrus, and many more. 和其它很多 這些字體本身並沒有There’s nothing particularly wrong 錯——只不過它們with these fonts—they just have a certain reputation 顯得有些過時或已經被用爛了for being outdated and overused. 如果你有想用這些字體的想去If you find yourself tempted by them, 請三思並考慮下其它的字體think twice and consider using something else. 有很多字體There are many fonts 樣式和感覺相似並且不會對你的訊息with a similar look and feel that are less likely to detract from 造成太大的影響your message. 當決定要用什麼字體時When deciding which fonts to use, less ismore. 少即是多每個項目中使用的字體最好限制在一個或兩個上It’s best to limit yourself to one or twoper project. 如果你想要突出對比If you need more contrast, 試試用同一種字體的不同尺寸、try repeating one of your fonts in a different size, weight, 字重或樣式or style. 這個技巧在創建一些有趣的組合時尤其有效This trick is practically foolproof for creatinginteresting combinations that work. 你或許聽過「異性相吸」這句話其實You’ve probably heard the saying”oppositesattract.” Well, 對字體來說也是這樣的the same is true for fonts. 不要擔心把一些樣式不同Don’t be afraid to combine font styles 但互補的字體組合在一起that are different but complementary, like sans 比如黑體和襯線體…矮的字體和高的字體…或者裝飾體和簡單字體serif with serif… short with tall… ordecorative with simple. 一開始這可能會有些難This can be challenging at first, but don’tdespair. 但不要擔心多看一下其它設計來獲得靈感Look to other designs for inspiration, 不久就會將其駕馭了and soon you’ll get the hang of it. 也許你已經聽說過了字偶間距 行間距 字符間距和層次結構等術語Maybe you’ve heard terms like kerning, leading,tracking, and hierarchy. 對有經驗者來說For those with more experience, 如果想要做出更加專業的設計these concepts are essential for creating professional-looking 這些概念是必需的designs. 對於入門者來說 你並不需要對這些名詞有As a beginner, you don’t need to know everything 全面瞭解——只需知道一些概念about these terms—just enough to inform 就可以來幫助你更好地完成工作或更加自信地談論設計your work and help you talk about design withmore confidence. 層次結構是用來引導讀者的視線Hierarchy is used to guide the reader’s eye to whatever is most important. 強調重點的換句話說 這就是用來告訴人們要從哪開始In other words, it shows them where to begin and where to go next, 繼續讀哪using different levels 用不同的層級來強調of emphasis. 建立層次結構並不難:Establishing hierarchy is simple: 只需決定讀者應該首先注意到哪些元素just decide which elements you want the reader to notice first, 然後把它們突出then make them stand out. 高層級的元素一般更大一些 更粗一些 或者在某些方面顯得更特別一些High-level items are usually larger, bolder,or different in some way. 記住一定要保持簡潔並限制在少數幾個互補樣式內Remember to keep it simple and stick to just a few complementary styles. 行間距是文本行與行之間的距離Leading is the space between lines of text, also known as line spacing. 或叫作行距如果你不太清楚該用多大的行間距If you’re not sure how much line spacing to use, 不用擔心——通常預設值就可以了don’t fret—the default is usually fine. 其目的是讓你的文本讀起來更加舒適The goal is to make your text as comfortable to read as possible. 行間距太大或太小都會令讀者感到不快Too much or too little spacing can make it unpleasant for the reader. 字間距是每個字符間的距離 有時也叫做字符間距Tracking is the overall space between characters,sometimes called character spacing. 大多數應用都可以讓用戶根據需求來減少或增加字間距Most programs let you condense or expand this depending on your needs. 在一些設計中In some designs, 你可能需要調整字間距來創造出特定的藝術效果you might adjust your tracking to create a certain artistic effect. 也可以幫助你來修復那些字間距存在問題的字體It can also help you fix fonts that are poorly spaced to begin with. 字偶間距是某些字母組合間的距離Kerning is the space between specific characters. 不像字符間距那樣Unlike tracking, it varies over the course of the word, 字偶間距根據不同的字母because each letter fits together 組合距離也不同differently. 有些字體有「糟糕的字偶距」問題 就會使一些字母間的距離看起來怪怪的Some fonts have what we call”bad kerning,”making certain letters look improperly spaced. 如果你用的字體也存在If a font you’re using has bad kerning, 「糟糕的字偶距」問題it’s best to cut your losses and choose something 最好避免這些問題 並換個其它字體else. 精心排版的文本能體現出普通項目……和特別項目Well-crafted text can mean the difference between an ordinary project… 之間的差別and an extraordinary 即便你只是剛剛開始設計也是如此project—even if you’re just getting startedwith design. 你只需要對字體排印有興趣All it takes is an interest in typography, 就可以對其慢慢有更深的瞭解and you’ll start to notice more, see more, 然後把你自己的作品做得更好and be able to do more in your own work. 希望你可以喜歡這些字體排印的基礎知識We hope you enjoyed learning the basics oftypography. 不要忘記查看我們其它Don’t forget to check out the rest 設計的專題 包括顏色of our design topics, including color, images, and 圖像和佈局composition.
  • 2021-09-01去掉图片多余内容(进阶)#音乐#[intro music] 《Photoshop教程:完美删除图片内容(高级教程)》Photoshop Playbook: Removing Objects From Images(Advanced) 如何删除图片多余内容 这话题在上期节目中讲过In a prior episode, we talked about removing unwanted objects. 本期所展示的问题 不仅更具挑战性Now I want to show you a little more challenging problem, 而且会把上期话题进一步升华and take it to the next level. 那么 先来处理第一张图片So for this first image, 使用“快速选择工具”we’re going to use our ‘Quick Select Tool’, 来选定 需删除的区域to select the area that we want to remove. 如果需要减少 选定区域If we were to wander outside of the bounds, 那么 按住“Option”或者“Alt”键 用鼠标点选 来减区we could hold ‘Option’ or ‘Alt’ to click on an area. 如果需要增加 选定区域And if we wanted to add more, 那么 按住“Shift”键 用鼠标点选 来增区we could hold ‘Shift’ and click on the area. 这区域 选得蛮好 虽无需增减But that looks pretty good. 但需略做修改 适当“扩展”What we want to do is modify that and expand it. 这张图片由于分辨率很高And this is a pretty high res(olution) file, 因此 选定区域只需“扩展”少量像素so I’m going to expand it quite a bit. 这下可以了That looks good. 点击“删除”键Now I can hit the ‘Delete’ key, 点选“内容识别”功能 (删除后不影响整体构图)and have ‘Content Aware’ fill that in. 删除后效果不错And it’s done a decent job, 不过,小路这头收尾 略显突兀but the road just sort of abruptly ends. 面对这个问题 之所以首次感到棘手And here we encounter our first trickier problem, 是因为 图片无法“透视复制”I can’t clone in perspective. 这条路由于越靠近我 越显得宽阔The road is getting larger as it approaches me, 因此 需要通过“透视模式”来编辑so I need to edit in perspective. 为了解决这个问题And to do that, 会使用“Photoshop”的一项功能 它如魔法般神奇we’re going to use Photoshop’s little magical world, 叫做“灭点”(VanishingPoint)功能called ‘Vanishing Point’, 该功能可设置“透视网格” (完成“透视复制”)which allows us to place a perspective grid. 首先 沿着小路边缘(操作鼠标)We just want to follow the contour of the road here, 以保证 生成的线条与小路轮廓相符make sure that my lines are in parallel there. 然后 只需向我这边拖拽And what I’m going to do, is just pull this towards me, 便形成了“透视网格”and we can see that we’ve got a perspective grid. 我们注意到And if we notice, 左边手over on the left here, 有“仿制图章”工具we have a ‘Clone Stamp’. 可以调整其 “大小(直径)”I’ve got some size options, “不透明度” 以及“模式”opacity, and even healing. 而“透视复制”操作 只需And what I’m going to do is just, 按住“Option”键 用鼠标点选 需要复制的区域‘Option+Click’ on the area that I want to clone. 我预演下And you see that our preview, 呈现出的效果works in perspective. 复制下来的部分 拉远 则变小If I were to travel back in the image, it gets smaller 拖近 则变大forward, it gets larger. 之所以有这个效果So what I can do, 就只是因为运用了is just clone this out, “透视复制”in perspective. “灭点”(VanishingPoint)功能 除了“透视复制”外 还能实现许多You can do all sorts of really neat things in ‘Vanishing Point’, 非常棒的操作cloning is just one of them. 好的 让我们退出这张图片Okay, so let’s cancel out of that, 再探讨另一种棘手的问题and look at another difficult situation, 无痕删除 这张图中的电线which is removing a power line. 如果这条电线只是笔直的Now, if this was just a straight line, 那么 用“污点修复笔刷”工具 按住“Shift”键 点击鼠标就能删除we could ‘Shift+Click’ with our ‘Spot Healing Brush’. 使用“污点修复笔刷”工具 来处理弧线的区域Using our ‘Spot Healing Brush’ on a curved area, 是有些困难is a little trickier. 想想之前And just as a reminder, 这种“笔刷”工具曾经大行其道the way this used to work, 当时“内容识别”(ContentAware)功能还未推出before ‘Content Aware’. 使用“笔刷” 这块区域会模糊混乱this would get blurred or garbled. 现在很幸运 可以选择用“内容识别”功能And luckily we have this ‘Content Aware’ option, 如果想沿着这条电线来修正but we really want to train it along that line, 不想偏离得过多we don’t want to wander too far off the line. 那么 为此介绍一个非常棒的办法So I want to show you a great trick to doing that. 使用“钢笔工具”(PathTool)We’re going to use the ‘Path Tool’. 首次 用“钢笔”光标 点击电线的一端We’re going to click at the beginning of the power line, 再单击电线最右端again, over on the far right, 两端形成线段 在其上再次单击once more in between. 然后 按住“Command”键And then holding the ‘Command’ key, 将线段拖拽 来与电线彼此契合we’re going to pull that down, to cover the line. 两者一旦重叠了 便达到想要的效果When we’ve got that set, just the way we want it, 我们退回we come back, 用“污点修复笔刷”工具to our ‘Spot Healing Brush’. 确保图片处于“内容识别”功能状态We’d make sure it’s on ‘Content Aware’, 设置“笔刷”and we’re going to set our brush, 按住“”Control”和“Option”键using ‘Control+Option’, 或者是“”Control”和“Alt”键or ‘Control+Alt’, “大小(直径)”参数调小to be a pretty small size. “硬度”参数调大And a pretty hard brush, too. 这样便可以了That looks good. 从“图层”面板切换到“路径”面板I’m going to come over to my ‘Path’ panel. 想去掉这根电线的“路径”And with that path selected, 朝下看I’m going to come down here, 这里有个选择按钮and I’ll see that I have an option, “用笔刷画出轨迹”to “stroke the path with my brush”. 单击它I click on that, 电线便神奇地消失了and that power line just magically disappears. 为了去掉这个线段With this path selected, 我将它删除I can now delete it, 可以看到线段的确消失了and see that, that line is gone. 如果电线是笔直的Again, if it were a straight line, 那么 按住“Shift”键 点击鼠标I could just ‘Shift+Click’, 就能从图中去掉and that would pull it out of there. 现在你已经得知如何沿着弧线来修正But now you know how to train it along a curved line. 你是否正尝试操作”透视复制”So whether you’re cloning in perspective, 或者 无痕去掉电线呢?or removing power lines, 教程介绍的这两个操作those are a couple of great additions in your playbook, 能够大幅提升你处理图片的能力for taking your retouching to the next level. Photoshop教程 订阅 关注“PS教程”播放列表Photoshop Playbook,Subscribe, Go to PS Playbook Playlist.
  • 2021-09-01怎样选择细发丝PS教程进行细发选区操作Photoshop PlaybookMaking Fine Hair Selections 在PS中有许多的方法来进行选区的操作There’re a lot of different ways to make selections in Photoshop. 我认为我收到的最多的请求就是做进行毛发选区以及制作低硬度的边框的教程I think the request that I get the most is how do I make selections for fine hair and soft edges. 这确实是一个很困难的问题 但我想给你们展示一个好的解决方法It’s a really difficult problem but I want to show you a great solution for you. 这并不复杂 实际上非常简单It’s not very intimidating, pretty easy to do actually. 我们在这里用的图片是一个有问题的文件 对吗?The image that we have here is a really problematic file, right? 所以这是一个一兆像素的图片So this is a one-megapixel image, 非常低的分辨率还有许多的毛发pretty low resolution and there’s a lot of hair and fur. 所以这就进行毛发选区来说应该是一个噩梦了So this should be a nightmare to select the hair from and 我将向你展示一个非常快的方法来进行这个操作I’m gonna show you a really quick way to do this. 所以 我要做的第一件事是选好我们的快速选择工具So the first thing I wanna do is take our quick select tool 现在有很多这种工具 快速选择 魔棒Now for a lot of these tools, Quick Selection, Magic Wand, 人们被这些名字分散了注意力people get put off by the name. 他们听到快 然后他们想“好吧,我更快”They hear quick and they figure “Well, I’m quicker.” 如果我们有自动的工具 他们想“我人工做得更好”If we have auto, they figure “I can do better manually.” 我现在告诉你快速选择工具 是我想要向你解释它的工作原理的方法I’m telling you with quick select, this is the way to go I wanna explain how it works. 所以让我们选好快速选择工具 然后用Ctrl+OptionSo let’s take our quick select tool and using our Ctrl+Option 或者使用Ctrl+alt 这样就能从左拖到右or Ctrl +alt keys we can drag left to right 来改变刷子的直径to change the diameter of the brush 如果我用Ctrl+Option或者Ctrl+alt键的组合If I were to use the Ctrl+Option or Ctrl+Alt keys and 然后上下拖动 我就改变了刷子的硬度drag up and down, I change the hardness of the brush, 现在我们想要的是中等硬度和一个大概这样大小的刷子and for this one, we want medium hardness and a brush about that size. 现在 我们将要开始点击 在图片上进行操作Now, we’re gonna just start clicking and painting on the image here. 我们不需要对于第一次会发生什么太过担心And we’re not gonna worry too much about what happens the first time. 事实上 在一些情况下 事情将会变得一团糟In fact, at some point, things are going to go all wrong and 然后整个图像就被选择了 但没有关系the whole image is gonna get selected, but that’s ok. 这儿的重点是当我按下Option键或是Alt键The idea here is that as I use the Option or the Alt key, 然后开始使用它来决定这幅图片的哪些部分是我不想要的and start telling it which areas of the image I don’t want. PS实际上越来越熟悉我的选择了Photoshop is actually learning more about my selection. 所以 当我在周围进行操作的时候 事情看起来好很多了So, as I come around here, things are starting to look a lot better. 现在 我将再确认一遍然后按着Shift键把这块地方加上Now at this point, I’ll take one more look and say Shift click to add that area up there. 即使它看起来不怎么完美 对我来说已经够好 可以继续做下去了And even though it’s not looking perfect, it is good enough for me to move forward. 所以下一步我将在这里重新完善选区边缘So the next step is I’m gonna come up here to Refine Edge. 在重新定义好的选区边缘内 我有许多种方法来查看我的选区And within Refine Edge, I have a lot of different ways of previewing my selection. 这块部分我们要把它变成黑白色 所以我们可以清楚看到这里发生了什么For this we’re gonna go black and white, so that we can clearly see what’s going on here. 现在我要增加它的半径And I’m gonna increase my radius. 让我们把它增加到14,15或是12.5就好了Let’s take it up to some where around 14, 15, 12.5 will do just fine. 你要知道在这样一张图片上点击中心点You’ll know you hit the sweet spot when on a image like this. 你将看到一缕缕的头发You’re seeing individual strands of hair, 很明显在分离想要分离的领域上我们已经做得很好了it’s obviously doing a great job of isolating the area that you want. 现在如果我点击智能半径 它将会给我一个更好的选区Now if I click Smart Radius, it’s gonna get me an even better selection. 现在要做的就是检查选区的边缘然后使用正确的遮罩What it’s doing is sniffing around the edge and coming up with just the right mask. 它遮住了所有的画面 然后把具体的地方给显现出来It’s looking at the whole thing and figuring out the areas that are detailed 这些地方硬度更低and the areas that are softer. 现在 下一步非常的重要 就是快速选区Now, this next step is really important, just like Quick Select, 我们要用Option键或者Alt键来清理遮罩We’re gonna use our Option or Alt key to clean up our mask. 所以 当我拖着在边缘的时候 你就能够看到保真度在提高So, as I drag this around the edge, you’ll see that the fidelity is improving. 所以我跟它说 我不想要这些地方So I’m just telling it, I don’t want those areas end, 它们熟悉了我的操作方式 移除了我移动经过的地方and they’re learning, they’re removing from the mask as I go. 现在 如果我们再回想这张图片 这里是有须的Now, if we recall with this image, there was a whisker that stuck out here. 如果我想要在未选区域进行操作 它就会回到之前的状态If I just paint in the general area, that’s gonna pop back in. 所以 我即使在这个一兆像素的图片上也能看见这个So, I can see that even on this one megapixel image, 我在选择单独的毛发上已经做了很多工作I’ve done a great job of selecting individual hairs. 好了 让我们点击完成 然后在这里看最终的结果So, let’s click Ok, and see marching ends here 现在给你们看我已经完成了一个怎样好的工作Now, just to show you what a great job this is done, 让我们点击Command加上C键来进行复制Let’s hit Command+c to copy this, 然后Command加N来创建一个同样大小的新文件and Command+n to creat a new document that it’s the same shape, 然后Command加V进行粘贴and Command+v to paste that in, 我要点击缩放工具进行放大I’m gonna take my Zoom tool, and we’re gonna zoom in. 然后你就能看到来自一张一兆像素图片的一缕缕的毛发and you can see sure enough, individual strands of hair from a one megapixel image. 所以快速选择工具和重新定义边缘工具的结合So, that combination of Quick Select and Refine Edge 是一个非常快速而有效的方法分离一些甚至非常困难的选区is a really fast and powerful way to isolate even difficult selections. PS教程进行细发选区操作Photoshop PlaybookMaking Fine Hair Selections
  • 2021-09-01为什么瘟疫医生都带着这个奇怪的面具Back in the Middle Ages,在中世纪的时候 there was no cure for the plague.瘟疫是一种绝症 But that didn’t stop people trying但这也无法阻止人们 pretty much anything to avoid succumbing to this terrifying illness.尝试种种方法以防染上这种可怕的疾病 The Wellcome Collection in London holds records伦敦的惠康博物馆便存放了 of many of the supposed and rather bizarre cures for the plague.大量有关传闻中治疗瘟疫的偏方的记录 So one of the things I have here我手边的这份东西 is a manuscript from the end of the 15th century.是一份在15世纪末遗留下来的手稿 Dr. Elma Brenner is an expertElma Brenner博士是一位 in the strange world of the medieval doctor.对中世纪医学界深有研究的专家 The plague charm that we have here on this page,这页有一个抵抗瘟疫的魔法阵 they’re using the kind of the format of the circular diagram,魔法阵采用圆形图的形式 which is a kind of universal medieval format中世纪时人们普遍用这种形式 to give protection against pestilence.来进行防疫保护 These charms quite often have some kind这些魔法阵通常都有一些指引 of instruction to write them on the body,告诉使用者怎样把它画在身上 sometimes in blood.有时要用血画 But you could do other things with this.但你也可以使用其他方式 You could write — you could copy it onto a scrap of paper例如 你可以写出来 就是在废纸上临摹一份 and carry it on your body, for instance.然后随身携带 Of course, doctors did exist in medieval times.当然 中世纪时期的确有医生 Unfortunately, they were as clueless as their patients不幸的是 他们和患者一样 as to the real cause of the plague.都对瘟疫的真正来源毫无头绪 But that didn’t stop them profiting from it.但这也阻止不到他们从中获利 Physicians quite often get bad reputations for being very wealthy 那些医生经常因非常富有 and shamelessly charging a lot of money for their advice.和无耻地为提出的建议收取高昂费用而声名狼藉 Now, another thing I want to ask you我现在想问你另一件事 about — because, see, the image I have in my因为在我印象中 mind is of a plague doctor with a special costume.瘟疫医生通常都穿着一身特殊装束 So I’ve actually acquired for myself the sort of thing that people would wear.所以我为自己找来一套同样的装束 Yeah, and although it’s something that looks strange to us,对 虽然对我们来说 那好像很奇怪 it actually had come from continental Europe,这种装束其实源自欧洲大陆 particularly France and Italy.尤其是法国和意大利 The Europeans settled on this look in the 17th century, 欧洲人在17世纪时敲定了这套装束 proving they could even deal with the plague 这说明 比起我们 more stylishly than we could.他们也许能更时髦地应对瘟疫 So this is the outfit.这就是那套装束 I’ve got on all but the top bit.除了鸟喙面具 我都穿上了 So the gloves are more like motorcycle gauntlets,这手套更像是摩托车手用的防护手套 which obviously would protect against the germs getting in.它显然能保护使用者 隔绝细菌入侵 And I’ve got a big stick.我也带了一枝大手杖 Now, what’s this?这是什么呢? This is just a standard stick?它只是一枝普通手杖吗? Or did it have some function,还是 在你看来 对瘟疫医生来说 do you think, as plague doctor?有些甚么特殊意义? Yeah, I mean, I think it adds to the distance from the patients对 我认为它能增加医生与患者的距离 He wouldn’t get up close to them这样他就不用接近患者 So he could say, look, you’ve got buboes there.所以他可能会这样说 看 你那里有淋巴结炎 This is virtually the barge pole这其实就是在表明 that you don’t want to touch things with.你一点也不想碰到病人 Now, I suppose this is the most fascinating thing. 现在来看看我认为最迷人的东西 The beak was there so that there would be something鸟喙的设计很突出 以便让 in front of the respiratory area 面具的呼吸区域 that was filled with heavily aromatic plants填满香味浓烈的植物 that were understood to purify the air.以此来保护医师免受瘴气的侵害 Is this what the plague doctor might look like?这就是瘟疫医生看起来的模样吗? Yeah, I mean, what we could say is对 我们可以说 that this would be a physician that you would encounter,这就是你会遇到的瘟疫医生的模样 and you would not be able to see his face at all.而你完全不会看到他的脸 So in that sense, it’s more of a negative所以 在这种情况下 我会倾向于认为 than a positive encounter, I think it’s likely to say.这种装束的益处不及它的坏处 Right, well I have to move on.好了 我得走了 I’ve got a lot of other patients to see.还有很多患者在等着我去诊断 You’ve got the plague.你染上了瘟疫 You’ve got about two weeks to live.你只剩两周的寿命了 I wonder if you can pay the money for my fee on your way out.我只想知道 你去世前是否能付清我的诊费
  • 2021-09-01人类历史博物馆:猎巫行动今天的人类史课Today in Human History, 我们要讲的是……猎巫行动!we’re going to talk about… Witch Hunts! 它有趣吗?Is this gonna be funny? 不会No. 女巫被认为是拥有邪恶力量的人Witches were humans thought to have evil powers, 她们戴着尖帽子骑着扫把到处飞wear pointy hats and fly around on cleaning supplies. 对她们来说 猎巫行动是毫无必要的暴力迫害A witch hunt was a needlesslyviolent persecution of these people. 那什么样的人会被当作女巫呢?And who was considered a witch? 老女人 穷女人 残疾女人 几乎所有女人Elderly women, poor women, disabled women, hashtag all women… 有男人吗?Were any men targeted? 有!Yes! 为什么?Why? 因为他们被误认为是女性Because they were mistsaken for women. 通常人们是怎么分辨女巫的呢?How could they tell if people were witches? 通常 被控告者都有一个胎记Usually, the accused would have a birthmark – 也就是我们所说的阴道commonly referred to as a vagina. 女巫被抓住了会怎样呢?So what happened when a witch was caught? 所有被控告的女性Any woman accused of being a witch 都要经历一次测试would be put to a test. 市民们会把她们捆起来The town’s people would tie her up, 扔进湖里and throw her body into a lake! 如果溺亡了 说明她是无辜的If she drowned, she was innocent. 否则就是有罪的If she floated, she was guilty. 所以 无辜的女性会溺亡So, innocent women would be killed 而真正的女巫会活下来but witches would survive 然后还是被杀死?and then also be killed? 没错!Bingo! 大部分人以为Most people think 有罪的女性会被烧死在木桩上that the guilty women were burned at the stake 那不是真的but that’s a myth. [唏嘘声]Phew! 她们还会被绞死 被溺死They were also hanged, drowned, 被流放 被折磨 甚至被斩首exiled, tortured, and beheaded. 噢!天呐!Ugh! Come on! 人们为什么要那样对待女人?Why would people do that to women? 格林 不是人们 而是男人Ah – not people, Green. Men. 可怕的男人Horrible, horrible men. 这些男人受到过惩罚吗?Were these men ever punished? 当然!Yes, they were! 在21世纪In the twenty-first century, 男人们同样经历了human men were also put through 他们所谓的“猎巫行动”what they like to call a “witch hunt.” 他们也是因为性别而被迫害吗?Were they also persecuted for their gender? 不 他们是因为骚扰和攻击女性Oh no. They were caught harassing and assulting women. 他们都被抓住并处死了吗?Were they hunted down and killed too? 没有 但是大众发现后No, but the public found out, 拿走了他们的电影和电视节目and took away their films and TV shows. 好吧 我爸爸说Well, my dad says 21世纪的猎巫行动that this twenty-first century witch hunt 实际上只是认识到was really just a recognition 当权者不能逃脱that people in power couldn’t get away 蔑视失权者而带来的惩罚with treating the disenfranchised as lesser 以及先驱者们牺牲是值得的and that the loss of a few former heroes was worth it 致敬那些素未谋面的女英雄们considering all the heroines we never got the chance to meet. 好的 布鲁 我很不想说我同意你爸爸的观点Well Blue, I hate to agree with your dad. 那么 好吧 我们继续!So, yeah, moving on!
  • 2021-09-01首位研究色盲的科学家John Dalton was a humble 18th century scientist约翰•道尔顿是18世纪一位谦逊的科学家 most famous for his work on atomic theory and colorblindness.以研究原子理论和色盲而闻名 He was born on September 6th, 1766他于1766年9月6日 in a small town in England to a family of poor Quakers.出生在英格兰小镇的一个贫穷的贵格会信徒家庭 He was an exceptionally bright child. 他是个非常聪明的孩子 At the age of just 12, he was put in charge of his local Quaker school. 刚刚十二岁时 他就被安排负责当地的贵格会学校 At 15, he moved to Kendal to teach.15岁时 他到肯德尔任教 The city and was not as cosmopolitan as London, but it was a big town to Dalton.这座城市虽没有伦敦国际化 但对道尔顿来说也算大城市 When he moved there in 1781, 当他在1781年搬到那里时 he saw an umbrella for the first time, so he bought one.还是第一次看到雨伞 于是他就买了一把 And then he said,”Now, I’m becoming a gentleman.”然后说 现在我成为绅士啦 As an instructor, he was all about the math.作为一名教师 他是数学通 Sometimes he could get so preoccupied with mathematics,有时 他沉迷于数学研究 he wouldn’t even notice the kids misbehaving,甚至无暇注意熊孩子的恶作剧 even when they were throwing pieces of paper at him. 连他们向他扔纸片也浑然不觉 In Kendal, he met his mentor, John Gough,who was a blind English philosopher and scientist.在肯德尔 他遇到了他的导师 约翰·高夫 一位英国盲人哲学家和科学家 He taught Dalton the importance of diligence and hard work. 他教给道尔顿勤奋和努力的重要性 And Dalton himself once said,”If I have succeeded,道尔顿曾说过 “如果我取得成功 “it is not so much from any superior genius,but more from attention to study and perseverance.”它不完全来自天赋异禀 更多来自专注与坚持” Dalton then brought his diligent sensibility to Manchester in 1793, 1793年 道尔顿带着他勤奋的感悟力来到曼彻斯特 where he embarked on a number of intellectual works, 在那里他从事大量脑力劳动 many of which were inspired by observations he made in his own life, 其中许多灵感由他日常生活观察所得 like the time Dalton thought he was buying his Quaker mother a pair of conservative black stockings 比如 道尔顿曾给他的贵格会信徒母亲购买长袜 他以为是保守的黑色 were in fact, they were bright scarlet.实际上 是大红色 And this is, of course, how Dalton realized he was colorblind. 当然 道尔顿得以发现自己是个色盲 But back then, they didn’t call it that.但当时 没人称之为色盲 They didn’t call it anything because it wasn’t yet part of medical and scientific lexicon. 也没有任何相关说法 因为这尚未列入医学和科学词汇 In fact, Dalton was the one who investigated it further,事实上 道尔顿是深入研究色盲症的第一人 and in 1794, published a paper called 在1794年 他发表了题为 Extraordinary Facts Relating to the Vision of Colours《关于颜色视觉的特殊例子》的论文 His paper brought colorblindness to the attention of the medical community. 他的论文引起了医学界对色盲症的重视 And for many years, it was even called Daltonism after Dalton.有很多年 色盲症甚至被以他的名字称为道尔顿症 Dalton never married, but he was fully devoted to his work.道尔顿终身未婚 但他全身心投入于工作 He kept a meteorological diary 他记气象日记 in which he noted the barometric pressure, wind direction and velocity, rainfall其中记录了气压 风向 风速和降雨 and other details of the weather every single day for 57 years. 和其它天气信息 57年如一日 从未间断 That’s love.这是热爱 His weather journal got him interested in atmosphere 他的气象观测日志引起了他对大气的兴趣 and inspired him to look closer at the properties of gases,并启示他更密切地关注气体的性质 which led him to a theory on gas pressure and mixtures, 这引导他得出了关于气压和混合气体的理论 which we now call Dalton’s Law.我们现在称之为“道尔顿定律” His greatest contribution to science came in the form of his revolutionary atomic theory,他对科学最伟大的贡献在于革命性的原子理论 which in short pointed out the essential properties in atoms, 该理论精辟地指明了原子的基本性质 like their size, weight, mass, and others.像它们的大小 重量 质量及其它 He published all these findings in 1808 in a two-part book1808年 他以一部两卷的著作发表了全部成果 called “A New System of Chemical Philosophy.”该书名为《化学哲学的新体系》 His work gained acceptance in the science community. 他的成就获得了科学界的认同 And he quickly became the most famous scientist in England.他迅速成为英国最著名的科学家 But he never got too big for his britches.但他从不居功自傲 自我膨胀 He continued teaching and researching他继续教学与研究 until he died on July 27th, 1844 in Manchester.直到1844年7月27日在曼彻斯特去世 Dalton’s legacy would live on through his work, 道尔顿的遗产将通过他的著作延续下去 inspiring advances in atomic theory for years不断激励着原子理论的进步 and reminding us that the biggest achievements don’t always have to come from the biggest personalities.并提醒我们 最伟大的成就不必总是源自最独特的个性
  • 2021-09-01人类初步探索太空之旅This video was sponsored by The Great Courses Plus.该视频由The Great Courses Plus赞助播出 It’s a service where you have instantaneous access这是你可以随时访问的 to lectures by top professors.一流教授的课程 One of these lectures inspired the creation of this video, 制作这个视频的灵感源于众多课程中的一个 so stay tuned till the end to find out more.请不要走开 后面有更多信息哦 The greatest inspiration to inventors to creators, to scientists让发明家 创作者以及科学家灵光一现的灵感 is often based in fiction.常常来源于小说 Classic works by authors like H.G.Wells and Jules Verne比如赫伯特·乔治·威尔斯和儒勒·凡尔纳的经典作品 set a generation of minds upon the path of scientific discovery.使一代人走上科学研究的道路 Those inspired by these works went on to inspire others themselves.受这些作品启发的人 也一直在启发和鼓舞他人 This cycle has affected mankind in grand ways这个循环对人类产生了巨大的影响 in humanity’s most outlandish achievements,在人类取得的大多数超乎寻常的成就中 the Apollo program, Sputnik,譬如阿波罗工程和人造卫星 and the entire space race are no exception.还有整个太空竞赛都是 So we’ll start here,我们从这讲起 not with the Nazis, not with Galileo,和纳粹无关也和伽利略无关 but with a book –而是关乎一本书 “From the Earth to the Moon” by Jules Verne.儒勒·凡尔纳所著的《从地球到月球》 In the story,故事中 weapon crafters from Baltimore decide to make their largest creation yet 巴尔的摩的兵器工匠决定制作一个史无前例的作品 a cannon that sends them to the moon.一台能将他们送到月球的加农炮 As crazy as this sounds,和这个设想一样疯狂的是 the novel contains detailed scientific insight and propositions.小说中还涵盖具体的科学见解和议案 By the end of the story,在故事的结尾 the cannon which meansures 900-feet long,这门长达900英尺的炮 fires three men into space.带着这三个人上了太空 Never to be heard from again.之后再也没有他们的消息了 Today it seems downright insane.至今为止看起来仍然疯狂 How could anybody believe this would be feasible?怎么会有人相信这是可行的? Well, the story is from 1865,这个故事著于1865年 over a hundred years before Apollo 11.比阿波罗11号早了一百多年 And well before the first airplanes,也在第一架飞机发明之前 it gave hope to aspiring scientists这给了胸怀大志的科学家们一个希望 that maybe someday,就是在未来某一天 man could reach the moon.人类可以登上月球 One man inspired by this was Konstantin Tsiolkovsky,齐奥尔科夫斯基就是其中一位科学家 a Russian scientist.他是一名俄国科学家 In 1903, he published在1903年 他出版了 exploration of outer space by means of rocket devices,《利用火箭装置探索外层空间》 using a rocket equation he created earlier.用他之前创造的火箭方程 So Tsiolkovsky showed the speed and fuel required to get a rocket into space.齐奥科斯基预估了火箭进入太空对速度与燃料要求 At the same time, his concept for a rocket would split into several parts,同时 他创造了概念 将火箭分成几个部分 allowing different parts to hold fuel and passengers.用不同的部分去容纳储存燃料和容纳乘客 At first response was dismissive.起初别人对他的想法不屑一顾 But he was not deterred.但他从未放弃 He added on to his ideas in further detail,他更详细地补充了他的想法 including how much energy was needed to conquer gravity.包括需要多少能量来克服地心引力 Over time, he gained recognition,他渐渐地获得了认可 and his ideas were taken far more seriously.他的想法也逐渐被人重视 But the 1920s, he explained potential systems to protect against reentry1920年 他解释了一种可能系统 在重返大气层时如何自我保护 and a composition of rocket fuel.还有火箭燃料的组成 However, he himself saw his ideas as ahead of its time,不过他的想法领先于时代 and never took his concepts into practice以至于他的理论从未得到实践的机会 instead it was Robert H Goddard who took things further, and an American,取而代之的是美国的是科学家罗伯特·戈达德 He was fascinated by the H.G.Wells’ story,他被赫伯特·乔治·威尔斯的小说深深吸引 “The War of the Worlds”.尤其是《星际战争》 He only grew more entranced by space他对太空越来越着迷 and studied physics throughout college,在大学时学习物理的同时 writing papers detailing his ideas and theories.写论文详细阐述他的想法和理论 He soon fell upon his most important contribution to space travel –他很快就对太空旅行做出了重大贡献 liquid-fueled rockets.液体燃料火箭 Walsall Kowski described rockets in a similar fashion,与齐奥尔科夫斯基描述火箭理论相似 Goddard took the science and created the first liquid-fueled rocket In 1926s1926年 戈达德成功地利用科学造出了第一枚液体燃料火箭 he continued his work他专研于这项工作 improving the rockets over decades.几十年来不断地改进火箭 This would be the man and the ideas that would be the most influential to landing a man on the moon.这是对人类的登月计划最有影响力的一步 Over in Germany,在德国 Hermann Oberth as student Verner Von Braun,弗纳·冯·布劳恩 和他的学生赫尔曼·奥伯特 were testing similar ideas to Goddard.进行了与戈达德想法相似的实验 Based on his experiments,以他的实验作为基础 they two saw great potential in liquid-fueled rockets,他们发现液体燃料火箭有着巨大潜力 but soon their work became transformed into weapons of war.但不久后该成果变成了战争武器 In the 1930s, Germany had a culture of rocket enthusiasts在1930年 德国掀起了一阵火箭热潮 trying to experiment with liquid fuel.人们尝试用液体燃料做实验 Obert and Von Braun were among the prominent VFR group奥伯特和冯·布劳恩是VFR组织的重要成员 who made their own rockets and launch them periodically.他们自己制造火箭并按周期发射 As Hitler’s regime rose however,随着希特勒政权的崛起 the potential for government funding was impossible if it was not to help the Nazi cause.如果不支持纳粹党 当局政府就不会资助 This would cause many members such as Von Braun导致了许多成员 例如冯·布劳恩 to join their ranks to continue receiving funding.为了获得资助被迫加入纳粹 As it turns out,事实证明 these enthusiasts would soon become far more important to the Nazis,这些热衷于研究火箭的人对纳粹党变得非常重要 using concepts they had learned including those from Goddard,运用包括戈达德和冯·布劳恩的理论 Von Braun created the V-2 rocket.冯·布劳恩创造出了V-2型火箭 While his interest was still in space,虽然他仍然太空感兴趣 the rockets were obviously not used for that 但是火箭显然并没有用于探索太空 and resulted in the deaths of thousands.反而导致成千上万人死亡 As the war came to a close,随着战争迈向尾声 the Soviets and the Americans had great interest in the German rocket program.苏联和美国对德国的火箭计划饶有兴趣 With this, they scrambled to recruit leading scientists所以他们争先恐后的招募顶尖科学家 with Von Braun going to the Americans.冯·布劳恩加入了美国阵营 He would help them develop concepts and technologies他帮助了美国完善概念和技术 over the following years but without the drive of war funding,然而这些年中没有战争资金的驱动 this didn’t allow many concept to become practical.很多理论无法得到实施 This included concepts like traveling to Mars,就像火星遨游 artificial gravity stations,人造重力站 and a space station capable of orbit to ground missiles.以及一个能够绕地发射导弹的空间站 In the name of national security,以国家安全为由 the Soviets were not completely in the dark on rockets either though.苏联人对火箭也不是完全一无所知 One of the most knowledgeable was Sergei Korolev,学识渊博的谢尔盖·科罗廖夫是其中之一 younger than the others on this list,在科研名单里年纪最轻 his inspirations lied in the growing culture of airplanes and gliders.不断发展的飞机和滑翔机文化让他的灵感油然而生 As he studied these,通过研究和学习 he soon imagined the capabilities of a rocket-powered airplane.他很快就想到了火箭动力飞机的潜在动力 He studied further and developed flight stabilisation methods他进一步研究和发展飞行稳定的方法 before being sent to the Gulag.赶在被送去古拉格集中营之前 Likely being framed by a potentially jealous co-worker.大概是被嫉妒他的同事暗中陷害 He was later sent to a labor camp然后他被送到劳动营 for other scientists to work on the Soviet projects.与其他科学家研讨苏联的火箭项目 Here he showed his potential in rocketry,他展示了自己在火箭方面的潜力 leading to his eventual release.最终获释 So again with World War Ⅱ ending,所以在二战结束的同时 the Soviets found V-2 rocket plans.苏联创办V-2火箭计划 In the spawned a new area of discovery improving the concepts, 新领域概念更上一层楼 Korolev who joined the Communists to request more funding为了筹集资金科罗廖夫基金加入共产党 created the world’s first ICBM创造出了前所未闻的ICBM or intercontinental ballistic missile.或称洲际弹道导弹 This was able to carry a nuke over 4,000 miles.它能携带核弹超过4000多英里 As his work was implemented for war by the Soviets,尽管他的成果被苏联用于战争 he still found himself geared towards space travel.他仍然觉得太空旅行更有趣 He convinced Stalin to allow him to attach a small satellite他说服斯大林允许他安装一颗小型卫星 to one of the R-7 rockets used for ICBM tests连接到一枚R-7火箭洲际弹道导弹的测试中 which would be Sputnik Ⅰ,这就是Sputnik Ⅰ(苏联的第一颗人造卫星) the catalyst for the start of the space race.太空竞赛开始的催化剂 It’s here where we see the most substantial advancements in space travel,这是我们看到太空旅行最显著进步 culminating in the greatest competition the world has ever seen.在世界上最伟大的比赛中达到巅峰 The origins of this race wasn’t simply born from immediate political rivalries,这次竞赛的根本不只是政治对抗 but from decades of inspiration,还有几十年的科学精神 born from the works of Verne, the test of Ghanard.凡尔纳的作品和加纳的实践都功不可没 Scientists with not simply alliances,科学家们不只是简单的合作 but also caught up in the greater events of their time.而且还掀起了一个时代惊涛骇浪 This video was inspired by a lecture本视频的灵感源于众多课程之一 which was featured in the video service.课程来自下面这个视频平台 “The Great Courses Plus”,那就是The Great Courses Plus “1969 Walking On the Moon”视频为“1969年月球漫步” taught by Professor Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius.由Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius教授讲授 Here he detailed the history and journey他用历史与经历详述了 of getting to the moon.登月历程 You can access this in many numerous courses through The Great Courses Plus.登录The Great Courses Plus可以找到 It’s a subscription on-demand video learning service这是订阅点播视频学习的服务平台 with over seven thousand video lectures拥有七千多节视频课程 taught by professors in basically every field.由各领域的教授讲解 Topics like science, history, math主题涵盖科学 历史 数学 and even really specific and on topics that continue to always be updated,具体内容和主题的课程也会不断更新 like photography.比如摄影课程 Courses are sometimes even hosted by National Geographic and the Smithsonian.课程有时由《 National Geographic 》和《Smithsonian》学会主办 It removes the pressure of grades无需承受学分压力 while also giving you college grade lectures,也能享受到大学水准的课程 just watch and listen.只需要看和听即可 So if you want to learn more about the space race,如果想了解更多太空竞赛的内容 click on this link点击链接 to get one month of unlimited access即可获得一个月无限制访问 to courses and videos.课程和视频的权利 Absolutely free.完全免费 Just visit thegreatcoursesplus.com/knowledge,访问网址:thegreatcoursesplus.com/knowledge the link is provided in the description below.链接将在下方描述区提供 This is Kody of Knowledge Hub.我是知识集线器的Kody
  • 2021-09-01圣女贞德:传奇圣女《人物小传》 圣女贞德 让娜·达克 你是否曾听闻预言 传说 法国将被一个女人葬送 然后被一位洛林贞女拯救 那就是贞德 这则预言前半段指的是 一位女王不承认其子查理的继承权 称其为自己的私生子 使查理失去王位 后半则是指贞德引人注目的出现 她吸引了一批跟随者 他们相信贞德就是预言中的贞女 也就是从那时起 贞德逐渐明确了自己的形象 在之后成为永世流传的人物 她剪去长发 换上男人装束 将自己打扮成男人 通过女扮男装 贞德树立起了前所未有的形象 她不是…… 她并不是女人 也不算男人 她是身着男装的贞女 特别又珍贵 某种程度上 她创造了属于自己的性别 无关她原来的性别 充满不可思议的力量 到达希侬皇家城堡后 贞德向里面传信 请求面见查理王子 查理惊讶地接见了这位着男装的奇妙女子 他们两人在私下进行了谈话 等谈话结束 王子看起来容光焕发 他之后吐露 贞德说出了只有上帝或神使才知道的消息 让他非常震撼
  • 2021-08-30玛雅文明为什么会崩溃?[音乐][Music] 在8世纪早期 玛雅文明达到了它的顶峰By the early 8th century the Maya civilization was at its zenith. 他们建造并养护了规模极其宏大的城市Building and maintaining cities of such scale that 以至于后来的探险家们假设这些城市future explorers hypothesized that they must have been built 肯定是由失落的以色列部落或腓尼基人所建造的by lost tribes of Israel or the Phoenicians. 但仅仅150年后 繁荣的古典玛雅文明经历了But only 150 years later the flourishing Classic Maya civilization had crumbled, 人类历史上最具破坏性的社会动荡和人口巨变之一 并由此崩溃undergoing one of the most devastating social and demographic upheavals in human history. 然而直到1697年 玛雅才屈服于西班牙的控制Yet the Maya wouldn’t succumb to Spanish control until 1697, 这比西班牙征服阿兹特克和印加晚了将近200年nearly 200 years after the Aztecs and Inca. 玛雅的大崩溃和覆灭The great collapse and fall of the Maya is a story 是一个充满变化、有胜利喜悦也有悲剧的故事of change, triumph and tragedy, 古代王座被粉碎 但新势力随之而起where ancient thrones will be shattered but from them new powers will emerge. 南部低地的玛雅文明经历了某种崩溃这一点无可争议There is no disputing that the Maya civilization in the southern lowlands underwent some sort of collapse. 而关键问题是——为什么?The prevailing question is, why? 不幸的是 我们没有玛雅人自己关于崩溃的任何记录Unfortunately, we do not have any records of the collapse from the Maya themselves. 我们所依赖的石柱上的信息主要是关于神王的生活The stelae that we rely upon usually focus on the lives of god-kings 而非农业产量rather than agricultural yields 而可能包含这些记录的书籍也已被烧成灰烬and the books that may have contained these records have been reduced to ash. 我们所知道的是 在8世纪和9世纪What we do know is that in the 8th and 9th centuries 联盟开始瓦解 贸易衰退alliances began breaking down, trade declined 激烈的冲突逐渐开始失控and intense conflicts spiraled out of control. 最好的例子是我们在之前的视频中看到的The greatest example of this is the Tikal-Calakmul wars 蒂卡尔-卡拉克穆尔战争we saw in the previous video. 到公元830年 与玛雅相关的大型建筑几乎全部停工By 830 AD the large-scale constructions that we associate with the Maya had mostly stopped 在Itzimte 我们看到刻在一根石柱上的and at Itzimte we see the final date carved on a stela 最后日期是910年1月16日the 16th of January 910, 这标志着人类最耀眼的光芒之一的which marked that one of humanities brightest lights, 雅玛古典城市文明结束了the Classic urban civilization of the Maya was at an end. 跟罗马帝国或赫梯帝国的覆灭类似Similar to the fall of Rome or the Hittites, 我们知道导致其崩溃的原因不止一个we know that there is more than one single reason for the collapse. 大多数玛雅文化专家认为有三个主要因素Most Mayanists agree that 3 major factors 导致了古典玛雅的覆灭led to the Classic Maya collapse: 战争 环境破坏和干旱Warfare, Environmental Collapse, and Drought. 我们首先从战争开始讲起We’ll start with warfare first 因为它似乎是发生最早的起因because it seems to have the earliest arriving cause. 随着南部低地的战争日益频繁As these increasingly frequent wars continued to plague the southern lowlands 战争带来的暴力和破坏程度也在增加the level of violence and destruction they brought increased. 自前古典时期以来 玛雅的国王们就一直在打仗The Maya kings had been warring since the pre-Classic period, 而现在事态升级but things had escalated 战事已经影响到普通民众的日常生活and warfare was now interrupting the daily lives of the common people. 曾为玛雅城市增添光彩的华丽寺庙和宫殿变成了瓦砾The gorgeous temples and palaces that once glorified Maya cities were turned to rubble. 有些甚至被拆除以建造防御工事Some even torn down in order to build fortifications, 这些防御工事开始在曾经没有城墙的玛雅城市周围出现which began to spring up around once un-walled Maya cities. 有些城市的防御墙甚至直接穿过城市中间Some cities even had defensive walls that passed right through the middle of them. 居民区开始后移Settlements began to regress, 金字塔尚未建成便被搁置pyramids lay unfinished, 甚至连国王的尸骨都未被埋葬and kings unburied. 成千上万难民从农村涌入城市Hundreds of thousands of refugees poured into the cities from the countryside, 使得人口急剧膨胀swelling their populations. 历史上 蒂卡尔的人口在大多时期为6-8万Tikal which had a population between 60-80 thousand for most of its history 在此期间人口可能飙升到了200,000人may have skyrocketed to 200,000 during this period. 环境问题加剧了这种情况This was compounded by environmental issues. 正如我们在本系列第一个视频中所讨论的那样As we discussed in the first video in this series 尤卡坦的环境十分恶劣the Yucatán is quite a hostile environment 玛雅人在这繁衍发展就需要使用巧妙但又代价高昂的方法and the Maya needed to develop ingenious and costly methods to thrive within it. 为了给不断增长的城市提供燃料In order to fuel their ever-growing cities 以及制作覆盖在房子上的灰泥and to make the plaster that covered them 大片森林不得不被清除massive swaths of forest had to be cleared. 这里环境中的土壤原本就很薄This deforestation increased soil erosion in an environment 这种森林砍伐更是加剧了土壤侵蚀in which soils were already quite thin. 玛雅城邦的成功也播下了它们走向毁灭的种子The success of the Maya city-states was sowing the seeds of their destruction. 最后的致命因素 是干旱The final fatal factor, was drought. 玛雅人是最擅长干旱治理的文明之一The Maya were one of the most adept civilizations when it came to drought management. 他们的水渠和蓄水池仍然散布在被丛林湮没的城市中Their aqueducts and cisterns still dotted the jungles that have consumed their cities. 然而 公元800至1100年间尤为漫长的干旱However, the sheer length of the droughts 给他们造成了灾难性的打击that struck them between 800 and 1100 AD was apocalyptic. 820年至860年发生了长达40年的干旱There was a 40-year drought between 820-860, 另一次发生在930年左右another around 930, 然后在1000年至1100年间and then from 1000 – 1100 there was another, 又发生了一次长达100年的干旱a 100-year long drought. 该地区已饱受长期战事的摧残The area was already suffering from incessant warfare. 土壤的生产力比以往任何时候都低Soils were less productive than ever. 国王们卷入了长达一个世纪的争斗Kings were embroiled in century long rivalries 现在农民们不得不年复一年地将玉米种子撒到干燥的泥土中and now farmers had to plant seeds of corn into the dry dirt year after year, 却看不到种子发芽only to see nothing sprout. 剩下能做的只有诅咒众神All that was left to do was curse the gods 或是应该帮助他们的人or the person who was supposed to maintain their favour, 在玛雅文化中那就是国王which in Maya culture was the king! 既然玛雅国王不能取悦众神降下雨水Now that the Maya kings had failed to please the gods and bring down the rains 那么人们就可能站起来反对他们the people may have risen up against them. 血腥的革命的爆发可能是这些城市悲剧性的终曲Bloody revolutions could have been the tragic final act for these cities 玛雅社会中神圣王权的地位逐渐减弱或消失and the position of divine Kingship in Maya society dwindled or was cut away. 这所有因素若是单独发生或许能被玛雅人轻易克服Any of these factors individually could probably have been easily overcome by the Maya. 无休止战争造成的破坏也许可以得到修复The destruction from endless wars could have been healed, 干旱可以得到控制drought could be managed, 可以使用新的耕作方法new farming methods can be developed 也可以实施新的政治制度and new political systems implemented. 但这些因素合起来便带来了灾难But all of these together spelled disaster. 错综复杂的各种因素导致了灾难的发生Complex and compounding factors are what brought it about. 但这次崩溃后的幸存者怎么样了?But what happened to the survivors of this collapse? 不是所有人都死了Not everyone died, 南部低地仍有数百万人the southern lowlands had a population in the millions. 这是考古学的一大谜团It is a great mystery of archaeology 但我们确实有一些他们向北迁移的记录but we do have some records of them migrating north. 在此期间 也就是中古典时期During this period, the Terminal Classic, 奇琴伊察和乌斯马尔等北方城市开始迅速发展the northern cities such as Chichen Itza and Uxmal began to soar. 于是 在南部低地不再建造纪念碑或巨型城市时So, while the southern lowlands ceased to create monuments or house giant cities 北部低地实际上却在蓬勃发展the northern lowlands actually flourished. 玛雅在覆灭后并没有消失The Maya did not disappear after their collapse 这是一种极其普遍的误解which is an extremely popular misconception 他们的文明实际上经历了巨大的转变rather their civilization underwent a massive shift. 奇琴伊察适应了玛雅文明崩溃所引起的政治变化Chichen Itza rose to become a major regional power. 从而崛起 成为一个主要的地方势力By adapting to the political changes brought about by the collapse. 通过废弃神王 将其代替为执政委员会By abandoning god-kings and replacing them with ruling councils 和控制该地区的贸易路线 尤其是盐的贸易路线and by dominating the trades routes in the region, especially salt, 在10世纪到13世纪 它成为了北部低地的政治中心it became the political center of the northern lowlands from the 10th to the 13th century. 他们建造了像卡斯蒂略这样的著名建筑They built famous structures like El Castillo 该建筑在春分和秋分的时候which during the Spring and Autumn equinoxes, 会出现令人惊叹的蛇蠕动下楼梯的效果creates an awe-inspiring effect of a serpent wriggling down its staircase. 在11世纪奇琴伊察衰落之后Mayapan took over the title of regional power 玛雅潘接管了地方政权after Chichen Itza declined in the 11th century. 但该政权于1448年被废弃But it itself would be abandoned in 1448 原因跟之前的崩溃类似for reasons similar to the collapse earlier. 这段时期发生了一系列自然灾害This period saw a series of natural disasters 战事频增 直到1511年左右才结束and increased warfare that would only end around 1511. 而那时 西班牙人来了at which point the Spanish arrived. 自此 独立的玛雅文明开始走向终结This is the beginning of the end for independent Maya civilization. 要理解这种冲突To understand this conflict, 我们需要了解西班牙人带来了什么we need to understand what the Spanish brought. 首先 是该大陆以前从未有过的疾病First, were diseases previously unknown on the continent. 天花 流行性感冒和麻疹对当地人造成了浩劫Smallpox, influenza, and measles wreaked havoc on native populations 这可能是人类历史上对生命最可怕的毁灭in what is probably the most unparalleled destruction of life in human history. 在一百年之内 90%的本地人口消失了Within a hundred years 90% of the native population was gone. 由于墨西哥的阿兹特克人富有的黄金吸引了西班牙人的注意While the Maya were the first of the Mesoamerican civilizations to have contact with the Spanish 虽然玛雅是第一个与西班牙人接触的they were spared for a few years, 中美洲文明 他们幸免于难了几年as the gold-rich Aztecs in Mexico drew their attention instead. 西班牙人征服玛雅人真正开始于1528年The Spanish conquest of the Maya only truly began in 1528, 佩德罗•德•阿尔瓦拉多及其兄弟是为先锋spearheaded by Pedro de Alvarado and his brothers, 而这正是曾经征服过阿兹特克人的那一批士兵veterans of the conquest of the Aztecs. 拿下玛雅人不是一件短时间就能完成的事Taking down the Maya would not be a short affair. 与阿兹特克人或印加人不同Unlike the Aztecs or Inca, 玛雅人中没有可以被绑架的中央权威人物the Maya did not have a central authority that could be kidnapped. 玛雅人的作战方式也与阿兹特克人不同The Maya themselves also fought in a different fashion to the Aztecs. 他们在夜间袭击西班牙人的营地They attacked Spanish camps at night, 在丛林中设置陷阱lay traps for them in the jungle, 并实施速打速跑的战术and deployed rapid hit and run tactics. 在那些丛林中战斗是西班牙人以前从未遭遇过的The fighting in those jungles was unlike anything the Spanish had dealt with before. 甚至在征服者开始入侵之前Smallpox had reached some parts of the Maya area 玛雅地区的某些地方就已经有了天花even before the conquistadors began their invasion. 当阿尔瓦拉多兄弟进入那些丛林和城市时When the Alvarado brothers entered those jungles and cities 他们经过的地方已经是一片末日后的景象they were walking through an already post-apocalyptic landscape, 因为细菌在他们尚未进攻前就发动了致命的闪电战as the germs had initiated a deadly blitzkrieg assault before they could. 然而 抵抗仍然很激烈Resistance was still fierce however. 直到1542年 西班牙人才在该地区建立首都——梅里达It wasn’t until 1542 that the Spaniards could even establish a capital in the region, Mérida. 西班牙人不得不逐个入侵和征服每个玛雅城市或团体The Spanish had to invade and conquer each Maya city or group separately. 当他们终于控制了一个地区后When they finally established control over one region 只要他们动身前往下一个地区 立马就会出现反抗as soon as they moved to the next it would rebel. 征服者们经历过的无数次的侵略和占领As the conquistadors underwent their incredible conquest 使得他们有数千名来自墨西哥和玛雅地区的当地人跟随they were accompanied by thousands of natives from both Mexico and the Maya area, 而这些人有的是参加过之前的征服战争的老兵some of them already veterans from previous conquests. 某些强大的玛雅家族、当权者和城市Certain powerful Maya families, rulers, and cities saw the short-term benefit 看到和西班牙人合作可以带来短期利益that siding with the Spanish could bring. 我们有一幅来自那个时代的布画We have a cloth painting from the era, 展示了1527年至1529年的战役中showing these allies assisting conquistador Jorge de Alvarado 协助征服者豪尔赫•德阿尔瓦拉多的这些盟友in his campaign of 1527 to 1529. 1541年当佩德罗•德•阿尔瓦拉多去世时In 1541 the Maya were granted a brief respite 玛雅人得到短暂喘息的机会when Pedro de Alvarado died, 但最强大的玛雅王国but the most powerful Maya kingdoms 如基切和喀克其奎也快要覆灭了such as the K’iche and Kaqchikel were also at an end. 没有它们 就不可能有大规模抵抗Without them a large-scale resistance would be impossible 玛雅人对征服者进行联合抵抗的可能性不复存在and the chance of a unified Maya resistance to the conquistadors was gone. 最后对西班牙人进行反抗的城市是NojpeténThe final holdout against the Spanish was the city of Nojpetén, 它由伊察人所控制which was controlled by the Itza people. 它位于危地马拉北部的一个湖中It was located in the middle of a lake in Northern Guatemala 防御城墙环绕在其周围and surrounded by defensive walls. 直到1697年 马丁•德•乌尔苏亚率领This city wouldn’t be taken until 1697 装有大炮和迫击炮的大型攻击船舰袭击该城市when Martín de Urzúa assaulted the city 这座城市才被攻陷with a large attack boat outfitted with cannon and mortars. 这个城市的人们发起了最后一搏The population of the city attempted a last stand. 他们乘独木舟蜂拥而上They swarmed the boat with canoes but were 但在试图游泳离开时被击毙水中beaten back and shot in the water as they tried to swim away. 这座城市于1697年3月10日遭炮轰并被占领The city was bombarded and taken on the 10th of March 1697. 但是玛雅人的抵抗从未真正停止But the resistance never truly halted for the Maya. 尤卡坦人于1847年和1860年发动叛乱Rebellions by the Yucatec Maya in 1847 and 1860 几乎重新夺回了整个尤卡坦半岛came close to retaking the entire Yucatan. 1910年发生了另外一起反对波菲里奥•迪亚兹暴权的叛乱In 1910 came another rebellion against the dictatorial regime of Porfirio Díaz 自1994年首次起义以来 萨帕塔主义民族解放军and the Zapatista National Liberation Army has challenged the Mexican authorities 也向墨西哥当局发出了挑战since the initial uprising of 1994. 如今 有700万玛雅人居住在危地马拉Today there are 7 million Maya living in Guatemala, 墨西哥南部和尤卡坦半岛 伯利兹southern Mexico and the Yucatán Peninsula, Belize, 萨尔瓦多以及洪都拉斯西部El Salvador, and western Honduras. 有些人融入了西班牙混血文化Some have integrated into the Hispanic Mestizo culture 而其他人则继续过着更传统的生活while others continue to live a more traditional life, 仍然使用30多种玛雅语言中的一种still speaking one of the over 30 Mayan languages 并使用古代历法计算日子and counting the passing days on ancient calendars. 玛雅人是人类文明中比较奇特的一例The Maya are an odd example of a civilization. 他们在人类历史中占据了相当长的一段时间In that they have been a part of human history for an incredibly long time. 他们历经多次跌宕起伏They have risen and fallen and risen and fallen a number of times. 他们曾被外国势力入侵They have been invaded by foreign powers 也经历过灾难性疾病and dealt with apocalyptic disease 但他们仍未真正被征服yet they still have never truly been conquered 因为他们的文化和精神似乎一直延续到了今天as their culture and spirit has seemingly continued unbroken until this day. 感谢您收看我们玛雅系列的最后一集Thank you for watching the last episode in our series on the Maya. 我们将很快完结前哥伦布时期的美洲系列并将介绍其他地区We will soon conclude our series on the pre-Columbian America and move on to other regions, 所以请您务必订阅我们的频道so make sure you are subscribed to our channel. 我们想对Patreon网站的支持者表示感谢We would like to express our gratitude to our Patreon supporters, 没有他们 我们就做不出这些视频who make the creation of our videos possible. 现在 您也可以通过所示链接Now, you can also support us 购买我们的商品来支持我们by buying our merchandise via the link in the description. 这里是《王侯将相》频道This is the Kings and Generals channel 我们下一期节目再见and we will catch you on the next one.
  • 2021-08-30威廉·莎士比亚:文学史上未受过教育的作家《名人小传》 威廉·莎士比亚 威廉·莎士比亚是有史以来最伟大的作家之一 他出生在英格兰埃文河畔的斯特拉福 他确切的出生日期还不确定 但大多数学者认为他的出生日期为 1564年4月23日或在这天前后 我们认为他可能在斯特拉特福的国王学校受过教育 因为这对于一个父亲是市议员的孩子来说是很典型的 但我们能确切知道的就是他没有去上大学 我们有莎士比亚和安妮·海瑟薇在1585年结婚的记录 我们还有他一个女儿和一对双胞胎的洗礼记录 我们还知道他的双胞胎儿子中哈姆纳特去世了 莎士比亚于1580年代末移居伦敦 到16世纪90年代早期 我们知道他正在写作 同时我们知道 他也在演戏 到1597年 莎士比亚已经创作了他37部戏剧中的15部 包括《罗密欧与朱丽叶》 《错误的喜剧》和《温莎的风流娘儿们》 人们认为莎士比亚是一名艺术家 剧作家 他也是一名相当不错的商人 1599年 他建造了伦敦最大的露天剧场 环球剧场 他是一名企业家 他知道他的市场 也知道如何迎合这个市场 他做了精明的房地产投资 莎士比亚的剧团 “宫内大臣剧团”更名为“国王剧团” 当詹姆斯国王在1603年成为他的赞助人 这是一个拥有非凡声望的标志 莎士比亚戏剧的不同类型分为 历史剧 喜剧 悲剧然后是悲喜剧 莎士比亚的措辞和使用单词的方式是很常见的 以至于人们常常混淆这个词是来源于圣经还是莎士比亚 我的祖母曾经常说:当坏事发生时 这些是日常生活中的灾难 她并没有受过教育 也没有去过莎士比亚剧院 她也不是从圣经中学到这个词的 学者们常把1595年到1605年 称作莎士比亚的创作中期 包括非常经典的喜剧《仲夏夜之梦》《皆大欢喜》 《第十二夜》和《无事生非》 在那期间他还制作了《哈姆雷特》《奥赛罗》和《麦克白》 就在莎士比亚开始写《李尔王》之后 我们称这段时间为莎士比亚的创作后期 这一时期产生了《李尔王》《安东尼与克莉奥佩特拉》 《暴风雨》《冬天的故事》《伯里克利斯》《辛白林》 莎士比亚写了很多伟大的故事 比如 有个故事是这样开始的 一个国王感到累了 他不想再执政了 所以他对他的三个女儿说 我将把这个王国分给你们三个 但是这取决于她们要告诉我有多爱我 你有多爱我 你就将得到多少王国 这引起了我的兴趣 我想说 这是一个多么好的开始故事的方式 这就是《李尔王》的开头 莎士比亚不仅是个剧作家 他还是一名诗人 之所以写诗 部分是由于经济上的需要 在16世纪90年代早期 伦敦的剧院因鼠疫而关闭 而且当时很流行创作十四行诗 除了几篇叙事诗外 莎士比亚还写了154首十四行诗 莎士比亚创造了英语的语言艺术 他的每一个词都用得恰到好处 如果找不到合适的词 他就会创造出来一些新的词 他是最早的职业作家之一 威廉•莎士比亚死亡的细节仍然是一个谜 学者们认为他死于他生日那天 1616年4月23日 在400年的历史中 莎士比亚的影响力只增不减 他的作品被引用的次数仅次于《圣经》 他为英语引进了近3000个单词 谷歌上搜索莎士比亚的结果超过1.4亿 莎士比亚谈到了人类的处境 他向我们解释 我们如何思考 如何感受 他生动地解释了人类的心理 在18世纪 人们开始质疑莎士比亚作品的作者 鉴于我们对他的生活所知甚少 他没有受过高等教育 他的地位与当时的其他人相似 今天大多数学者认为 莎士比亚所有的戏剧和十四行诗都是他写的 我认为莎士比亚的遗产是 人类文明中最具影响力的部分
  • 2021-08-30战争守则简介战争守则简介 从早期开始 人类解决争端一种的方式便是诉诸暴力 然而 古往今来 全世界的人都在试图限制战争的残暴性 正是出于这种人道主义精神 促成了1864年的第一项《日内瓦公约》 和现代国际人道主义法的诞生 为战争的发生设定了基本的限制 这些普遍的战争法则保护了平民 和失去战斗力的人 为达到这一目的 必须严格界定 可以被攻击的目标和必须保护的对象 最重要的是 绝不能以平民为目标 否则就犯了战争罪 平民 当他们进入村庄时 他们大喊要杀死所有的人 我害怕极了 我跑到树丛里躲了起来 我听见母亲的尖叫 我以为再也见不到她了 必须尽可能避免伤害平民 或毁掉他们的生存必需品 他们有权利获得必要的帮助 囚犯 囚犯的生活条件以前从来没有困扰过我 就是因为他这样的人 我哥哥才死的 他是敌人 对我来可以随意对待 但后来我意识到 他在监狱已失去了行动能力 不再对我和我的家人构成威胁 不论他们过去如何 战争法禁止对在押者实施酷刑和其他虐待方式 必须给他们食物和水 并允许他们和亲人交流 这保护着他们的尊严和生命 病人和患者 医务人员有时在最危险的情况下拯救生命 在一场殊死的战斗中 双方的战士都受了伤 我们要将他们送到最近的医院 在检查站 一名士兵威胁我们只救他们的人 我们时间不多了 我担心他们都会死 必须始终允许医务人员开展工作 不得攻击红十字会或红新月会 病号和伤员有权得到照顾 不论他们属于哪方阵营 战争的限制 武器技术进步意味战争规则必须与之适应 由于一些武器和作战方法无法区分战士和平民 人们对其使用的限制已经达成一致 在未来 战争或许使用全自动的机器人 但它们是否有能力区分 军事目标和无辜的平民? 无论武器变得多么先进 最重要的是它们必须符合战争规则 国际人道主义法提供机会 以保护战争中人类尊严的底线 并确保当战争结束后 人们还能重新生活在一起
  • 2021-08-30中国工艺品:唐三彩陶艺介绍精心挑选陶土 将其制成膏状 铸模定型 精雕细琢 大火素烧 再在表面施釉 再次入窖二次烧铸 这种工艺制作色彩鲜明艳动人 #音乐# #音乐# 唐代精美绝伦的艺术风格 千古流传 这件作品是唐三彩 #熊猫叫声#
  • 2021-08-30费迪南·麦哲伦:证明地球是圆的费迪南·麦哲伦 费迪南·麦哲伦证明了地球是圆的 麦哲伦的环球航行展现了他极大的勇气 因为当时多数人是地平主义论者 他们相信麦哲伦会在地球边缘坠落 麦哲伦于1480年出生于葡萄牙的波尔图 且从小就开始学习航海技术 1505年 麦哲伦跟随新上任的葡萄牙第一任驻印度的总督到达印度 这也让他第一次体会到了出海航行的乐趣 并引起了他探索的欲望 他之后又航行到东南亚 可能甚至最远航行到印度尼西亚的香料群岛(马鲁古群岛) 这次经历使他第一次认知到可以向西航行 跨过大西洋到达香料群岛 而不是向东绕过非洲再进入印度洋 当麦哲伦回到欧洲时 他筹备资金以再次远征寻找这条新的通往亚洲的航道 最终 穿过如今的阿根廷 麦哲伦找到了通向太平洋的路 后人称这条航道为麦哲伦海峡 在跨越太平洋前往东亚海岸时 麦哲伦原本预计这应是一次短期航行 结果却在汪洋上航行了整整六个月才到达爪哇岛 到达时候水手们都几乎饥饿到不行了 当麦哲伦与他的船队到达了菲律宾时 航图上绘制了这个地方 所以他们知道了自己的位置 在菲律宾的时候 麦哲伦于1521年4月27日被一支毒箭所射杀 当时他们和土著人发生了冲突 剩下的船员不久又继续航行 最终在1522年的9月回到了西班牙 这次航行证实了地球是圆的 麦哲伦改变了欧洲人航海的方式 他极大地丰富了航海知识 并让世界变得更小
  • 2021-08-30关于莎士比亚的五个问题5个问题 带你了解威廉·莎士比亚 The name William Shakespeare is synonymous with great literature.威廉·莎士比亚这个名字就是伟大文学的同名词 But it also belongs to a person who had a life但它也属于一个在其著作之外 outside his famous works.活生生的人 Did Shakespeare have a family?莎士比亚组建过家庭吗? In 1582, Shakespeare was married to Anne Hathaway–1582年 莎士比亚与安妮·海瑟薇结婚 not that one– the daughter of a local landowner who不是那个美国女影星 而是当地的一个地主的女儿 was eight years senior to the 18-year-old bard.她比这个18岁的吟游诗人大8岁 They were married just six months before the birth在他们第一个孩子苏珊娜出生时 of their first child, Susanna.他们才结婚六个月 This scandalous timing, among other evidence, has suggested to some historians在一些历史学家看来 这一令人震惊的时机选择以及其他一些证据表明 that their marriage was provoked by the pregnancy,他们是奉子成婚的 not a passion fit for Shakespeare’s own work.而不是因为她对莎士比亚的作品的热爱 Nevertheless, the couple had two more children, twins Hamnet and Judith.不过之后他们又有了两个孩子 双胞胎哈姆内特和朱迪思 Sadly, Hamnet died at the age of 11 in 1596.不幸的是哈姆内特在1596年去世 享年11岁 Whether this tragedy had an impact而这个悲剧对莎士比亚最著名的悲剧作品 on Shakespeare’s most famous tragic work,《哈姆雷特》是否有影响 Hamlet, has been a matter of much debate.一直备受争议 Shakespeare is most famous for his work as a playwright,作为一个剧作家 莎士比亚以他的作品而闻名 having crafted more timeless classics他创作了更多永恒的经典文学 than we have time to name drop in this video.我们在这个视频中也有提到一些 But he also wrote three whole plays about Henry VI除此之外他也写了三个完整的关于亨利六世的戏剧 that you probably weren’t assigned in high school.这可能是你中学不会被指定要学习的 How many plays did he write in all?那他总共写了多少戏剧呢? Believe it or not, historians aren’t totally sure how many plays Shakespeare wrote.信不信由你 历史学家们都不是很确定莎士比亚写过多少戏剧 Scholarly consensus usually attributes 37 plays to him,通常学术界一致认为有37部戏剧是他的作品 but he’s believed to have worked on more with other writers.但据悉 他曾与其他作家合作过更多作品 And some of his work may be lost to history.而其中部分作品可能被历史所淹没 Though Shakespeare is best known as a playwright, he wrote even more poems.虽然莎士比亚以剧作家闻名 但他写过更多诗 In fact, some of his most famous tunes of phrase事实上 他最著名的一些短语韵调 come from his sonnets.都来自他的十四行诗 Just how many sonnets did he write?那只是十四行诗的话 他又写了多少? In fact, Shakespeare wrote dozens of them, 154 in all.事实上 莎士比亚写过相当多 总计154首 Some of us would have quit after nailing it with”Sonnet 18,” which begins有些人可能写了开头是“我能否把你比作一个夏日”的十四行诗第18首就放弃了 “Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day.” But Shakespeare kept writing.但是莎士比亚坚持写着 By”Sonnet 130,” he decided”my mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun.”在十四行诗第130首 他写到“我情妇的眼睛一点也不像太阳” So maybe poetry had lost a little of its romance for him by then.所以那时对他来说 诗歌可能已经失去了一点浪漫色彩 Though Shakespeare has been called the immortal bard,尽管莎士比亚已经被称作不朽的吟游诗人 the man himself was as mortal as any other.但他自己还是和任何人一样 是凡人 But what grim fate deprived the world of such a talent?但是怎样的悲惨命运夺走了世界上这样一个天才? How did Shakespeare die?莎士比亚是怎么去世的呢? That answer, unfortunately, is a mystery.不幸的是 答案是一个谜 The only hint we have is a journal entry written我们所有的唯一线索是 by the vicar of a local church.当地教堂的一位牧师写的一本日记账分录 He claimed that Shakespeare, Drayton,他声称 莎士比亚 德雷顿 and Ben Jonson had a merry meeting,和本·琼生有过一次愉快的会面 and it seems drank too hard.而且好像喝得太厉害了 For Shakespeare died of a fever very contracted.又因为莎士比亚是死于感染的发烧 Some scholars have suggested this is evidence Shakespeare died of typhus.所以一些学者认为这是他死于斑疹伤寒症的证据 But as the journal entry was written some 50 years later但因为这本日记账分录大概是50年后写的 and no one has been able to verify it,而没有人能够核实它 we may never know the truth.我们可能永远不会知道真相 Some 400 years after his death,在他去世大概400年后 Shakespeare is still required reading in high school English classes.莎士比亚的作品仍是中学英语课的必读内容 What is it about the bard that makes his work relevant today?是什么使这位吟游诗人的作品在今天仍有意义? He may have lived nearly half a millennium ago,他可能生活在大概五百多年前 but Shakespeare’s plays dealt with topics但是他的戏剧所涉及的话题 that we still struggle with today.是我们至今仍在尝试弄懂的 Themes like family, war, bigotry, morality, and falling in love像是家庭 战争 盲从 道德 超越时间的爱情 transcend time and even language.甚至是语言 之类的主题 His characters have an emotional reality that resonates他笔下的人物所有的现实情感 in translations and adaptations across the world.与世界各地的翻译和改编都产生着共鸣
  • 2021-08-30什么是格拉斯哥风格?“格拉斯哥风格”指1890年代在格拉斯哥 逐渐兴起的一种艺术和设计风格 是新艺术运动中很独特的一个派别 这一风格的代表人物是麦金托什 它的特点是 对设计元素的延伸与缩减 例如椅背 但你也可以在平面艺术中看到 那种延伸变形 以及将自然的细节 过度风格化 比如玫瑰 格拉斯哥风格的作品将女性形象刻画得 更成熟妖冶 并因此闻名于世 这一形象也成为了格拉斯哥风格的核心 但是不久之后格拉斯哥主流家具厂商的 产品风格开始受到麦金托什的影响 但是没有那么夸张 使它们在一般市场上更受欢迎
  • 2021-08-30成为一名动画师It’s been a while since we’ve done one of these.我们做这个系列的视频也有一段时间了 We’ve covered a handful of positions on this series.在这个系列中我们涵盖了少数几种岗位 Designers, producers, developers.设计师 制片人 开发商 But there are still plenty of other roles that we haven’t touched on yet.但是也还有很多其他我们没有提及到的角色 And this happens to be one that I have got six years of experience working with.而今天说的这个 我正好有过六年的工作经验 Today we’re gonna talk about what it takes to be a professional animator.今天我们就来谈谈要成为一名专业的动画师需要具备哪些素质 Also our guest artist today is animator Michael Azzi. So say hello!我们今天的艺术嘉宾是动画师Michael Azzi 跟大家打个招呼吧! ♪ [Extra credits theme] ♪#[额外的学分主题]# So what does an animator do?动画设计师是做什么的呢? We are essentially puppeteers.我们本质上是一个木偶师 We take inanimate objects need a clay figures, digital character models or drawings on paper…我们通过泥塑 数字字符或是在纸上画画制作无生命实物…… And we create the illusion of life and motion.创造生命和运动的幻觉 We’re also actors in a way.在某种程度上来说我们也是演员 You may never see us performing on camera…你们可能从未见过我们在镜头里表演…… but every animated character you see…但是你看到的每一个动画角色…… is an extension of the animators, voice actors and the motion capture performers behind them.都是幕后的动画师 声音演员和动作捕捉的表演者的延伸 We are all about crafting movement and performance.全都是和手工艺品的运动和表演相关的 Transforming that inanimate object you’re looking at on screen…把你在荧幕上看到的无生命的物体 into a living thinking character you adore.转化为一个让你喜欢的具有生命力的会思考的角色 Okay, so how does one become an animator?一个人要如何成长为一名动画设计师呢? Where do you start?你要从哪里开始? My first piece of advice to you is to acquire a specific book…我第一个建议就是入手一本专业的书 go pick up “the Animator’s survival kit” by Richard Williams.买本理查德·威廉姆斯著的《动画师的生存工具箱》吧 Just about every animator I’ve ever met knows this book, and probably owns it.我遇到的每一位动画师都知道这本书 可能还珍藏了一本 It’s one of the best books available on the fundamentals of animation.也是市面上在售最好的动画制作基本原理的书之一 It mostly describes things in terms of traditional hand drawn techniques but the principles it covers apply to every form.它主要是用传统的手绘技术描述事物 但也涵盖了适用于每一种方式的原则 Speaking of which you should decide what kind of animation you want to do.说到这里 你应该决定你想做什么样的动画 What style interests you?你对哪种风格感兴趣呢? Computer animation?电脑动画? Traditional?传统动画? Stop-motion?单格拍制? Pixel animation?像素动画? What medium do you want to work in?你想通过哪种媒介来制作动画呢? Film? Games? Visual effects?电影?游戏?视觉效果? Do some research. Learn how these different formats of animation work.先做一些调查 学习一下不同格式的动画是如何制作的 The same fundamental principles apply to all of them but each medium has it’s own specific workflows and challenges.同样的基本原则适用于所有的动画格式 但每一种媒介都有它们自己特定的工作流程和挑战 Knowing what kind of animation you want to do is gonna help you equip yourself with the necessary skill-set.知道自己想做哪种类型的动画 会有助于配备自己所需的综合技能 Now you don’t have to go to school for animation to become a great animator.你无须去上专门的动画学校让自己成为优秀的动画师 But there are a lot of good schools out there.外面也有很多不错的职业学校 The top north-American four-year colleges I usually hear about are:我常听说的北美顶级的四年制学校有: “Cal Arts” in California.加利福尼亚的“卡尔艺术” “Ringling” in Florida.弗罗里达的“林林家族” “SCAD” in Georgia.格鲁吉亚的“萨凡纳艺术设计学院” And “Sheridan” up in Ontario.安大略湖的“谢里丹” All of them are great schools but they can be pretty expensive.这些都是非常好的学校 但也相当昂贵 If that’s not the route you want to take, but animation is something you know you wanna do..如果这不是你想走的路 但是你又想做动画设计 and especially if you want to be a 3D animator…特别是如果你想成为三维动画师 then I highly recommend: “AnimationMentor”.那我强烈推荐:“动画制作指导” It’s an online only trade-school that you can enroll in from anywhere.这是一个在任何地方都可以参加的在线职业学校 Their course is excellent, it’s taught by exceptional animators who are all currently working in the industry.他们有非常棒的课程 而且都是由目前在动画行业工作的杰出的动画师来教授的 It’s less expensive then most four-year programs比大部分四年制学校便宜得多 And their graduate employment rate is pretty darn impressive.而且他们的毕业生就业率也相当令人印象深刻 And there are other online courses like it, and I recommend looking into those too but:还有些其他类似的在线课程 我推荐你们看看这些: “AnimationMentor” is the one that I can personally vouch for from experience.从我的经验来讲 “动画制作指导”在线课程是我个人可以保证效果的 But ultimately when it comes to choosing a school…但最后说到学校的选择 I always recommend looking at the animation work of its students.我一直建议大家看看他们学生的动画作品 Because the quality of the average student’s reel will say a lot about the quality of the program.因为普通学生的作品质量基本就代表了课程的质量 Better still, find out each school’s graduate job placement rate.更棒的是 能掌握每所学校的毕业生就业率 That will give you a good idea of how ready a school’s graduates are for working professionally.让你对一个毕业生要做好这份工作要做多少准备有一个概念 Which is important because animation is a pretty competitive field.这很重要 因为动画行业的竞争也相当激烈 There are a lot of people out there trying to do this for a living.很多人试图以此为生 And you will often be competing with people who have WAY more experience then you do.并且会经常与那些拥有更多工作经验的人竞争 So the quality and the creativity of your work needs to stand out, if you want to get those job offers.所以如果你想拿到工作机会 作品质量和创意就必须能脱颖而出 As with most artist professions, the strength of your portfolio is what’s gonna get you hired.和大多数艺术家职业一样 你的综合实力决定了你最终是否被录取 Look up the reels of accomplished animators working in your desired field.看看那些在你渴望进入的领域内已有成就的动画师 It will not only give you an idea of what a good demo reel should contain…不仅能让你明白一个好的演示卷轴应该包含的内容 but also show you a quality target to aim for.也向你们展示了应达到的质量目标 They may seem out of your league right now, but that’s okay.现在看来可能还有些不自量力 但是没关系 Setting a high bar for yourself, will serve you well.设定一个高标准 对自己也很有帮助 Alright so that was a lot of talk about schools and jobs and such.好了 关于学校和工作的话题说了很多了 But lets get back to the craft itself.让我们回到制作本身 What makes a good animator?成为一个好的动画师需要什么品质呢? How do you get better?你怎样才能变得更好呢? A good animator is always studying movement.一个好的动画师会一直研究运动 We are analytical, always on the lookout for interesting walks, and interesting facial expressions.我们是善于分析的 而且一直都在寻找有意思的走路姿势和有趣的面部表情 And always trying to figure out how we can replicate them…然后一直试着搞清楚如何复制它们 exaggerate them.放大他们 So observe people.所以观察人们 Learn to analyze the intricacies of their body language.学会分解错综复杂的肢体语言 Watch video footage of an interesting movement, frame-by-frame…观看每个有趣动作视频的连续镜头 一帧一帧地看…… to study the body mechanics involved in producing that movement.研究产生这种运动的身体机制 In fact, recording yourself performing the action can be really helpful too.实际上 把自己做这些动作的过程记录下来也是非常有帮助的 As acting it out yourself will help you to better understand the physicality of that movement.自己演出来能帮你更好地理解身体的运动 A good animator also studies acting.一个好的动画设计师也会学习表演 I mean how are you gonna make a character give an interesting acting performance…我是说如果你对表演一窍不通 if you don’t know anything about acting yourself?那你要怎样让一个角色做出有趣的表演呢…… Now you don’t have to be a good actor, but it’s important to understand the fundamentals.你不必成为一名优秀的演员 重点是你要理解表演的基本原理 If you have a chance take an acting class.如果你有机会去上表演课 And make a habit of studying actor performances in films, so you can learn from the best.养成研究电影演员的表演的习惯 那你就可以学到表演的精华了 Watch movies and plays, build a ever expanding library in your head of interesting performances.多看电影和戏剧 在你的大脑中建立一个收录有趣表演的不断扩展的图书馆 Noting how they made you feel and why.把它们带给你的感受和原因记录下来 A good animator also studies other peoples’ animation…一个好的动画师也会学习其他人制作的动画 but it’s very important to remember that studying real life should always take priority.但重要的是你要记住 研究真正的现实生活总是应该优先考虑的 Ultimately, reality is the source that all animators draw from.最后 现实是所有动画师灵感的来源 We exaggerate it and we stylize it.我们把他们放大并赋予它独特的风格 An animation is one animators interpretation of reality.动画师也是现实的动画解读者 So if you’re only analyzing other animators interpretation and not the source that inspired them.所以如果你只是分析其他动画师的解读 而不是激发他们灵感的来源 The only thing you’ll know how to replicate is someone else’s interpretation.那你对如何复制的了解也仅仅只是别人的解读而已 And your work is going to become derivative.那你的作品就会失去原创性 That said, it can be very useful to learn interpretation tricks from the greats who came before you.从优秀的前辈那里学习相关的解读技巧也是非常有用的 To dissect how they stylized reality, so you can find ways to better do so yourself.仔细分析他们是如何把现实程序化的 这样能让自己完成地更好 A good animator is aware of what their animation needs to achieve in the greater context of the project一个好的动画师要能在项目的大背景下意识到他们的动画要达到什么效果 and how to adapt their work accordingly.以及如何相应地调整他们的工作 A good film animator understands the purpose of the shot they’re working on as it relates to the film.因为关系到电影 所以一个好的电影动画师要能理解他们所拍镜头的目的 A good game animator knows when it’s more important for a character movement to look good一个好的游戏动画师要知道什么时候要让人物动作更好看 or when it’s more important that it feel good during play.或什么时候让游戏更好玩 A good animator avoids cliches.一个好的动画师会避免陈腔滥调的东西 They always look for the most interesting choice.他们通常会寻找最有趣的事情 Rather than the most obvious, predictable one.而不是那种最明显的 最容易猜到的东西 A good animator doesn’t necessarily have to be able to draw.一个好的动画师不需要一定能画画 I mean, unless you want to be a traditional 2D animator, in which case…除非你就想做一个传统的二维动画师 在这种情况下…… yeah, you kind of need to be able to draw.你就需要能画画了 Still, even for a computer animator, drawing can be a useful complementary skill to develop.对于电脑动画设计师而言 画画也是一个非常有用的附加技能 A good animator is also a team player.一个好的动画师也具有团队精神 Animation is usually a collaborative craft. If you’re working in games or movies,动画制作通常是一种协作性工艺 如果你是在游戏或是影视行业里工作 you’re likely to be part of a large team, and it’s important that you be someone people enjoy working with.那你可能会成为大团队里的一员 那成为别人喜欢一起工作的人就很重要了 Someone who can cooperate, take direction, offer supportive criticism, and just play nice in general.能跟大家合作 把控方向 提出支持性的批评意见的人 一般来说都混地比较好 If people like working with you, finding work will be a lot easier.如果大家喜欢跟你一起工作 找工作就容易得多 Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a good animator always pushes themselves to keep getting better.最后 也可能是最重要的 一个好的动画师总是会让自己变得更好 You will never hit a point where there is no growing left to do.当没有成长的空间后 你永远不会有进步 Even the best animators in the world are still learning and improving their craft every year with every project.即使是世界上最优秀的动画师每年也要不断通过每个项目提升他们的制作水平 In fact, that’s why they’re the best.事实上 这就是他们成为最优秀的动画师的原因 As one of my favorite people I’ve ever worked with told me,一个曾跟我一起工作的我最喜欢人说过 “You will never reach the top climbing this mountain, because there is no top.“你在动画制作这座山上永远也无法攀登至顶峰 因为没有巅峰这一说 You’ll see a ledge above you that looks like the top from where you are, but once you finally get yourself up there…从你的角度你也许会看到像山顶的一样的壁架 但你一旦到达那个地方 that’s when you’ll see the next cliff face waiting ahead.你会看到另一座绝壁在前方等着你 So just take a moment to celebrate how far you’ve come, and then start climbing again.”花点时间庆祝一下你已到达的高度 然后再次开始向上爬” I hope that’s cleared up what an animator does, and given you a place to get started.我希望我已经解释清楚了动画师的职责 并给你一个开始的起点 If you’re interested in hearing me talk more about animation, I’ve been making a semi-regular series…如果你对我的动画制作课程感兴趣 我还录制了一些很正式的视频系列 over on extra play analyzing the animation from numerous games, giving small animation 101 lessons,通过众多的游戏去分析动画制作 总共有101期小动画制作课程 occasionally answering some of your animation questions.偶尔回答一些动作制作方面的问题 In fact, I’m releasing a new set of episodes on Monster Hunter’s creature animation just this week,实际上 这周我刚发行新一季怪物猎人的生物动画剧集 so I’ll put a link at the end. ♪在结束时我会放上链接 Thank you for watching, thank you again to Michael Azzi for the guest art this week, ♪谢谢观看 再次感谢迈克尔这周来做我们的艺术嘉宾 and to my fellow animators, happy climbing. ♪致我的同行动画师们 攀登快乐
  • 2021-08-30为什么复活节传统要吃火腿?[背景乐](background music) 本期视频解答观众Rita H.的疑问In the video today we’re answering a viewer question 为什么在复活节要吃火腿?Rita H. asks us why do we serve ham on Easter? 我猜Rita是个美国人And I’m assuming Rita is an American. 因为英国人不吃火腿 我们吃羊肉Because in the UK we don’t eat ham.We lamb. 但是为了美国观众我们还是来解答火腿问题but for all of you Americans watching let’s deal with the ham issue. 在犹太人的饮食法中 严禁吃任何形式的猪肉Under Jewish dietary laws, eating pork in any form is strictly forbidden. 耶稣基督是犹太人Jesus Christ was Jewish. 所以为什么在纪念他的复活节里So why on the anniversary of his resurrection, 人们习惯吃火腿呢?people traditionally serve ham? 你经常听到火腿被认为是一种“基督教”肉食You’ll often read it’s because ham is supposedly a “Christian” meat, 所以基督徒可以吃 但其他宗教徒就不一定了able be consumed by Christians but not certain other prominent religious groups. 然而 吃猪肉的真正原因很简单 因为它应季However, the real reason is simply because it’s in season. 尽管现代食物储藏技术和超市While modern food storage techniques and supermarkets 拥有高效且全球化的供应链with efficient and worldwide supply chains 让我们稍微忽略了这个事实 就像水果和蔬菜shield us from this fact somewhat, like fruits and vegetables, 不同的肉类也有不同的季节性different meats also have seasons, 这些取决于一系列的因素and these depend on a variety of factors 包括牲畜吃的饲料种类including what the animals were eating 饲养时间 饲养环境and when and where they were in their growth cycle, 以及是否能够冷藏保鲜有关and of course the availability or lack of refrigeration. 对于猪和牛 在冷藏它们之前With pigs and cows, before refrigeration, 选择秋天宰杀是很合理的it simply made sense to slaughter them in the fall. 因为杀猪牛等大型牲畜要花费屠夫很多时间Since it takes a fair amount of time to butcher a beast as large as a hog or steer, 寒冷的气温能让肉在合适储藏前the cold temperatures helped keep the meat from going bad 保持不变质before it could be properly prepared. 另一点考虑就是口感Another consideration was taste. 在秋季屠宰前不久Shortly before slaughter in the fall, 猪会被喂食苹果 橡子一类的食物hogs would be fed things like apples and acorns 这能极好地改善肉质最后的口感that would greatly improve the flavor of the meat they would ultimately provide. 据一位专业养猪户记载:As one specialty pork producer noted, 用橡子喂猪的传统可以追溯到一千年前The tradition of acorn-fed pork goes back millennia. 橡树的果实之所以是主食The oak nut was a diet staple 是因为猪在意大利和西班牙的森林里because the pigs roamed and rooted about for acorns 总到处游荡寻找橡子in the forests of Italy and Spain. 现如今使用橡子喂食被认为是An acorn diet is today best known 珍稀昂贵的西班牙伊比利亚火腿如此多汁的原因as what makes the prized and pricey Jamón Ibérico of Spain so succulent. 选择在秋天屠杀猪Butchered in the fall, 能够腌制好大部分的火腿肉most hams were prepared and allowed to properly cure 从而丰富食物种类 度过整个冬天over the winter to further develop their flavor. 这是世界部分地方一年之中相当重要的食物来源This was a particularly important food source this time of year in some parts of the world 之前储藏剩下的肉都已经吃完了where the rest of the stored meat would have already been eaten 几乎没有其他可供使用的优质肉类with little other meat of any real quality available. 在北美 另一种传统春季肉类则是羊肉This was the case in North America where the other traditional spring meat, lamb, 羊肉从过去到现在都不太流行was and still is less in vogue, 这也是为什么在北美复活节吃火腿which is also why eating ham on Easter in North America is much 比其他庆祝复活节的地区更流行的原因more popular than other regions where Easter is celebrated. 相反 如我所说 欧洲通常在复活节食用羊肉Conversely, like I said in Europe, lamb is commonly served at Easter, 这个传统实际上可以追溯到犹太人逾越节and the tradition actually traces its origins to Jewish Passover feasts. 在复活节吃羊肉也是合适的This is also certainly fitting for Easter, 因为耶稣就是“上帝的羔羊”with Jesus as the “lamb of God”. 在节日前不久出生的小羊Born shortly before the holiday, 可能会在六至八周内被屠杀the animals may be slaughtered within 6 to 8 weeks, 因此提供了新鲜的 而不是腌制的and thus offer a fresh, as opposed to cured 复活节蛋白质选择 而在历史上option for Easter protein when historically other 其他类似蛋白质来源在每年此时都很稀缺such protein sources were scarce at this time of year. 额外小知识Now for some bonus facts. 鸡蛋在复活节很流行Eggs are popular at Easter, at least in part due to the fact that 部分原因在于春季是鸡的生产旺季spring is the peak season for their production. 因此 早在复活节之前As a result, eggs have been a part of spring celebrations 鸡蛋就已经成为春季庆祝活动的一部分since long before Easter was even a thing. 例如 伊朗在春分过新年已经有一千年的历史For example, decorated eggs have been a part of the Iranian New Year, 装饰鸡蛋已经成为伊朗新年的一部分which is observed on the spring equinox for millennia. 另一个额外小知识And now for another bonus facts. 除开冷藏因素In addition to the refrigeration factor, like pigs, 我们还是认为在秋季屠宰猪牛会更美味cows are also thought to be tastier when slaughtered in the fall. 这显然是因为This is due apparently to the fact “霜冻杀死了苍蝇 草变得更甜that “the frost has killed flies and sweetened the grass. 牛得以更加安逸”So the cows are more comfortable.” 除此之外 Among other things, 牛在疲劳或者痛苦中被宰杀cows slaughtered when fatigued or in distress 也会对肉质产生负面影响also negatively impacts the shelf life of the meat. 还有一个额外小知识And now for another bonus fact. 火鸡在秋天也是最美味的Turkey is also tastiest in the fall because, 因为当天气变冷 白天变短as the weather cools and the days become shorten, 火鸡的激素水平相应改变所以长胖their hormone levels shift and they fatten up. 另一方面On the other hand, 因为在工业化之前 大多数鸡蛋是春天产下before industrialization since most chicken eggs are laid in the spring, 通常在夏天长大成鸡以后就可以屠杀了those that are allowed to grow into chickens are traditionally slaughtered in the summer. 希望你觉得我的视频有趣So I really hope you found my video interesting, 但愿我们已经为您解答了这个问题hopefully we answered that question for you. 如果喜欢本视频请点赞If you did like it please give us a thumbs up below and 不要忘了订阅每天的全新视频do not forget to subscribe brand new videos just like this every day of the week 如果想了解更多 不如看看if you looking for something else to watch why not check out a new channel 我的新频道:《高光历史》I’m putting together called highlight history 你会在下方找到链接You’ll find a link that below. 一如既往地感谢您的观看As always thank you for watching.
  • 2021-08-30动画剪影效果Ps学习Photoshop Tutorials 点赞Ps学习频道Smash that like button! PhotoshopTutorials.TV 让我们开始吧 前往文件>打开Lets start. Head up to File > Open. 我要用这张夫妻的图片I will use this image of a couple. 双击在Ps中打开Double click to open in Photoshop. 找到并选中“快速选择工具”Head over and select the Quick Selection Tool. 选中这对夫妻和地面Select the couple + the ground. 按住Alt键将不需要的细节从选区中去除Hold ALT + Click to subtract from selection. 我将快进这部分I will speed this part up. 完成后 点击“选择并遮住”Once you’re done. Head up to Select and Mask. 勾选“净化颜色”Decontaminate Colors Checked. 然后选中“调整边缘画笔工具”Then select the Refine Edge Brush Tool. 暂时仅调整头发Only focus on the hair at this stage. 输出到:“新建带有图层蒙版的图层”Output to: New layer with layer mask. 然后点击“确定”Then hit OK. 找到文件>新建Head up to File > New. 宽度1280像素 高度720像素width:1280 Pixels by Height: 720 Pixels. 我要重命名这个文件为“项目”I’m going to rename this to Project. 然后点击“创建”Then hit Create. 回到这对夫妻的图像上来Head back to the couple image. 然后选中“移动工具”Then select the Move Tool. (V) 点击并拖动这对夫妻的图像到我们新创建的项目里Click and drag the couple image onto the new project we created. 右击夫妻图像>选择“转换为智能对象”Right click on the couple image > Convert to Smart Object. 按Ctrl+T选中图像Hit CTRL + T to select the image. 按Ctrl+0缩小一点CTRL + 0 to zoom out a bit. 调整大小时按住Alt+ShiftHold ALT + SHIFT while resizing. 将图像置于靠近中心的位置Position the image near the center. 完成后 按Enter确定更改When you’re done, hit Enter to accept changes. 找到文件>打开Head up to File > Open. 双击在Ps中打开这张星星的图Double click to open the star image in Photoshop. 右击星图背景 “转化为智能对象”Right click on the star background > Convert into Smart Object. 找到并选中“移动工具”Head over and select the Move Tool. (V) 拖拽并置于我们的主项目Drag and drop onto our main project. 确保它位于夫妻图层之下Make sure it’s below the couple layer. 按Ctrl+T选中星星背景Hit CTRL + T to select the star background. 再按Ctrl+0缩小Then CTRL + 0 to zoom back out. 按住Alt+Shift调整图像大小Hold ALT + SHIFT to resize the image. 按Enter键确定更改Hit Enter to accept changes. 选中最顶部的图层Select the top layer. 创建一个新的调节层>“色相/饱和度”Create a new adjustment layer > Hue/Saturation. 剪切到下面的图层Clip to layer below. “明度”降到-100Drop the Lightness down to about – 100. 然后关闭Then hit close. 夫妻层效果已经调好了Have the couple layer selected. 找到文件>打开Head up to File > Open. 我要给图片增添一些灌木I’m going to add some shrubs to the image. 双击进入PsDouble click to open in Photoshop. 我要选择下层这棵树I will select the bottom one. 找到你的“移动工具”Have your Move Tool selected. (V) 然后拖放到我们的主项目上Then drag and drop onto our main project. 把它放在夫妻图像的下方Bring it below the couple image. 按Ctrl+T选中图片Hit CTRL + T to select the image. 调整大小时按住Alt+ShiftHold ALT + SHIFT while resizing. 完成后按EnterHit Enter when you’re done. 按Ctrl+J 复制灌木CTRL + J to duplicate the shrubs. 用“移动工具”放置好第二棵灌木Using your Move Tool. Positon the second one. 按住Ctrl键 选中两个灌木图层Hold CTRL down and select both shrub layers. 右击 “合并图层”Right click, Merge Layers. 创建一个新的调节图层>“色调/饱和度”Create a new adjustment layer > Hue/Saturation. 剪切到下面的图层Clip to layer below. “明度”降到-100Drop the Lightness to – 100. 然后关闭Then hit close. 按住Ctrl键 选中顶部的四个图层Hold CTRL down and select the top four layers. 右击>“转化为智能对象”Right Click > Convert to Smart Object. 重命名该图层为“夫妻”I will rename this layer to Couple. 重命名第二个图层为“星星”I will rename this second layer to Stars. 解锁底部图层 然后删除Unlock the bottom layer. Then delete it. 你现在应有两个图层You should now have two layers. 找到窗口>时间轴Head up to Window > Timeline. 选择“创建视频时间轴”Then select Create Video Timeline. 前往文件>打开Head up to File > Open. 我要在项目中添加灰尘颗粒I will add dust particles to the project. 双击打开Double click to open. 单击视频组层Click on the video group layer. 然后选择“移动工具”Then select your Move Tool. (V) 拖放到我们的主项目上Drag and drop onto our main project. 再拖到夫妻层下面Drag it below the couple layer. 将尘粒视频居中Center the particle video. 改变混合模式>滤色Change the Blending Mode > Screen. 不透明度降到约20%Drop the opacity to about 20%. 我要把时间轴缩短一点I’m going to zoom out of timeline a little. 点击并拖动尘粒层的末端到左边Click and drag the end of the particle layer to the left. 这将缩短视频以匹配其余部分This will shorten the video to match the rest. 确保滑块在开始处Make sure the slider is at the start. 点击夫妻层上的小箭头(展开)Click on the little arrow on the couple layer. 点击小秒表创建一个关键帧Click on the little stop watch to create a keyframe. 拖拽滑块至末尾处Drag the slider to the end. 按Ctrl+T选中夫妻图像CTRL + T to select the couple image. 按住Alt+Shift键 同时增加大小Hold ALT + SHIFT while increasing the size. 按Enter确定更改Hit Enter to accept changes. 应该设置一个新的关键帧A new keyframe should be set. 拖拽滑块到起始位置Drag the slider to the beginning. 点击星星图层的小箭头(展开)Click on the little drop down arrow. (Stars) 点击小秒表添加一个关键帧Click on the stop watch to add a keyframe. 拖拽滑块至末尾处Drag the slider to the end. 按Ctrl+T选中星星背景图层CTRL + T to select the star background. 按Ctrl+0再缩小CTRL + 0 to zoom back out. 这里可以旋转图像Here you can rotate the image. 我要稍微旋转一下我的图像I will rotate mine slightly. 完成后按Enter键Hit Enter when you’re done. 应该添加另一个关键帧Another keyframe should be added. 再次拖拽滑块到起始位置Drag the slider to the beginning again. 这是渲染前的样子Here’s what it will look like before rendering. 创建一个新的调节图层>颜色平衡Create a new adjustment layer > Color Balance. 我要改变一些颜色I will change some of the colors. 分别是+45/-10/+45+ 45 | – 10 | + 45 然后关闭Then hit close. 打开文件>导出>渲染视频Head up to File > Export > Render Video. 根据需要重命名项目Rename your project as you wish. 预设:高质量presets:High Quality. 大小:1280×720size:1280 by 720. 然后点击“渲染”Then hit Render. 时间应该不会太长 当然这取决于你的电脑This shouldn’t take long, depending on your PC. 大功告成!希望你喜欢That’s it! I hope you enjoyed.
  • 2021-08-30PS CC2018中升级的放大不失真算法放大或缩小像素图片一直是一个艰巨的任务Upscaling or resizing pixel images hasalways been a difficult task. 放大图像时The issues 我们通常会看到that we face usually with the upscaled version is 很多噪点that we will see a lot of noise, 像素锐化或模糊的线条pixelation over-sharpened orblurry lines. 现在 在PS CC2018中Now in Photoshop CC 2018 we 有一个令人惊奇的新型提升算法have an amazing new upscaling algorithm 叫做“细节保留2.0”called Preserve Details 2.0 which does 在避免所有以前的这些算法错误方面an unbelievable job at avoiding all 它的表现令人难以置信of these mistakes of the previous 这都得益于一项被称为“Adobe Sensei”的algorithms thanks to the new artificialintelligence assisted technology called 新型人工智能辅助技术Adobe Sensei. So it works all 它在后台分析图像in the background analyzing the image and 实现更佳的图像放大效果helping you to make a better upscaledversion of your image. 现在就展示给你们看一下So I’m just going 这是这张图像的实际大小to show you that this is the actual pixel-size 当我放大一些时of this image so if I zoom in 就会出现像素化问题closer it will just get pixelated so if I stay 而当图像大小为100%的时候at 100 % I can then go to the 如果我在图像菜单中选择图像大小选项image menu and choose image size 用它来调整图像大小where we can resize it and notice that 立马可以发现immediately here we have the Preserve “细节保留2.0”选项就在Details 2.0 option surrounded by the 其他两个放大图像的选项中间other two enlargement options. “双三次平滑”是Bicubic smoother is something that we had in the 老版本PS中的功能older versions of Photoshop then 我想是在CS4或CS5中in CS4 or CS5 I think we got the original 出现了最初的“细节保留”这一图像放大选项Preserve Details enlargement option and 而现在在PS CC2018中 我们又有了这个新功能in CC 2018 now we have this new one as well. 我现在要使用I’m just going to use 最初版本的这个调整尺寸功能the very original version of resizing and I’m 使用300%的图像尺寸going to use 300 % size and already here 通过预览 你可以看到效果in the preview you can see what’s going 当我放开的时候to happen so this is how it looks 这就是它放大的效果when it’s actually upscaled when I let go. 如果我把这个窗口放大一点If I make this window a 我们可以看到更多细节little bit bigger we can probably see more details 如果仅靠它来放大图像so if we just simply upscale the image 这就它在没有运用任何算法时on its own this is how it would look 会产生的效果like without any algorithm applied to it and 当我放开时 我们会看到when I let go we can see how the 双三次平滑放大算法如何改善它bicubic smoother enlargementalgorithm refines it. So it’s slightly 它有稍微变更好点 显然线条没有better obviously we don’t see stair-stepping 呈阶梯状on the lines here but it 但是它变得很模糊 并且边缘处也看起来不太好gets too blurry and also around the edges it doesn’t look that great. 让我们推进一点儿来看So let me just zoom a 再来对比不加双三次平滑算法时little bit closer we can see again without the 以及加上算法时的效果Bicubic Smoother option and with it but then 如果我现在把另一个叫做“细节保留”的选项打开if I switch now to the other option 你会看到图片变好了called Preserve Details you will see 有一个减少噪点的选项it gets already better because we have a 让我们来减少它reduced noise option we can reduce that or 或者将它设置为100%set it to 100 % and without making the 在图片没有变模糊的情况下 噪点大大减少了image look blurry we have much less noise 再来看一下 没加细节保留算法的in here so once again without the 以及加了算法的效果algorithm and with the algorithm it looks 这是之前算法的效果like that I can again show you the 细节保留1的效果是这样子的previous algorithm was this and Preserve 现在如果我将它Details 1 was like that but now if I 转换到PS CC2018新引进的这个算法switch to the new one introduced 甚至会呈现出更好的效果in Photoshop CC 2018 we get an even better result. 注意看这些边缘变得好很多Notice how the edges get so much better 边缘不会再有so we don’t have that strong over 明显的锐化光晕sharpened halo around the edges and 并且在这内部also inside here we will have a much 会有更清晰的轮廓cleaner outline. 在这个新的版本里 所有细节都得到更好地呈现So all the details just really show much better in this new 再来一次 不加算法的version so once again without the algorithm and 加算法的with the algorithm I don’t 我不认为还需要再强调这个算法有多神奇think I need to stress this any further 以及当应用在图片整体调整中时how amazing this is and how well it 它的效果有多棒applies all around the image so we can go 在这里 可以看到on the other edge as well and we can 所有的细节都呈现的那么好see there how nicely all these 再来比较一次details come out and once again comparing it to 与最开始的算法比较一下the very original algorithm 第一 第二 第三so number one number two and then number three so 效果变得越来越好了it just gets better and better up to the point 我觉得现在即使是that I think now even doing three 将图片放大为原来的三倍 还是会有不错的效果times the scale of an original image we can still get away with it. 所以So just to 离远点让你们看一下show you from a distance that was the 这是原始的尺寸大小original size and this is how big we 这是我们通过将它放大为300%managed to make it 达到的尺寸大小 现在如果按Cmd/Ctrl+1键by upscaling it to 300 % and if I press Cmd/Ctrl+1 可以快速I can quickly zoom 缩放到实际尺寸大小 也就是100%变倍比in to the actual pixel size which is 100 % zoom ratio and 甚至放大到这个尺寸 也不会有太多噪点even at that size we won’t have a lot 而且有着精致的细节of noise and we also have nice sharp details 边缘不模糊 不过度锐化so no blurs or over sharpened edges. 就让我们再来做一下比较吧And just to compare them again 让我们let’s just move 在三张图片上四处看看 辨别一下around the three images and see the difference between the three 三种算法的区别different algorithms. 当然 每当放大图像的时候Of course whenever you are enlarging images if you have the 如果把“重新取样”设置为“自动” 那么新的细节保留2.0算法Resample set Automatic it will use the new Preserve Details 2.0 就会作为放大的默认设置for enlargement by default.
  • 2021-08-30设计中的心理学today learn how to use psychology to make better and more relevant graphic designs今天我们来学习怎样运用心理学来做出更好更切题的平面设计 psychology actually has a very crucial role within graphic design 事实上心理学在平面设计中有着重要作用 and today learn how and why今天我们就来了解一下 每周平面设计内容 品质教程 今天开始 设计未来 顿悟图像 so when designing我们设计时 sometimes we want our audiences eyes and their attention to be drawn to certain spots or areas有时希望把观众的视线拉到某些点或部位 this can be categorized as the von restorff effect也就是所谓的冯·雷斯托夫效应 it can be achieved by using a bold color that stands out这可以通过使用鲜明的亮色 a different sized object or even a stark typeface或不同尺寸 或者醒目的字体 now if you create an object that is different than other ones around it如果你做了一个和周围不一样的物体 you will have more of a chance of being easily remembered by the viewer它就更容易被记住 it’s going to be distinguished它看起来很不一样 because it stands outside of a set consisting of multiple similar objects因为它从周围那一堆相似体中凸显出来 then you can make your design stand out用一点点颜色就能让你的设计很出色 or make a brand theme memorable with just a little bit of use of color或者让品牌的主题深入人心 using color in little amounts on a single colored page在素色的页面上用一点点颜色 is a great way to use the von restorff effect是冯·雷斯托夫效应的一个好例子 so also you can use this on key or vital bits of information that you want to convey这同样可以用在你想表达的关键点或重要段落 and also in areas that are going to create interest for the viewer以及那些能引发观众兴趣的地方 now Hicks law states that席克定律说 the more options a person is presented with一个人的选择越多 the more energy it takes them to make a decision他做决定时消耗的精力越多 when a user is presented with plenty of options当用户面临大量选择时 say on a website design with buttons and navigations and multiple panels比如说网页上有大量按钮 导航栏和版块 the chances of them taking the next logical step他们进入下一步的可能性 ie making a purchase on the website becomes less and less比方说下单的可能性就会变小 so as a result因此 keep your graphic elements to a minimum把设计元素减至最少 this of course isn’t just for website design不仅适用于网页设计 any graphic design should apply Hicks logo as possible任何平面设计都应该遵循席克定律 now you might know that I’ve mentioned many times on this channel我已多次在这个频道上提到过 that less is a fact more and a minimal design is king少即是多 最简设计是王道 Hicks law is just one reason why less is more席克定律只是少即是多的理由之一 and just remember to not overcrowd your viewers with too many visual stimuli切记 不要给观众过多的视觉刺激 so I have an entire video on the color theory我做过整套有关色彩理论的视频 so I’m not gonna cover that today在此就不赘述了 but we are however going to look at shapes and the use of psychology in design我们来看看图形和心理学在设计中的运用 now firstly circles ovals and ellipses have a positive emotional message首先 圆形 卵形和椭圆表达积极情绪 that can be attached to community friendship love and relationships as well as unity它们与群体友谊 爱 关系 以及团结有关 so for example take a look at the Olympics logo以奥运会标志为例 this shows how all nations come together for one single event 它显示了所有国家如何为了一个事件走到一起 and uniting as one entity 并团结成一个整体 this design would look very different if it was made up of triangles若用了三角形 情况就大为不同了 so squares and triangles can suggest stability, balance, strength,正方形和三角形代表稳定 平衡 力量 professionalism, efficiency, power, and masculinity专业 效率 权力 男子气 the use of vertical and horizontal lines creates a perfect balance for demonstrating reliability而竖线和水平线则表现出完美的平衡和可靠性 triangles do suggest energy and also danger三角形象征了能量和危险 as this is associated with diagonal lines因为它由斜线组成 but in a simple solid structure却有着最单纯稳固的结构 the BBC logo is intended to convey a sense of confidence within the brandBBC标志旨在传达一种品牌自信 the solid square is a powerful shape that suggests strength实心方块是个强有力的图形 代表力量 also keep in mind that vertical lines are masculine请记住竖线代表着刚毅 and also can look near aggression甚至有种攻击性 but horizontal lines can not, it suggests a calm kind of feeling as well as tranquility相反 水平线代表了沉稳冷静 now these are some of the things that you want to keep in mind when regarding shapes for your next designs这些就是大家应记住的在设计中使用图形的一些要点 so in design设计时 we need visual and verbal information to be digested and easily remembered要让视觉和语言信息能够被理解并轻松记住 this means illustrating ideas as much as possible在你用言语阐述观点时 while still using verbal messages to fully explain ideas尽量多用图解来充分解释 now to fully grasp a concept要充分掌握一个概念 it’s necessary to pair the visual information with written information图文结合是有必要的 the dual coding is what helps the reader truly understand the concept图文结合非常重要 as the marriage of textual and visual content is essential双编码能帮助读者真正理解你想传达的信息 especially on text-heavy designs尤其在多文字的设计中 so when you’re next designing something下次做设计时 think about the message that you want to convey想好要传达的信息 and how you can do that easily both with text and imagery in perfect combination如何完美结合图文来轻松表达 people tend to scan online material as opposed to reading every word人们更喜欢粗略浏览网页而不是读每一个字 when reading a website or a piece of design当浏览网页或设计作品时 people tend to follow an F kind of shape人们倾向于“F”型浏览 so going from the headline to the first line of the leading paragraph and then so on即从标题到首段的第一行 以此类推 if the content catches their attention如果内容引起了他们的关注 they may pause and read carefully他们可能会停下来仔细读 but as a rule of thumb但根据经验法则 you have about seven seconds to grab their attention as a graphic designer设计师只有7秒钟来吸引他们的注意 when placing very stiff elements on your webpage or marketing material当你要在网页或市场栏放重要内容时 follow these rules请遵循这些法则 again this rule can be applied to static print design同样 这些法则也适合印刷设计 not just website design而不仅仅是网页设计 you want to try and guide your viewers around the design in a fluid manner如果你希望用户能很流畅地浏览你的设计 especially we have a text-heavy design尤其是多文字的版面 so think about utilizing headlines and sub headers and also考虑使用标题和副标题 bullet points to improve scan ability以及列表项 来增加可读性 now I do plan to make more detailed videos on each of these points我计划针对这些要点做更详细的视频 so for example the entire video on the Hicks’s law比如说有关席克定律的整集视频 so let me know if you think that’s going to be useful请告诉我你是否觉得这有用 down the comments of below点击下方进行评论 psychology is actually very important心理学真的相当重要 to engage your designs and your message to the viewer它能将你的设计和想法传达给观众 so expect more of this kind of content to come on my channel想要了解更多此类内容 请关注我的频道 like and share my content on social media and如果喜欢 可以在社交媒体分享视频 of course have a great day until next time祝你愉快 我们下次见 design your future today今天开始 设计未来
  • 2021-08-30为何图标设计从仿实化转向扁平化?在1997年 谷歌发布了第一个图标In 1997, Google introduced their first logo, 它长这个样子and it looked like this 好丑Yucks. 但经过20世纪末的几次重新设计后But after a few redesigns at the turn of the century, 他们发布了这个3D版本的图标they landed on this 3D logo. 3D图标在21世纪初十分流行3D logos were all the rage in the early 2000s. 但十年后 各公司的图标却逐渐变成了这样But fast forward 10 years, and logos started to look like this. 每家公司的图标都回归到了2D设计Everybody was changing to 2D design. 不知不觉地 3D图标变成了过去式Before we knew it, 3D logos were a thing of the past. 但你们是否好奇过But did you ever wonder why 图标设计风格为什么会突然向扁平化转变呢?we had the sudden change to flat design? 如今 当你上网浏览时When you’re searching the Internet today, 你会无数次看到许多类似的图标you’ll scroll past a lot of the same logos over and over again. 使用谷歌搜索时你会看到它Head to Google and you see this guy, 打开Instagram时你要点击它open Instagram and you have to click this. 油管YouTube, 网飞Netflix. 这些图标的一个共同特点是The thing these logos all have in common, 它们都是2D的they’re all 2D. 在20世纪中期In the mid 1900s, 绝大多数的图标采用的都是扁平化的设计the logos were for the most part all flat design. 它们简单 干净 而且是2D的They were simple, clean, and 2D. 当公司意识到图标中蕴涵着的巨大的影响力Rather than just trying to get the names out there, 不仅仅是向人们介绍公司的名字那么简单时companies realized how impactful symbols were. 他们开始在设计过程中加入大量的新思想They started to put a lot more thought into the design process. 随着20世纪70年代电脑图像界面的发明With the 1970s came CGI, 动态的商标成为现实and from there, logo started to come to life. 但是真正的变革发生在世纪之交时But the real change came at the turn of the century. Adobe公司开发出了InDesign和Photoshop这两款软件Adobe developed in design and Photoshop, 让每个人都可以轻易用到数字图像处理工具and digital graphic design tools were at everybody’s fingertips. 图标逐渐向立体化转变Logos were going 3D. 在互联网刚刚在全世界范围内流行时In the early days of the worldwide web, 人们开始借助互联网完成一切日常小事people started to use the Internet for every little thing, 设计师想要帮助人们轻松地掌握使用这些新事物的方法and designers wanted to help people easily navigate these new devices. 于是他们引入了一种名为Skeuomorphism的仿实理念They used what’s called Skeuomorphism, 即当我们谈论到用户界面设计时which when we’re talking about user interface design, 就意味着尽可能地使数字化的图标与相应的真实物体相似means making digital features resemble real life objects. “保存”这一图标即为仿实设计的The Save icon is skeuomorphic. 但当软盘从我们的生活中淘汰后But after we stopped using the floppy disk in real life, 这个保存图标看起来就并不仿实了it became less so. 人们希望科技People wanted technology, 特别是触屏科技的设计非常直观且易于操作specifically touchscreen technology, be intuitive and easy to use, 在电脑屏幕上将文件夹拖入回收站也很直观and dragging a file to the trashcan on your screen felt instinctive. 渐变色 阴影与仿真纹理的使用Skeuomorphism was brought to life by using gradients, 使仿实理念得以实现drop shadows, and fake textures to mimic depth. iPhone和iTouch是最早成功的两个电容式触摸屏设备The iPhone and iTouch were the first big time Capacitive Touch Screens. 它们没有按键和按压反馈They had no buttons and no feedback, 与人们平时在百货商店或自动提款机上unlike the resistive touch screens you use 使用的电阻式触摸屏完全不同at grocery stores or ATMs. 与振动效果和点击声音相结合的3D设计The 3D designs combined with vibrations and 使用户感到自己仿佛在按压真实的按钮clicking sounds made users feel like they were pressing real buttons. 3D图标设计在人们适应新科技发展的过程中3D logo designs were vital to make people feel comfortable 起到了重要作用in the new developing age. 当人们逐渐适应这些科技后As the world got more comfortable using these technologies, 仿实理念和3D设计就变得不再必要skeuomorphism and 3D design became less important 设计者也开始回归2D设计and designers started to shift back towards 2D. 仿实理念的反对者提出Critics of skeuomorphism argued that it was 过多的渐变色 斜面边缘和倒影效果cluttered and harder to use because of the excessive gradients, 反倒会让使用变得更加困难beveled edges, and reflections. 而扁平化的设计能够在有限的用户界面中节约空间Flat design conserved space in a limited user interface, 还能够提供给用户一种简洁感and provided a cleaner feel. 仿实理念还会限制设计本身Skeuomorphism can also constrain design. 当设计变得扁平化时When you go flat, 你将不再受到实物样式的限制you are no longer tied to the physical world, 设计理念和界面也就可以变得更抽象化and ideas and interfaces can take on a more abstract form. 浏览汉堡菜单时能够看到很多扁平化的元素Take the hamburger menu scene a lot in flat design. 它与仿实理念完全相悖It is the opposite of skeuomorphism, 因为现实生活中并没有汉堡菜单because there are no hamburger menus in real life. 但这样的菜单设计更加整洁But the menu design was sleeker and 而且在节约屏幕空间的同时将使用变得非常简单incredibly easy to use while saving space on the screen. 在世界一夜之间被改变之前People were teetering between flat and skeuomorphic designs for 人们在扁平化设计与仿实理念之间摇摆不定a little bit before the world changed overnight literally. 但在2013年9月18日On September 18th, 2013, 苹果的iOS系统一夜之间更新到了iOS7版本Apples iOS updated overnight to iOS 7, 我们睡醒后发现了一个全新的扁平化世界and we woke up to a flat world. 起初 人们对新的操作系统并不满意At first, people were not happy with the new operating system. 因为他们不清楚哪些按键是可点击的而哪些不是They didn’t know what was clickable and what wasn’t. 但更重要的原因是More than anything, 谁喜欢改变呢?who likes change? 旧版操作系统中有光泽的纹理消失了The glossy textures from the operating systems before it were gone. 取而代之的是所有应用都使用了2D图标All the apps had 2D designed icons. 这意味着为了适应时代变化 各公司的图标都要改变为2D形式That meant logos needed to switch to 2D to keep up with the times. 大街小巷的商标在之后的几年里And logos everywhere started to change from 3D to flat design 开始了由3D设计向扁平化设计的转变over the next few years. 2D图标不仅仅对用户而言更为简便Not only was 2D perceived to be easier for users, 它也能够使图标的设计变得更为简单but it was also a lot easier on the designers too. 设计师可以花费较少的时间 设计出高质量的图标They can create logos that are high quality but required less time to make, 而且与3D图标相比 简单的矢量设计图标可以and a simple vector design can be expanded and shrunk 在不同的媒体或设备上更随意地放大或缩小for any device or medium easier than 3D logos ever could be. 如今 我们在互联网上看到的任何事物几乎都拥有扁平化的设计Today, almost everything we see around the Internet has a flat design. 像任何一个设计的分支一样Like all branches of design, 图标风格的变换是一个循环的过程logos are cyclical. 2D率先流行 接着被淘汰2D was in, then it was out, 如今又再次流行起来and now it’s in again, 但不要急于宣告仿实理念的失败but don’t count skeuomorphism out just yet. 随着增强现实技术和虚拟现实技术的发展With the rise of augmented and virtual reality, 仿实理念必须要继续沿用下去skeuomorphism has to stay alive so that we can 因为只有这样我们才能真实地“感受”到数字虚拟的物像touch and feel digital objects in a very real way. 在未来这些图标将会变成什么样子呢?What will these logos look like in the future? 这很难预测It’s hard to tell. 但如今 我只希望我不会一觉醒来But for now, I’m just hoping I don’t wake up 发现我的手机又更新了一个全新的操作界面with a whole new interface on my phone. 感谢您的观看 请您点赞 评论Thank you for watching. Please be sure to like, comment, 订阅我们的频道 并打开下方的消息提示and subscribe to our channel, and ring the bell below. 这样在我们发布新视频时您将第一时间得到通知That way, you’re notified whenever we post a new video.
  • 2021-08-28如何利用PS制作栅栏效果In this video, I’m going to show you how to create这个视频中 我将会向你们展示 this fence manipulation using Photoshop.如何利用Photoshop制作栅栏效果 So let’s get started.那我们就开始吧 [Music][音乐] Hey what’s the guys, Dhruval here嘿 朋友们 我是Dhruval and as you can see this is the final output.如你所见 这就是最终的成品图 Now before we start to actually create this effect,在我们开始制作此效果之前 normally you need to do a photo shoot with a tripod.通常你要用三脚架来拍张照片 You take photo of background, then photo of model with the fence,先拍背景照片 再拍带栅栏的模特照片 and then you do the masking etc.然后再做些遮罩等等 But this is a different approach.但这个方法不同 Like what if you already have a photo比如 倘若你已经有一张照片 and then you want to turn it into this effect.然后你想把它变成这个效果 This video is more for that.这个视频就更适用 So, to create this,那么 为了做出这种效果 first of all let’s open the background photo.首先让我们打开背景图片 You go to File, you go to Open,进入“文件”菜单栏 选择 “打开” and you select whatever photo that you want选择任何你想要用的照片 to create the effect on.来做出这种效果 Now, I don’t need the entire photo and we have to crop it,现在 我并不需要这一整张照片 我们必须把它裁剪下 but we will do it later.裁剪我们稍后再做 First of all let’s create a separate background and model.首先 创造一个单独的背景和模特 To do that, let’s unlock it. So double click and hit OK.为此 我们要解锁图层 双击 点击“确定” After that I’m gonna make a copy of it, so press command+J.之后 按住command+J复制图层 Now on this copy I’m gonna rename it to model,副本重命名为“模特”(model) and for the layer 0 I’m gonna rename it to background.图层0重命名为“背景”(background) Right now we don’t need model layer, so make sure you turn off the eye现在并不需要“模特”图层 那么确保你关掉了它前面的小眼睛 and only the background is active.并且只有“背景”图层是激活的 After that, you have to make sure you have selected your Lasso Tool from here,之后 你要确保你从这里选取了“套索工具” and make a selection around model something like this.在模特周围建立一个像这样的选区 It doesn’t have to be accurate,并不需要十分精准 but make sure that you don’t…eh…但要确保你没有……额…… like you keep the model out of selection like this.就像这样 选区保持在模特之外 So the selection is done.选区就建立好了 After that you press Shift Delete both keys together然后同时按住Shift+Delete and this box will pop up.就会弹出这个窗口 And here you select Content-Aware and hit OK.此时就选“内容识别” 点击“确定” It will take some time because like image is really high resolution.因为图像分辨率太高了 还需要一点儿时间 So, let it do its job.那么 就让它慢慢处理 So as you can see Photoshop did its best and I think it’s okay.你看到了 Ps已经处理好了 我觉得还可以 And let’s remove the selection first.那我们就先移除选区 So you can go to Select and Deselect.来到“选择”菜单栏 “取消选择” Now at this moment even though it looks bad,现在 尽管看起来很糟糕 because model with cover most offered, it won’t look that bad.但因为模特会盖住这些地方 也没那么糟 So don’t worry about it.所以不用担心啦 Now the background is ready and you can turn it off.现在“背景”图层已经就绪 你可以关掉它了 Now activate the model and turn it on.现在激活“模特”图层 打开它 Now we can remove the model from the photo现在我们就可以把模特从照片上移除 and to do that we need to make selection.为此 我们要“通过选区来生成路径” So you can right click here and get a Quick Selection Tool你可以在这里点击右键 选择“快速选择工具” and make selection of the model.建立模特选区 And if you wish to remove some selection,如果你想移除部分选区 you can go select this minus option here可以选择这里的“减号”选项 and then you can remove it like this.然后你就可以像这样把它移除 So the selection of model is ready,模特的选区已经就绪 after that let’s apply the layer mask.之后我们就应用图层蒙版 So go and click on this third option here那么来这 点击第三个选项 and it will apply the mask.就会应用蒙版 Now you can turn on the background.现在打开“背景”图层 So here’s what happened:就这样处理: model is on different layer“模特”在一个图层 and background is on different layer.“背景”也在一个图层 This is exactly what we need.正是我们所需要的 Now I’m going to refine the selection.现在我要完善下选区 So make sure you activate the layer mask,所以要确保你激活了图层蒙版 then right click and Select and Mask.右击 选择“调整蒙版” After that this portions are ok,之后这部分就可以了 but for the hair, we need to focus.但就头发而言 我们需要清晰的 So make your brush a little bit bigger using your bracket keys,所以可以用括号键把画笔调大一点 and make sure you have the second option here the refine tool,确保你选择了这里的第二项:“调整工具” and then you paint around the hair like this.然后像这样在头发周围涂抹下 Looking pretty good and after that you can hit OK.看起来相当不错 弄好后点击“确定” So the basic setup is ready and now we can add in the fence.那么基本工作已经就绪 现在我们来添加栅栏 But before that let’s prepare few things.但在此之前我们先做点准备工作 First of all, on the background activate it and make a copy. So, command+J.首先 激活“背景”图层 按住Cmd+J复制图层 Now in this copy I’m gonna, like, rename it to现在在复制图层上 像这样 我将它重命名为 more blurry background.“更模糊的背景”(more blurry background) It’s important,很重要的 and for the model it’s the same thing you can press command+J.对于“模特”图层 同样地 按住Cmd+J复制图层 Now on the original model layer here,现在在最初的“模特”图层上 you can rename it to back up.你可以重命名为“备份”(back up) Now this I will explain later and this one is obvious.这个我稍后解释 原因很明显的 If you make mistakes on this layer while doing further masking,如果你做进一步遮罩的时候出错了 you already have a selection ready, so you can start again.这里有个现成的选区 可以重新开始 Eh… so that’s clear.额……这样就明白了吧 Now..eh…I’m gonna…现在……额……我要…… add in the fence and do the cropping.添加栅栏 做些裁剪 So first of all let’s add the fence.那么首先 我们来添加栅栏 To add it, you can go to File and then Place Embedded,要添加它 你可以进入“文件”菜单栏 然后“置入” and here you have the JPG sorry PNG file for the fence and place it.这是栅栏的JPG 不好意思 是PNG文件 置入这里 I’m gonna make it a little bit bigger,我要把它放大一点 and if you are using Photoshop 2018 or older version,如果你用的是PS2018或是更旧的版本 hold your Shift key when you do it, so it doesn’t go out of…做的时候按住Shift健 它就不会出去…… Sorry it doesn’t lose the proportion.抱歉 它就不会比例失调 And also I need to squeeze it a little bit. So on this version,我还要再挤一下 那么在这个版本中 I’m gonna hold my Shift key and squeeze it down little bit.按住Shift键 挤一下 In older version you won’t need to do it.旧版本的话就不需要这样做啦 You can also use your arrow key to move it around.你也可以用箭头键移动它 And I think this looks decent and then you can confirm it.我觉得这个看起来不错 之后你可以确认一下 Now I’m going to crop out the unnecessary area that I don’t want.现在我要裁掉不想要的不必要的区域 So get a Crop Tool and crop it out.那么选择“裁剪工具” 裁剪出来 Now the fence is little bit smaller so I’m going to make it big,现在栅栏有点变小了 所以我要把它变大一点 you can press command+T您可以按住Cmd+T and then again stretch it out a little bit.然后再把它拉大一点 Fence is ready and the model is ready, now let’s do the masking.栅栏和模特均已就绪 现在我们来做遮罩 And to do that you need to activate this mask,要做到这一点 你需要激活这个蒙版 make sure the mask is active and not the layer.确保激活的是蒙版而不是图层 So the mask is active.那么蒙版已经激活 After that get your Brush Tool,之后取用“笔刷工具” and in the brush make sure you have black color,“笔刷工具”确保选用“黑色” in the Opacity it’s 100.“不透明度”为100% After that right click here and make sure Hardness is also all the way 100%之后点击右键 确保“硬度”也是100% make sure all of these things are correct.要确保所有的这些都是正确的 Then we can start erasing the portions that we don’t need.然后我们可以开始擦除我们不需要的部分 So, first of all, I’m gonna go and it is here this eye.那么 首先 来到眼睛这里 Now here’s another trick you can do.这里还有一个技巧 you can click here then hold your Shift key点击这里 然后按住Shift键 and then click here.接着点击这里 It will erase it like that,它就会像这样被擦除 then again hold your Shift key and click here,然后再次按住Shift健 点击这里 hold your Shift key and click here.按住Shift健 点击这里 And this will make your job little bit faster.这样会使你的工作进展得快一点 So as you can see now we can see through the fences那么 你看到了 虽然我们只有一个单独的图像 even though we had only single image.依然可以通过栅栏看到 This is how you do it.你就这样做 And if you want to bring it back,如果你想恢复过来 you can switch to a white color,改为选用“白色” and you can bring it back.就可以恢复了 Like this if you make any mistakes.如果你出错了的话 也可以这样做 I’m going to remove some parts that I don’t want.我要移除我不想要的这部分 You can think about it and choose the boxes carefully.你可以考虑一下 仔细选择格子 So as you can see the main reason why you clicked on this video, that’s over.看到了吧 这也是你点击视频的主要原因 这样就结束啦 But we need to fix few things so it looks actually good.但我们还需要完善一下 让它看起来更好 So first of all as you can see this option:首先你可以看到这个选项: more blurry background, we’re gonna use it.“更模糊的背景” 我们要用它了 So first of all I’m going to right click and Convert to Smart Object,那么首先 右击 “转换为智能对象” after that we need to apply a blur.之后需要应用模糊 So you can go to Filter and then you go to Blur Gallery and select Field Blur,你可以点击“滤镜” 然后点击“模糊画廊” 选择“场景模糊” and if you have old version it will be here I think in Blur.如果你用的是旧版本 我想它应该是在“模糊”选项 So go to Blur Gallery and select Field Blur.那么就点击“模糊画廊” 选择“场景模糊” Now in the Field Blur I’m going to keep it to like 30 40 percent,在“场景模糊”选项 模糊调节保持在30%-40%左右 so it’s like…we need to separate model from the background little more.就像是……我们要把模型从背景中分离出来 That’s it, so do it however like however blur you need.就这样 你想要多模糊就多模糊 Then you can add this little bit things here,然后你可以在这里加上一些东西 it doesn’t have to be exactly like me, just play around.没必要和我的一模一样 调整试试 So I think this looks decent to me and then you can hit OK.我觉得这样看起来不错 然后点击“确定” Now because it’s a smart object,现在因为它是智能对象 if you want to do any changes, you can double click on the Blur Gallery here.如果你想改动些什么 可以双击这里的“模糊画廊” And then you can change whatever and hit OK. It’s completely like re-doable.然后就可以做任何的改变 再点击“确定” 这完全是可重复的 Now to see the difference, this is more blurry background,现在来看看区别 这是“更模糊的背景” and this is the original one. Now, this has prettier bouquets这是原始的 现在 这个有更漂亮的花束 no doubt, but this one looks a bit better for the effect.无疑 这个看起来效果更好 So, this is ready. Now let’s do some color correction and fix the fence.那么 这个已经准备就绪了 现在我们做一些颜色校正和栅栏修复 First of all I don’t need this red color, so activate your fence,首先 并不需要红色 那么激活栅栏图层 then create new adjustment layer.然后创建新的调整图层 and here you can go and select Hue/Saturation.此时你可以选择“色相/饱和度” And before you do any changes, turn on the Clipping Mask.在做任何改变之前 先打开“剪切蒙版” So now whatever changes we do will only stay on the fence.这样不管做何改变 都只会发生在栅栏图层 So, first of all go to your Reds那么 首先选择“红色” and I’m gonna remove the Saturation from that.将“饱和度”从此处移动 So gonna keep it to minus seventy five something,移动到-75左右 then you go to your Masters.接着选择“全图” And here I’m gonna keep it like minus three four这个(“明度”)我会让它处于大概-3 -4左右 to make it slightly darker.让它稍微暗一点 This looks nice.看起来还不错 Now another thing I want to make a fence little bit darker from the edge,现在我想让栅栏的边缘颜色更深一些 so it looks less flat because right now it’s way too straight.因为现在它太直了 所以看起来就没那么平 So to fix that I’m gonna create new blank layer为了修正它 我要新建一个空白图层 and right click here and create Clipping Mask.右键点击这里 创建“剪切蒙版” So again, if I have a Brush Tool同样地 如果我用“笔刷工具” and I paint whatever will only stay on the fence.我所涂抹的都只对栅栏生效 So I’m gonna make my brush big using bracket keys,要用“括号键”把画笔调大 you can also right click and make it bigger whatever you prefer你也可以右击 让它变得大些 怎样都行 and Hardness 0%.“硬度”为0% Then I’m gonna make it super super big like this and then paint around the edges.然后我要把变得非常非常大 就像这样 然后在边上涂抹 Then you can go and reduce the Opacity, so I’m gonna keep it to like之后你可以降低“不透明度” 让它保持在 20 30 percent, whatever looks good, doesn’t have to be exactly like me.20% 30%的样子 看起来还不错 没必要跟我的完全一样哒 So…I think 25 percent is a lot better.这样……我觉得25%更好些 So…color correction on the fence is done.这样…栅栏的颜色校正已经完成 Now we will do the color correction that will affect the entire photo.现在我们把颜色校正的效果应用到整张照片 To do that, first of all, I’m gonna create new adjustment layer为此 首先 创建新的调整图层 and here let’s select the Curves.此处 我们选择“曲线” Because I’m gonna add a little bit contrast,因为我要加一点对比 so make it a little bit brighter from here,所以让它从这里变亮一点 little bit darker from here, so we have more contrast.这里变暗一点 那么我们就会有更多的对比 And then let’s fade out the shadows so it looks a lot more pleasing.然后我们淡出阴影 看起来更舒服 OK, super cool!可以了 超酷! Now I’m gonna pop out this jacket a little bit现在我要把这件夹克调亮一点 because it’s looking really good.因为这样看起来真的还不错 So I’m gonna create a new adjustment layer, and this time get Selective Color.我要创建一个新的调整图层 这次选择“可选颜色” In the Selective Color, first of all, go to your Cyans在“可选颜色”里 首先 选择“青色” and increase it all the way to the hundred. Not very visible,然后一直增加到100% 不是很明显 but you can like make it a little bit brighter using your Blacks,但是你可以用“黑色”调亮一点 so reduce the Blacks and it will pop…pop out more.那么减少“黑色” 它就会……更突出 Do the same with Blues,“蓝色”也是一样 add lots of Cyan in your Blues,在“蓝色”中加多点“青色” like this,就像这样 and then reduce the Black so it pops out more like this.然后减少“黑色” 像这样 让它更显眼 So not a big difference but an important one.差别不大 但很重要 So as you can see jacket before, jacket after, looks more pleasing.这是之前的夹克 这是之后的 看起来更美观 Now for the final step, I’m going to create a new adjustment layer.现在是最后一步 我要创建一个新的调整图层 And this time we get the Vibrance,这次我们选用“自然饱和度” and I’m gonna add like 70 80 % Vibrance so the image is lot more colorful.我要添加70%到80%的“自然饱和度” 这样图像就会更加丰富多彩 This looks nice and close it.看起来不错 关闭就可以了 So this is without the adjustment,那么 这是没有调整图层的 and this is with that adjustment,这是带有调整图层的 as you can see this looks so much better.可以看出 这个看起来更好 So as you can see I did some changes in the Blur你们可以看到我在“模糊”处做了一些改动 and that’s the beauty of this method. You can change这就是该方法的美妙之处 在这种效果下 absolutely anything in this effect without worrying too much at any time.你完全可以做任何的改动 而不用担心太多 So that’s it and this is the final output.好了 这就是最终成品了 I really hope that you guys learned something from this video.真心希望你们这些家伙可以从视频中学到点什么 And if it did, hit that like button.如果确实学到了 帮点下喜欢噢 And if you have any kind of questions or suggestions,如果你有任何的问题或建议 ask me in comment section below.可以在下面的评论区问我 If you wanna check out more videos by me,如果你想看更多我的视频 you can click on any of these boxes and you can also subscribe to my channel.你可以点击这些框中的任何一个链接 也可以订阅我的频道 So every time I upload a new video, you will get the updates.那么我每上传一个新视频 你都能看到更新 Deal done! Good bye! Take care and have some fun with Photoshop!就这样啦 拜拜 保重 Ps玩得愉快
  • 2021-08-28Photoshop Mix:移动版的遮罩、组合与选择Photoshop官方指南Photoshop和Photoshop Mix: 移动版的遮罩、合成和选择Photoshop PlaybookPhotoshop and Photoshop Mix: Mobile Masking, Compositing and Selections 手机摄影是相当有趣的Mobile photography is a lot of fun. 比起以前 现在有更多的人开始拍摄 编辑 以及分享照片There are more people shooting and editing and sharing than any other time before. 但是 说到照片编辑 有些事你仍然做不了But when it comes to editing, there are certain things you still can’t do. 这就得请Photoshop来帮忙了There are a lot of things you need to go over to Photoshop for. 其中最普遍的操作是“选区编辑”和“基础合成”And a couple of the most popular ones are selective edits and basic compositing. 现在 我们为Photoshop官方指南带来一个全新的技巧Well, we’ve got a brand new trick for your Photoshop Playbook 使用一款刚刚发布的iPad免费新应用in the form of a new application that just came out, 它叫做Photoshop Mixfree iPad app called Photoshop Mix. 现在 我想以一种And I wanna show you, 更加有趣的方式向你们展示 不过这依然与Photoshop有很大的关系in a more playful way but it also deeply integrates with Photoshop. 所以 让我们看看它是怎么运作的So let’s take a look at how it works. 首先让我们开始并运行Photoshop MixSo let’s go ahead and launch Photoshop Mix. 这里有我们能解决的各种问题And there’s all sorts of problems that we can solve here, 但是我想给你们展示与选区编辑和合成有关的东西but I want to show you the stuff related to selective edits and compositing. 关于选区编辑 我想不到比这张更难处理的图片了And for selective edits, I can’t think of a more difficult image than this one. 你们可能之前见过这张图片You’ve probably seen this before. 一直以来 勾选出毛发区域都是一个头疼的问题Historically selecting fur and hair would be really difficult. 但是你们看 我只是在将我的手指在这张图片上拖动But you’ll see that I’m just dragging my finger over this image, 就可以得到这个很好的效果and getting a really nice result, 而且如果我们将这里放大and if we zoom in on that, 你们会发现每一根毛发都清晰可见you’ll see that the individual strands of hair are visible. 现在 假如我要切换调整边缘的工具Now if I were to toggle over refine edge, 我会把这个看作是一种数字上升的滑块I like to think of this as sort of the ascend-num slider. 所以很多人之所以如此喜爱这个功能 就是因为移动设备已经搞定选择范围了So this is what other folks in, mobile have done around selections. 这就是我们将要推出的功能This is what we’re bringing to the table here. 然而更有趣的是 如果我们把这张图片用Photoshop打开And where this gets a lot more interesting is if we send that file over to Photoshop. 稍等片刻 让我们打开PhotoshopAnd just a moment we’ll look at the file in Photoshop, 我可以将它保存到Photoshop 这样它就在Creative Cloud里面了but I can save it to Photoshop and it puts it in the Creative Cloud. 好了现在让我们来看看合成功能的选择工具Now let’s look at the selection tool for compositing. 现在我要做的是把整个用作背景的的图片区域都选择出来 看起来不错的样子And what I’ll do is all grab the image that I want for the background and that looks great, 现在我点击上方的图册 选取一张作为前景图and I’ll just touch on this Plus at the top and grab a foreground image. 现在我们又得选取区域 同样直接拖选出想要的范围And again we’re going to cut out and just drag over the area that I want. 完美 然后选择天空部分 直接点击再放大Excellent. And to select the sky I just touch on it and scale it. 好了现在我想要改变它的视觉效果And now I think I’d like to change the look of that. 这里有挺多好看的预置滤镜I’ve got all these great presets. 这些滤镜与Lightroom和Cemera Raw所使用的一样And they use the same engine as Lightroom and Camera Raw. 效果相当强大So really powerful. 好现在我只需要点一下 就选出了前景图区And then to select the foreground I just touch on that. 然后我们用Auto来处理And for that one we’re gonna go with Auto, 也是和Camera Raw以及Lightroom相同的处理逻辑again the same logic that’s found in Camera Raw and Lightroom. 现在我处理好了以后 我就准备把它发送到Photoshop了And when I get the result that I want.I’m gonna send that over to Photoshop. 就是说 保存到Photoshop这里I just say, Save to Photoshop there. 当然也会备份到云盘里面And again that will pass it to Creative Cloud 这是一个多图层含蒙版全分辨率图像is a layered, mask full resolution file. 好了 让我们用Photoshop打开它So let’s take a look at those in Photoshop. 先来看这张猫的图片Let’s start with the image of the cat. 我们用Mix选择出来的效果还是很不错的And we’ve done a really nice job of selecting that using Mix, 但用Photoshop还能进一步细化处理but I think we could do better here in Photoshop. 好那么现在我在这里使用细化边缘工具And so if I come over here to refine edge, 把它调整为黑白模式的and let’s change this to look at that black and white. 然后再选定智能半径功能 把半价范围数值拉到这里If I hit Smart Radius and pull the Radius over, 现在你就能确切的把这张图片里每一根毛都选定出来了you can actually pull out individual strands of hair from that image. Photoshop的细化选择功能There’s a lot more power when it comes to refining the selection, 比之前Mix的选择功能强大的多than I had over in Mix. 好现在我要做的是 打开这张图片Now the other thing that I could do, is if we look at this image, 这张合成图片 仔细观察左下角的信息our composite if we look in the lower left hand corner, 有48.6兆 是张全分辨率的PSD图片It’s 48.6 Megs. It’s a full res PSD. 它是多图层含蒙版图像 是一个真实的文件It’s layered and it’s mask so it’s a real file. 现在要做的是 选定出我们的蒙版区But what we want to do is take our mask here. 然后注意看这里And let’s just get a closer look at that. 这里是有杂色的 然而我没法把它们全部选定出来There is some color contamination and I’m not selecting everything. 所以接下来我要做两件事So I’m just going to do two things. 首先增大半径范围值I’m gonna increase my Radius, 现在选定范围更广也更细化了which immediately gives us more content, more detail. 然后我要选择清除杂色功能And then I’m gonna go to Decontaminate Colors. 这样一来我就能去除这张图像的所有杂色了And I can wash away all of that color contamination that’s in the file. 好当我满意之后就点击OK键 再同时按下command和Z就能对比之前的效果了When I’m satisfied I click OK. I can hit command and Z to see it before. 看吧使用Photoshop之后就再次得到的想要的更佳效果And again after much better result exactly what I’d expect to Photoshop. 现在我想展示另一个超有趣的功能Now there is one other really interesting thing that I can do here. 这张图片是我用Photoshop处理过的Here’s an image that I’ve created in Photoshop. 由几个部分组成And it’s made up of a bunch of pieces. 这里有三个不同的图层I’ve got three separate layers here. 现在如果我把它保存到云盘里And if I save that to Creative Cloud, 我就可以用Mix打开每个独立图层I can open individual layers over in Mix. 现在Mix只支持打开两个图层 但我还是可以把Photoshop文件里的单独图层拖进来打开Now Mix only supports two layers but I can pull in individual layers from a Photoshop file. 好现在让我们回到Mix来看看这怎么操作So let’s take a look at how that works back in Mix. 好现在打开MixOkay so here we are back in Mix. 好现在让我选这张沙滩的图片来进行处理And let’s just grab an image we’ll go with this one of the beach 然后我们得把那个图片的摄影师拖动到这里来and we’re gonna drop our photographer onto that. 所以现在打开Creative CloudSo I’m gonna go over here to Creative Cloud. 这些都是多图层图片 然后找到我需要的那张And I’ve got some layered files and in those layered files is the one that I want. 当我准备打开它的时候 一个选项是分离独立图层When I go to open this, one of the options is to extract individual layers. 现在我只需要选择我要用到的区域And all I need to do is select the area that I want. 然后这些就是不同的图像成分And those are the different components. 现在我得选择这个摄影师再打开这个图像I’m gonna go with the photographer and open that. 这时候这个分层的部分就会在我的这张图片里出现了And it will drop the layered content right onto my image. 我可以随意拖动 或者放大缩小 总之随意操作I can move this around, I can scale it, I can do whatever I want. 所以在电脑上结合云盘和Photoshop处理图像超级方便好使So really nice integration with both Creative Cloud and Photoshop on the desktop. 而且不瞒你说这个应用是免费的And I’ll tell you this is a free application, 由包括我在内的Photoshop成员开发done by some of the guys on the Photoshop team, myself included. 由于我们刚刚才将其投入使用 所以你们的意见和反馈对我们至关重要And we’re just getting started here, so we’re really eager to hear what you think. 希望能得到你们的反馈来帮助Mix不断优化升级Give us your feedback and stay tuned for a lot more with Mix.
  • 2021-08-28包豪斯诞生之地在两个德国城市间坐落着In two German cities lies the birthplace 一场世界艺术革命的发源地of a worldwild arts revolution. 它致力于去掉建筑物的过度装饰One which looked to strip buildings from unnecessary adornments 并建立起了现代主义设计的基础and build the foundation of what is called modern architecture. 欢迎来到包豪斯之家Welcome to the home of Bauhaus. 一切都从1919年的魏玛大学开始It all started here,Weimar University, 1919. 这里就是德国建筑师沃尔特·格罗佩斯This is where German architect, Walter Gropius, 和其他艺术家发起包豪斯运动的地方alongside other artists,founded the Bauhaus movement. 他的办公室间接指出了建筑风格将成为His office alludes to what the architectural style would become 日常生活中极简设计的力量a force for clean, simple designs fit for the everyday life. 在魏玛不远就是第一栋正式的包豪斯建筑Not too far away in Weimar is the first official Bauhaus building. 号角之屋 为1923年展览而建Haus am Horn,built for an exhibition in 1923. 它线条简明 装饰简约Its clean lines and lack of adornments 今天似乎很正常might look average today 但在一百年前这是颠覆性的but almost one hundred years ago it was truly revolutionary. 在德绍七十英里处Seventy miles away in Dessau 1925年运动继续并进入全盛时期the movement continued in 1925 initiating its most fruitful period. 德绍包豪斯是其令人印象深刻的代表作The most stunning representation is the Bauhaus Dessau. 作为包豪斯的中心建筑物Seen as the pivotal building in Bauhaus 它的钢骨架结构和非对称设计令世界震惊this structure amazed the world with its stell frame construction and asymmetrical plan. 在附近你还能找到其他包豪斯风格的建筑Nearby,you also have other buildings in the Bauhaus style. 工业风极简主义美学在其中随处可见The industrialist minimalist aesthetic is visible in all of them. 1932年包豪斯学校迁到了柏林In 1932, the Bauhaus school moved to Berlin, 一年后它在这里被纳粹政权关停where it dissolved itself a year later,due to the Nazi regime. 也因此这场运动传播到了全世界Nevertheless,the movement spread all around the world, 引导了各领域艺术走向国际化的趋势creating an international trend for all other spheres of art. (电子流行音乐)(electronic pop music)
  • 2021-08-2810个差点主宰世界的帝国[音乐][music playing] 10个差点主宰世界的帝国Ten empires that came close to world domination 第十名 西班牙帝国Number tenThe Spanish Empire 公元1402年至公元1975年1402 to 1975 CE 西班牙帝国很庞大 人称“日不落帝国” 因为帝国内总有一片领土正好是白天 它存在了573年 领土从意大利延伸到西印度群岛 占世界面积的9% 当然 这是因为西班牙女王派遣哥伦布远洋 并发现了美洲 1580年 西班牙帝国和葡萄牙帝国合并 这扩大了他们对美洲中南部大部分地区 以及南非大片地区的掌控 但西班人并未采取可持续性的方式统治他们的帝国 他们奴役南美的印第安人 因虐待和像天花这样的欧洲病 成批的奴隶死去 当5000万土著民减少到100万 西班牙开始了跨大西洋奴隶贸易 葡萄牙帝国脱离其统治后 帝国疆域缩小 陆海军也在拿破仑战争中遭受破坏 还因为频繁的叛乱 逐步失去了 在美洲新大陆的领土和美国 今天 西班牙语是世界上第二大使用最广的语言 有47亿人的母语是西班牙语 第九名 土耳其帝国Number nineThe Ottoman Empire 公元1299年至公元1922年1299 to 1922 CE 土耳其帝国在小亚细亚成长起来 占领过欧洲东南部 西亚部分地区 以及非洲北部部分地区 全球人口将近3%曾在其统治下 它最先使用新型火力武器挫败了敌人 这种武器最后被证明是非常有效的 1453年 土耳其帝国占领君士坦丁堡 拜占庭帝国走向灭亡 君士坦丁堡也变成了土耳其新首都 伊斯坦布尔 欧洲人对这个伊斯兰帝国深感恐惧 就为了牵制土耳其 他们在边境发动了持续不断的战争 令人难以置信是 土耳其帝国存在了623年 但后期 它却被人们戏称为“欧洲病夫” 长期的和平 意味着他们的军事发展落后于敌国 英法两国夺走了他们非洲的领土 因此为了不在游戏中出局 苏丹王与德国结盟 这把他们拽到了一战中错误的一方 他们把一切输给了英法两国 随后土耳其独立战争 使土耳其共和国成立 第八名 清王朝Number eightThe Qing Dynasty 公元1644年至公元1912年1644 to 1912 CE 清朝统治了268年 它统一并建立了近代中国 开创了和平盛世 人口激增到几亿人 在其巅峰期 清朝统治着全球1/4的人口 它强大到连大英帝国都得向它进贡 清王朝用酷刑和死刑统治人民 但他们成功的关键却是经济 他们向世界上其他国家出口丝绸 瓷器和茶 却没有任何进口需求 他们和邻国建立起朝贡关系 这些国家依赖和清朝的友好贸易 清朝实际上统治着整个南亚 清朝从未入侵过欧洲 因为清皇帝对维持国内的稳定更感兴趣 而不是去征服世界 但不幸的是 19世纪初 清朝统治出现严重腐败 一系列叛乱和内战因此爆发 西方列强 比如英国 法国和美国 一度控制了北京和越来越弱的清朝 最终在1912年时 清朝被中华民国取代 第七名 法兰西殖民帝国Number sevenFrench Colonial Empire 公元1534年至公元1980年1534 to 1980 CE 法兰西殖民帝国历经多个时期 一起共计统治了446年 一开始它并不是很大 仅统治着中非小块地区以及美洲北部的西半边 英国征服并买下了它在美洲的领土 之后 一件叫法国大革命的小事粉碎了法国的帝国野心 此后 拿破仑·波拿巴得势 拿破仑自称为皇帝 并扬言要征服欧洲 他统治了西班牙 意大利 瑞士 荷兰 德国 丹麦 挪威和奥地利帝国 他获得了巨大的权力 并入侵俄国 他差点就成功了 但他没有为俄国的冬天做好准备 只好撤军 没人会蠢到再去一次 [咳嗽声]希特勒 虽然拿破仑最后被打败了 但法兰西帝国却没有灭亡 并且还进行了彻底的改革 它的统治延伸到几乎北美全境和亚洲部分地区 统治超过11亿人 占全球人口的5% 二战后 法兰西帝国几乎已经灭亡 1960年代 它大部分的殖民地获得独立 今天 有28个国家的主要语言是法语 帝国的影响力也保证了法国在联合国安理会 常任理事国中的一席之位 第六名 俄罗斯帝国Number sixThe Russian Empire 公元1721年至公元1917年1721 to 1917 CE 俄国起先只是东欧的斯拉夫部落聚集地 即现在的俄国西部 这片地方很广袤 但人口仅有1500万 几乎是一个人住了一个镇 而且这个国度从未受到工业革命的影响and the country never really bothered with an industrial revolution. 边境地方经常在独立或者Their borders shifted a lot between being independent 被蒙古人或欧洲人统治之间来回切换 随着邻国统治力量的削弱As their neighbors declined in power, 俄罗斯帝国成立the Russian Empire formed and expanded greatly 并在伊凡大帝和彼得大帝的统治下迅速扩张under Ivan the Great and Peter the Great. 沙皇实行“俄化”战略来吞并其他国家The tsars used a strategy of” Russification” 即用俄罗斯的政治和语言取代that is, they’d replace the politics and language of 被征服人民的政治和语言conquered people with Russian ones. 俄罗斯帝国成为了历史上第三大的帝国The empire became the third largest in history, 疆域是全世界的15%covering 15 precents of the world. 横跨三大洲 人口是全球的1/10It stretched over three continents and one tenth of humanity. 19世纪初In the early 19th century, 它的疆域从黑海横跨至北冰洋it spanned all the land from the Black Sea to the Arctic Ocean 从波罗的海延伸至太平洋 还包括阿拉斯加the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, and included Alaska. 俄罗斯帝国统治了196年The Empire lasted 196 years, 但其经济一直很脆弱but was always economically frigile. 一战摧毁了它The First World War ruined it. 1917年的俄国革命推翻了君主制The 1917 Revolution deposed its monarchy 内战也因此爆发 最终导致苏联成立and led to civil war and, ultimately, 第五名 倭马亚哈里发王朝Number fiveUmayyad Caliphate 公元661年至公元750年661 to 750 CE 在全盛期 倭马亚王朝统治着全球将近1/3的人口In its heyday, the Umayyad Caliphate ruled nearly one third of 全世界7.5%的领土and owed 7.5 percents of the land. 它从先知默罕默德建立的帝国发展起来It arose from the empire established by the prophet Muhammad 他的后继者是穆斯林人的领袖 his successors as leaders of the Muslim people 被称为哈里发 因此得名哈里发国take the title of caliph, hence the name caliphate. 默罕默德死后三十年 倭马亚王朝由哈里发统治The Umayyad dynasty became caliphs 30 years 虽然起源于伊斯兰教Although islamic in origin, the caliphate ruled over many peoples of 哈里发国却统治着许多不同种族和地区的人们different ethnicities and religions. 倭马亚王朝统治迅速扩张The Umayyads very rapidly extended their rule from Mecca to Palistan 从麦加向东延伸至巴基斯坦 西至伊比利亚半岛in the east and the Iberian Peninsula in the west 是当时 有史以来最大的国家it was the largest empire the world had ever seen. 它本该能统治更久It would have conquered futher 但在国内 倭马亚王朝并不是在哪都受到拥护but the Umayyad dynasty wasn’t popular everywhere in its territory. 统治了89年后 王朝被推翻The Umayyad caliphs were overthrown after 89 years. 哈里发隐忍下来The caliphate endured 但之后 王朝无法再延续其卓越的军事征服but subsequent synasties failed to 第四名 蒙古帝国Number fourThe Mongol Empire 公元1206年至公元1368年1206 to 1368 CE 我们都听说过成吉思汗You’ve all heard of Genghis Khan. 他建立了历史上国土连续面积最大的帝国He formed the largest contiguous land empire in history. 面积占地球陆地面积的22% It covered 22 percents of the Earth’s land area, 从中国延伸至欧洲 蒙古人差点就征服了日本The Mongols almost conquered Japan too, 但航海不是他们的强项but seafaring was never their strong suit. 相反 他们的天赋是游牧Instead, their genius lay in their nomadic culture. 他们让牲畜随军队转移They moved their cattle with their armies, 他们住在巨大的帐篷里 而不是城里living in giant camps instead cities. 这意味着 他们不用过度延长补给线This meant they could keep spreading the borders of the empire 就可以不断延张帝国的边境线without overstretching their supply lines. 最终 蒙古帝国统治了11亿人口Eventually the Mongols ruled 110 millon people, 是世界人口的1/4a quarter of the world’s population. 他们本可以统治更多的人They would have ruled even more if they weren’t so bloodthirsty 如果他们没有那么嗜血成性的话 单就成吉思汗一个人就得为Genghis Khan alone is estinated to be responsible 约4千万人的死负责for the deaths of 40 million people. 虽然他繁衍了数百名孩子 但也弥补不了The hundreds of babies he fathered 奈何 蒙古人虽然是出色的征服者However, while they were great conquerors, 却不是优秀的管理者the Mongols weren’t great administrators. 帝国统治了162年后便分裂成了四部分The empire lasted 162 years before splitting into four parts. 其中一方 由成吉思汗的孙子统治One of these, led by Genghis Khan’s grandson, 并建立了元朝started the Yuan Dynasty, which ruled all of 他统治的区域就是现在的中国what is now modern China. 第三名 罗马帝国Number threeThe Roman Empire 公元前27年至公元1453年27 BC to 1453 CE 严格来讲 尤里乌斯·凯撒并不是一名皇帝Julius Caesar wasn’t technically an emperor, 但他统治得像是名皇帝but he ruled like one 所以如果算上他的国家so if you include his Republic, 罗马帝国统治时间超过1480年the Roman Empire lasted over 1,480 years. 这是因为 即便五世纪时罗马帝国被分裂That’s because, even when the Empire split up 它还是作为拜占庭帝国延续了下来 直到1453年It remained as the Byzantine Empire in the eastern Europe until 1453. 在他们最强大的时候At their most powerful, 罗马人统治着已知世界上1/4的土地the Romans ruled nearly a quarter of the known world. 他们明智地通过实行一项软硬兼施的举措维持稳定They maintained stability through a clever carrot-and-stick approach. 一方面 他们拥有古代历史上装备最好 最强大的军队On the other hand, they had the most effective 另一方面 他们给被征服的人们On the other hand, they introduced massive technological advancements 引入了大量先进的技术to their conquered peoples. 并且还经常授予人们最有体面 最昂贵的奖励They also always offered the most prestigious 使他们成为真正的罗马市民becoming a fully-fledged Roman citizen, 并成为掌权的一份子and one of the people in charge. 但罗马很不幸Unfortunately for Rome, 当它撤离时 它曾给世界带来的一切却被遗忘了most of what it brought the world was forgotten when when the Empire withdrew. 罗马帝国太庞大了It simply got too big, 内战和野蛮人大军导致了它的衰落and civil wars and Barbarian hordes combined to bring about its decline. 然而 罗马帝国文化的影响是巨大的Nevertheless, its cultural influence was huge. 因为罗马帝国 基督教得以在西方世界传播Christianity spread throughout the western world thanks to the Empire, 天主教使用的是罗马体制和罗马语言and the Catholic Church adopted its organization and language. 第二名 波斯帝国Number twoPersian Empire 公元前550年至公元前330年550 to 330 BC 波斯帝国曾统治着中东地区The Persian Empire dominated the Middle East 并维持了那里220年的稳定and kept peace there for 220 years, from its base in Iran. 首都在伊朗 它统治了5千万人It ruled 50 million people 听起来不多that might not sound like much, 但这却是当时全球人口的44%but that’s 44 percents of all humans alive at the time 波斯人征服了埃及The Persians conquered Egypt, 阿富汗和巴基斯坦部分地区parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan, 几乎希腊全境and almost all of Greece. 雅典和斯巴达有效地阻挡了波斯的入侵Athens and Sparta famously resisted Persian conquest, 但他们仍采用了很多波斯的习俗和文化but still adopted a lot of Persian customs and culture. 在此声明一下 波斯人从未觉得和雅典人的战役是失败的For the record, the Persians never thought 波斯帝国本可以统治更长的时间The Persian Empire would have continued 如果它的末代皇帝for a lot longer if the death of its last emperor, 大流士三世的死亡时间Darius the third, 没有和亚历山大大帝抵达的时间重合的话hadn’t coincided with the arrival of a certain Alexander the Great. 亚历山大自称为大流士的继承人Alexander named himself as Darius’ heir 并占领了波斯帝国东部大部分地区and took most of the eastern Persian Empire, 还将其纳入到了自己的马其顿王国adding it to his own Macedonian kingdom. 他迫使波斯人撤回伊朗He forced the Persian to retreat to Iran. 但最终还是没能征服整个波斯帝国Alexander never quite conquered all of the Persian lands though, 32岁时 亚历山大英年早逝and his own empire fell apart 他的帝国也随之土崩瓦解when he died at the tender age of 32. 第一名 大英帝国Number oneThe British Empire 公元1603年至公元1997年1603 to 1997 CE 无疑 大英帝国是历史上最大的帝国Easily the largest empire in history, 它曾统治着全球30%的土地British ruled 30 percents of the Earth, 世界1/4的人口and a quarter of the world’s population 超过5亿人over half a billion people. 这些都是美洲殖民地独立之后的事And that’s after the American colonies became independent, 虽然这些地方的语言 民族信仰和贸易哲学although they inherited their language, 均继承自大英帝国national beliefs and trade philosophies from mother Britain, 他们转而把这些传播到了现代世界which they in turn spread across the modern world. 大英帝国的整体影响不应该被低估The overall influence of the British Empire shouldn’t be underestimated 它给全球大部分地区带来了代议民主制it introduced representative democracy to most of the world 并创造了英语 作为主流语言and established English as the dominant language. 然而帝国里并不是一切都欣欣向荣Not everything was rosy in the empire, though. 帝国发生了一系列暴行The British oversaw a number of atrocities. 几年里 整个国家有几百万人 死于饥荒Across the years and nations, 有的死在了集中营或者大屠杀中in concentration camps or in massacres 这些主要是因为黑人奋起反抗白人奴隶主mostly because they dared to stand up to their white masters. 大英帝国统治了394年It lasted 394 years before going the way of most European empires 在20世纪时 它走上了多数欧洲帝国走过的路 1997年 大英帝国统治正式结束Officially it ended in 1997 香港也回归到了中国when Hong Kong was returned to the Chinese. 即便这样 帝国还是以联邦的形式存在着Even then, the empire arguably still lives on 感谢收看Thanks for watching. 如果你喜欢本视频If you joy this radio 请点击屏幕上的这个be sure to check out this one playing on the screen now. 别忘了点赞和订阅and don’t forget to like a answer of describe. 一路延伸至20世纪的后半段stretch white up the liter house of the 20th century. 在它1920年代初的巅峰时期And it speaking the early 1920s, 它统治了全球23%的土地it controlled 23 percents of the world surface 45800万人and 458 million people. 其巨大的影响力让人印象深刻It’s powered influent the huge of impressive.
  • 2021-08-28第17周:范围内的敌人1914年11月20日November 20th, 1914 三个月前 欧洲诸国自信满满地开战 认为它们都Three months ago, the nations of Europe went to war confident that theirs would be the 站在了胜利的一方 而战争将在数周内结束 现在 陷入战争泥潭的现实winning side and the war would be over in weeks. Now that the reality of a long war 已经显现 我们发现 曾经一度保持基本一致的军队指挥结构has sunk in, we see something new- division, confusion, and hatred in the command structures 开始出现新的裂痕 混乱以及怨恨 这些裂痕of the armies themselves, where once they had been basically unified. This division 和混乱将不可避免地造成数十万人无用的牺牲and confusion would lead inevitably to the needless deaths of tens of thousands of men. 我是印地·奈德尔 欢迎来到《伟大战争》节目I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War. 上周我们看到 冬季雨雪天气的到来和影响下 西部边境Last week we saw the fighting peter out on the western front as the rains and snows of 的战事趋于平静 在东部边境 俄军将奥地利军队包围在winter came on in force. On the Eastern Front, the Russians had surrounded the Austrians 普热梅希尔要塞 但在更北部 俄军在罗兹重整队伍at the fortress of Przemysl, but further north had re-grouped at Lodz to meet the advancing 面对迫近的德军浪潮 然而在另一个俄军前线——土耳其 俄军的进攻German tide. On yet another Russian front, in Turkey, the Russian offensive had been 被奥斯曼土耳其军队粉碎crushed by the Ottoman forces, 在中东 英军正向巴士拉方向行进and in the Middle East, the British were marching on Basra. 不过事实上 这里有一些奥地利军队正在移动 足足有500000人There were some Austrians who were actually on the move, though, 500,000 of them, and 我们将看到现在它们的行动we’ll see what they were up to right now. 在过去的一周里 这支奥军入侵了塞尔维亚 塞尔维亚军队的人数只及奥军的一半For the past week, they had been invading Serbia, facing half their number of Serbs, 它们进行了有效的抵抗 但总体而言却在撤退 塞军曾在九月who offered effective resistance but were generally retreating. The Serbs had driven 将奥军逐出境外 但这一次就没有那么轻松了the Austrians out of their land in September, but this time it wasn’t going to be so easy. 当奥军设法将它们的重炮运过塞尔维亚的沼泽的时候 塞军的士气崩溃了Serbian morale crumbled as the Austrians managed to bring their heavy artillery through the 大多数塞军缺乏弹药补给或是冬衣Serbian mud. Much of the Serbian forces lacked ammunition or cold weather clothing, and 而奥军则不断深入腹地 塞军陆军元帅拉多米尔·普特米克deeper and deeper the Austrians penetrated their territory. Serbian Field Marshall Radomir 在战争爆发之初 即在布达佩斯被俘虏 但却被皇帝弗兰茨·约瑟夫一世Putnik, who had actually been caught in Budapest when the war broke out but was allowed to 准许返回塞尔维亚 他下令将军队撤退到科卢巴拉河return to Serbia by Emperor Franz Josef, had ordered a retreat to the Kolubara River, where 在这里 防守的准备工作已提前准备良久了defensive preparations had been prepared long in advance. 11月16日 奥匈帝国军队发起进攻 但塞军在接下来的数日On November 16th, the Austro-Hungarian forces attacked, but the Serbs pushed them back over 将他们击退 然而 从19日起 奥军设法攻占了一个据点the next few days. However, from the 19th, the Austrians managed to gain a foothold, 夺取了朝南的高地 并迫使塞军现在开始撤退seized higher ground to the south, and now forced the Serbs to retreat. Casualties on 双方都伤亡惨重 但冻伤和低体温更加重了这种情况 在这一点上both sides were high, but they were exacerbated by frostbite and hypothermia. At this point, 双方军队对冬日的侵袭都不幸地毫无防备both armies were woefully unequipped for the onset of winter. 不过 东部和东北部边界的更北面 冬天已经到来Further north on the Eastern and Northeastern Fronts, though, winter was already here, and 每晚都有士兵在战壕中冻死men were freezing to death every night in the trenches. 俄军最高指挥部此时出现了小小的混乱 伦宁坎普将军和他在北部的There was a bit of chaos in the Russian high command as General Rennenkampf and his Siberian 西伯利亚军队正对东普鲁士进行侦察 而且没能顾得上army in the north was probing toward East Prussia and hadn’t bothered protecting their 保护侧翼 所以当上周德军发起一场突然进攻时 俄军崩溃了flank, and when the Germans had began a surprise offensive last week, it had collapsed. General 负责整个东北方战事尼古拉·鲁斯基将军将他的部队撤回罗兹Nikolai Ruzsky, in charge of the whole Northeastern Front, had pulled his troops back to Lodz 但是他似乎对德军进攻的规模并没有清晰的认识 11月18日but he didn’t seem to understand the size of the German attack, and on November 18th 德军推进到并几乎包围了罗兹 250000名兵强马壮的德军对阵150000名the Germans reached and nearly surrounded Lodz, 250,000 strong against 150,000 fortified 龟缩在防御工事内的俄国守军 但是当俄军撤退的命令下达时 该命令Russian defenders, but when a Russian retreat was ordered, it was countermanded by the Grand 却被沙皇的叔叔俄军总司令尼古拉斯大公本人下令撤回Duke Nicholas himself, the Tsar’s uncle, commander-in-chief of all of the Russian forces. 现在 德军统帅鲁登道夫为了在俄军入侵前抢占先机而发动进攻Now, German General Ludendorff had attacked in order to preempt the Russian invasion of 而且此次抢占战机获得了成功 因为俄军现在被迫将Germany, and this pre-emption was successful, as the Russians now had to divert tens of 数万先遣军撤回以保卫罗兹和华沙 他们不止部署了这些thousands of troops from the invasion forces to save Lodz and Warsaw. They did more than 而且在短短数日内 俄军奇迹般地集结了约五十万人来同that and in just a few days had almost miraculously assembled around half a million men to fight 德军作战 现在鲁登道夫有些托大了the Germans, and Ludendorff was now overstretched. 这是一场空前规模的大战 虽然德军希望像在坦嫩贝格一样This was warfare on a gigantic scale, and though the Germans hoped for a victory as 取得一场大胜 但在一周的作战中 德国军队great as Tannenberg, during the week of fighting that followed the German war machine ran out 渐渐失去了战斗力 到24日时 一支德意志帝国兵团甚至濒临崩溃of steam. By the 24th an entire German army corps was even threatened with destruction, 德军被俄军 天气和疲惫拖得被迫止步 鲁登道夫and the Germans were stopped by the Russians, the weather, and exhaustion. Ludendorff had 没能占领罗兹或抵达或是推进到华沙 尽管现在俄国入侵德国的计划failed to take Lodz or reach Warsaw, though a Russian invasion of Germany was now plainly 在可预见的未来已不能实现 俄军伤亡近100000人not going to happen in the foreseeable future. The Russians had suffered nearly 100,000 casualties, 德军伤亡人数不及俄军的一半 但是俄军人数上的优势the Germans less than half of that, but once again the Russian advantage in men had overcome 又一次压倒了德军技术上的优势the German advantage in technology. 罗兹战役德军一方的结果是 鲁登道夫的上级冯·兴登堡A side result of the battle of Lodz was that Ludendorff’s superior von Hindenburg was 被晋升为陆军元帅promoted to Field Marshall. 这对兴登堡而言意义非凡 但是我认为我们真的需要关注This sounds great for Hindenburg, but I think we really need to look at what was going on 德军最高统帅部的动向 现在很显然不再会取得迅速的大胜in the German High Command now that it was obvious to all there would be no quick glorious 所以阴谋诡计在这里愈演愈烈victory. So here are the machinations in progress: 11月18日 德军武装力量的总指挥官 总参谋长法金汉On November 18th the German Chief of Staff Falkenhayn, the commander in chief of the 告诉总理贝特曼·霍尔韦格 战争不会获胜 因为German forces, told Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg that the war could not be won because the 协约国拥有太多的的资源 他提出关闭东部边境的计划allies have too many resources. He presented his plan for closing down the Eastern Front 这样的话他们就可以在西线战胜英军 英军被法金汉认为so that they could win in the west against the British, who Falkenhayn believed were 是德国的主要敌人Germany’s archenemy, and who he believed 只是为了商业利益而参战were fighting the war only for mercantile profits. 贝特曼·霍尔韦格震惊了 因为他能设想得到在不把俄国打垮的前提下Bethmann-Hollweg was shocked- for he could conceive no end to the war that did not cripple 是无法结束战争的 因为他认为俄国与德国的利益之间存在直接的冲突Russia, since he believed Russia’s interests were directly the opposite of German ones. 他同样担心奥军总参谋长康拉德·冯·赫岑多夫He was also really worried about Austrian Chief of Staff Conrad von Hotzendorf, who 赫岑多夫曾直言 要是没有德国生力军的支援 奥军可能会崩溃said flat out that without fresh German troops, Austria might collapse, leaving Germany to 使得德军独自在整个东线作战fight the whole Eastern Front alone. 所以 霍尔韦格前去会见身处东部的鲁登道夫 而鲁登道夫认为So he travels to see Ludendorff in the East, and Ludendorff thinks that, far from closing 还远没到关闭东部边境的时候 事实上 只要派遣更多部队 俄军就会被击败down the Eastern Front, it’s actually Russia who can be beaten with more troops. It’s 鲁登道夫讨厌法金汉 这也不是什么秘密了also no secret that Ludendorff hates Falkenhayn. 所以贝特曼·霍尔韦格返回柏林 并开始大谈解除法金汉总参谋长的职务So Bethmann-Hollweg goes back to Berlin and starts talking up the idea of firing Falkenhayn 而以鲁登道夫取而代之的想法as Chief of Staff and replacing him with Ludendorff. 现在 几乎就在这一次 德皇威廉二世对没有人曾向他征询有关战争的意见Now, at around this time Kaiser Wilhelm was pissed off that nobody ever consulted him 而感到十分生气 他甚至在某一时刻说 “在大家的印象中about the war and even said at one point “if they are under the impression in Germany that 我正统帅着德军 那么大家真的是大错特错了” 但威廉二世确实I am leading the army, then they are very much mistaken”, but Wilhelm did have one 具有一项非常重要的权力——任命或解除总参谋长的职务very important power- to appoint or dismiss the Chief of Staff. 但德皇拒绝了任命鲁登道夫为总参谋长的提议 因为他并不信任But the Kaiser says no to the idea of Ludendorff as Chief of Staff because he doesn’t trust 鲁登道夫 甚至还称其为“可疑的人物” 所以作为回应him, and even goes so far as calling him a “dubious character”. So in response, Admiral 提尔皮茨海军上将和前总理比洛亲王开始讨论是否可能通过宣布德皇Tirpitz and former chancellor Prince Bulow start talking about maybe having the Kaiser 得了精神病 以使得兴登堡成为事实上的执政者而鲁登道夫declared insane so that Hindenburg would be the de facto administrator and Ludendorff 可以如愿以偿并在东部得到更多的军队and he could have their way and get more troops in the east. 真的 这就是事情将要发生的过程Really, this was what was going on. 五个月前 德军最高统帅部满腔热情地开战 现在Five months earlier, the German High Command went to war enthusiastically, now they were 他们都在选边站队 相互指责 试图结束这场战争all taking sides against each other trying to wrap it up. 但是他们并非唯一一个 我们看到英军的指挥官们无法和法军并肩作战But they weren’t unique. We’ve seen British commanders who wouldn’t work with the French, 而法军指挥官们不支持比利时军队 各种各样的混乱和内斗French ones who wouldn’t support the Belgians and all sorts of chaos and infighting in both 在俄军和奥军的指挥部层出不穷 而冬天的到来只会使这一切变得更糟the Russian and Austrian commands. It would only get worse as the winter wore on. 西线确实已迎来冬天 此时此刻 从瑞士到海边的The winter was indeed wearing on in the Western Front, which at this point was pretty much 所有战线上的壕堑都已完全冻成冰块totally congealed in lines of trenches stretching from Switzerland all the way up to the sea. 你知道 当你看着战线 你会很容易注意到 在战争中地理环境You know, when you look at that line it’s really easy to see how the geography kind 是如何部分影响作战计划的实施 双方的主体作战思想都是任何重要行动of dictated the war plans throughout the war. The general idea both sides had for any major 实施时 先用火炮进行炮击 随后是步兵冲锋operation was an artillery bombardment followed up by infantry assaults, and then the cavalry 再是骑兵紧随其后并突入开阔的野外following that up and breaking into open country. 然而 西线的大多数地区并不适用于这样一种程序来作战 举个例子However, most of the Western Front was totally unsuitable for such a procedure. South of 凡尔登的南部前线从1914年9月到1918年9月Verdun, for example, the front was totally inactive for four whole years, from September 整整四年都波澜不惊 因为守太易而攻太难 更往北面1914 to September 1918. Too easy to defend and too hard to attack. Further north, it’s 壕堑组成的战线恰巧与当地的铁路线相吻合 德军占据了no coincidence that the trench lines followed the local railways. The Germans had taken 梅斯—里尔一线 而法军则占据了南希—巴黎—阿拉斯一线 这条战线and held the Metz-Lille line while the French held the Nancy-Paris-Arras line. This line 离前线更近 而且至少在历史学家约翰·基根看来 这解释了was closer to the front, and according to historian John Keegan at least, explains why 为什么法军能更出色地将物资及时运达 以及获取一次又一次的胜利the French were better able to deliver reserves in the nick of time and win battle after battle. 所以现在我们已经到了这一周的周末 俄军和德军正进行一场So here we are at the end of the week. The Russians and Germans fighting a battle on 规模巨大的战役 奥军将塞军击退回克鲁巴拉 而另一部分奥军a titanic scale, the Austrians pushing the Serbs back at Kolubara, and other Austrians 还被围困在普热梅希尔 西线无战事 虽然平静也意味着still under siege in Przemysl. The Western Front was quiet, although quiet meant men 每天都有士兵死亡 因为第一次伊普尔战役being killed every day, as the First Battle of Ypres 在未来的几天内并没有正式结束would not officially end for another couple of days. 想象一下统领这几支军队中的一支 数百万人在你的麾下 当然Imagine being in charge of one of these armies. Millions of men under your command. Sure, 你曾在数年前进过军校 而且可能率领着你的帝国领地上you went to military school years ago and maybe commanded forces in your nation’s 的武装力量 但是想想看 当面对一场二十世纪战争的现实imperial possessions, but think what it must have been like to suddenly be confronted with 什么一定会突然出现 战争肆虐数周仍不停歇 水下的鱼雷the reality of 20th century war. Battles that raged non-stop for weeks, torpedoes beneath 和翱翔在天际的机器 以及其他先进武器的恐怖the sea and machines that could sail the skies, and the horrors of advanced weaponry that 它们将杀死数十万敌军 而敌军在短短数周内 也将夺走数十万could kill hundreds of thousands of the enemy as they killed hundreds of thousands of your 你的士兵的性命 这一切只为得到那几十米外国的土地men in mere weeks for the gain of a few dozen meters of foreign soil. 这就是交战国的最高指挥部所要共同面对的现实This was the reality that the high commands of the warring nations now all had to face, 而且这是一个能击溃任何人的现实 有人试图找到结束and it was a reality that could break the spirit of any man. Some tried to find ways 战争的方法 有人转移矛盾 还有人只是派遣更多的士兵to end the war, some to shift the blame, and some merely sent ever more troops to their 去增加无谓的损失 但是现在他们都把他们自己指挥结构中的人needless deaths, but all of them now counted men within their own command structures as 视为他们的敌人 这就是现代战争their enemies. This was modern war. 在我们8月21日那一期中 我们已经讲到进入现代战争In our August 21 episode we already talked about the difficulties and 所面临的困难和转变 还有由于高层还没有对这种全新形式的战争transitioning to modern warfare and what horrible consequences the soldiers had to suffer because 做好准备 所以士兵们将要承受的可怕结果 你都可以在这里their superiors were not prepared for this new kind of war. You can check it out right 得到答案 别忘了订阅我们的频道here. Don’t forget to subscribe to our channel 以及向你的朋友推荐我们节目and tell your friends all about us. 下周见See you next week.
  • 2021-08-28Illustrator CC 2018中改进了的画板功能在Illustrator CC 2018版的软件中Working with Artboards just got so much easier 画板操作变得更简单了in Adobe Illustrator CC 2018 现在不仅可以Not only it is now available 在同一个文档中创建多达1000个画板to create up to 1000 artboards in one single 我们还可以在必要时同时选择多个画板document but we can finally selectmultiple artboards together and also 并对其进行分配和排列distribute and arrange them if necessary so 例如 我们现在有九个画板for example here we have these 9 散布在操作区artboards and they are just floating around 但是 如果我想要快速移动它们in space but if I want to quickly 我只要从move them around I can just click 新版“属性”面板的选项中点击“编辑画板”on the edit artboards from the new Properties 这样就可以将画板panel with which I can quickly start moving them 一个一个的快速移动around one by one or I can 或者按下“Shift”键单击各个画板 就可以将它们一起移动Shift+click on them and move multipleartboards together or Shift+click and 也可以按下“Shift”键 单击 拖动鼠标 便同时选中所有画板drag and select all of them at the same time 这样就可以将九个画板全部移动so that way I can move all of these 但如果想要排列画板的话9 artboards but if I want to arrange 可以使用“对齐”选项them I can also use either the align 或选择“全部重新排列”options here or choose rearrange all and 这样我可以准确设置that way I can define exactly in what 以哪种顺序来排列画板order I want them to be placed 那么我可以设置特定的间距so I can set them up in a row or column with the 将它们排成一行或一列specific spacing between them or I 也可以创建一个网格状布局can create a grid where I can design how 在其中设置所需的行数和列数many columns or rows I want. 或许我们可以将它设置为第一个选项Maybe let’sset it to this first option and of 我当然要选择“随画板移动图稿”course I want to move the artwork 再单击“确定”with the artboards then I click OK and 然后我们马上就会得到了一个更整洁利落的排列布局immediately we got a much tidier andneater setup. 如果我选中其中一幅图稿If I select one of these 可以按下“Cmd/Ctrl”和“+”键将其放大artwork I can use Cmd/Ctrl + to zoom 如果我又想浏览所有画板了in closer and if I decide to see all the 就可以使用“Cmd/Ctrl+Alt”artboards again I can just use 或“Cmd/Ctrl+Alt+0”快捷键来调整所有画板Cmd/Ctrl+ Alt or Cmd/Ctrl+Alt+0 which will fit all the 使它们能在文档窗口中全部显示artboards to our document window. 当然我们使用画板And ofcourse the main reason why we have 就是为了将artboards is to be able to export each 每个单独区域导出为of these individual areas as separate 矢量文件或光栅/像素文件格式的单独文件files either vector files or raster/pixel 我们可以file formats we can do this from 使用“存储为”或“导出”选项来完成the save as or the export options but 但不要忘了 你还可以使用let’s not forget that you also have the 那个叫做“资源导出”的面板panel called Asset Export which was introduced 该面板早在之前的Illustrator版本中就已经引入in the previous version of 它也可以帮助我们Illustrator and that also can help 将各图稿单独导出us to export them individually even 甚至不用依靠画板without relying on artboards simply 只需选择全部对象by just selecting even all of these 再将它们拖入elements together and drag-and-drop them here “资源导出”面板into the Asset Export panel which 这里就会马上为我们生成所有对象will immediately generate all of these elements 然后可以选择for us and then we can decide 我们所需要的导出方式how we want to export them. 可选择导出文件的格式和缩放比例In what fileformat and what size and we could even 我们还可以根据需要导出缩放比例不同的文件export multiple sizes if we want it to. 同样值得一提的是It’s also worth mentioning that if you 在使用“资源导出”面板过程中are using the asset export panel 如果你想创建一个just hold down the Alt key and drag the 包含全部被选对象的组合资源elements together if you want to 则需按住“Alt”键create an asset that has all the selection in 并拖动全部需要导出的对象one place so it’s a combined asset and, 但是如果没有按Alt/Option键while without the Alt/Option key it 每个资源组中将会生成单独资源will generate individual assets for eachof your groups. 所以 Illustrator CC 2018版本中So it is worth checking “资源导出”面板both the asset export panel and 和画板操作方面的新功能the new features for working with artboards in 都很值得你去检验一下Adobe Illustrator CC 2018.

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