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  • 2021-08-27安吉丽娜·朱莉小传安吉丽娜•朱莉抢镜成了一件寻常的事 有她在的镜头 你很难注意到其他人 她是一个非常有吸引力的电影明星 1975年 安吉丽娜•朱莉出生于洛杉矶的加州 她是影星乔恩和玛琪琳的女儿 自从1978这对夫妇离婚之后 这位著名影星和他的女儿的关系一直不好 安吉丽娜的青年时期阴暗艰难 她经常沮丧抑郁 甚至有一段时间会自残 安吉丽娜用刀割自己是因为她想从世上消失 这是一种自我毁灭的表现 高中毕业以后 她开始了演艺生涯 1993年 她主演了《电子人2》 在担任1995年的电影《黑客》女主角时 她与约翰尼•李•米勒相爱 并结为夫妻 在出演了一些无关紧要的电影之后 1998年 她有了重大突破 那就是在《霓裳情挑》中担任女主 其原型是1986年死于艾滋的超模吉雅 这基本上是一部开启安吉丽娜演艺事业的电影 这几乎是一部将她推入好莱坞的电影 她的表现获得了好莱坞的关注 这个引人注目的年轻女子突然成为别人谈论的的正在成长的超级明星 随着星途发展 她和约翰尼的关系破裂 两人于1999年离婚 同年 她和薇诺娜合演了《移魂女郎》 安吉丽娜凭借她的表演获得了奥斯卡奖 《移魂女郎》真正神奇的是 电影被认为是薇诺娜星途大道的“快车” 但是安吉丽娜突然出现 并抢尽了风头 然而 当她和她哥哥在红毯上公然亲昵 这个奖项几乎黯然失色 当她和《空中跑车》结识的新男友鲍勃在一起时 她将她的行为提升到了一个新的高度 2000年两人结婚 这意味着新闻界的梦想成真 当他们在公共场合将装着彼此血液的小瓶时 他们令人震惊的行为达到了巅峰 2001年 安吉丽娜注意力重新转移到大银幕上 在轰动一时的《古墓丽影》中扮演厉害女人劳拉 以前要拍一部轰动的动作大片时 你得找一个肌肉发达的壮汉 但是现在 一个女人也可以担此重任 在拍摄《古墓丽影》期间 她访问了饱受战争蹂躏的非洲 于是她有了巨大转变 她成了一名联合国亲善大使 作为一个联合国亲善大使 她引起了世界对影响非洲和亚洲人民的问题的关注 安吉丽娜和难民打交道的个人经历对她产生了深远影响 她还领养了一个叫马克多斯的柬埔寨孩子 在这段时间她与丈夫分居 两人于2003年离婚 在拍摄《史密斯夫妇》期间 安吉丽娜再一次与搭档传出恋情 这一次恰好是和皮特 而他刚和美国甜心詹妮弗离婚 说起安吉丽娜时 你会想到慈善家和第三者 我是说 这基本上是人们对她的看法 因为她破坏了这对皮特和詹妮弗这对金童玉女 将自己插足于这段关系之中 这段恋情成为好莱坞有史以来最受关注的三角恋之一 这对夫妻的在社会正义方面有着共识 并且都想组成一个大家庭 他们继续收养了两个孩子来扩大家庭 并在2006年生下了自己的宝宝 2008年 安吉丽娜生下龙凤胎 引发了媒体的狂热 《人物》杂志以1400万美元的破纪录价格 买下了孩子们照片的独家首发版权 这笔钱捐给了朱莉•皮特慈善基金 我认为 当我们谈到安吉丽娜 我们不会只想到这个精致的好莱坞女演员 身价2000万 甚至更多 我们还会想到她是个令人震惊的人道主义者 并且是一个好妈妈 一个辣妈
  • 2021-08-24性别是真实存在的吗?We’re told from the earliest moments of our lives我们从很小的时候就被灌输了一种性别观点 that boys will be boys and girls will be girls.那就是男生是男生 女生是女生 News stories about Gender are everywhere today.现在关于性别的新问题越来越多了 Should people declared Men at birth出生生理性别是男性的人 be allowed into Women-only colleges?可以读女子学校吗? Can I use whatever washroom I fancy?我可以使用我喜欢的性别卫生间吗? Can women become men?女性可以变为男性吗? According to American Philosopher Judith Butler美国哲学家朱迪斯•巴特勒对此提出 these conversations miss an important point这些问题忽略了一个很重要的点 gender is a lot messier than we’d like to think.那就是性别比我们认为的混乱多了 Gender is a sort of script that society expects us to act out.性别就像一个社会对我们预设的剧本 Women have long hair, they wear bikinis女性长头发 穿比基尼 they walk and talk, they even sit like women.她们走路和讲话 甚至坐姿都是女人那样 And Men, are expected to be manly.至于男性 就得阳刚一些 They walk like Men, they talk like Men. they pump iron他们走路和讲话的方式都是男人那样 他们得举铁 and they certainly don’t get caught up with anything girly必须全身上下没有任何阴柔之处 Even a hundred years ago即使只是在一百年以前 it was perfectly normal for women to have body hair.女性有体毛是很正常的事 And boys to wear pink dresses.男性穿粉裙子也没有问题 Norms has changed with society.普罗大众随着社会观点改变了 society assumed that girls act like girls社会观点认为女性拥有女性气质 because of hormones是因为荷尔蒙 or because their brains are just different.或者她们的大脑结构 就是不一样的 But these gender roles are according to Butler但巴特勒认为 这样刻板的性别角色 determined by society.是由社会观点决定的 From the moment the doctor declares it’s a girl.从出生时医生宣布你的性别的那一刻 we’re expected and compelled to act like our gender.我们就被期待扮演相应的性别角色 Girls are supposed to play with purple ponies and dolls女孩就应该玩紫色小马和芭比娃娃 while boys get spaceships and G.I. Joes.而男孩会得到宇宙飞船和特种部队 Gender is the narrative way ascribe to anatomy.性别就是生理学的脚注 And there’s plenty of people who don’t fit into either category.而还有很多的人不属于任何一种类别 Our ideal man, and woman, are fictions.我们理想的男性和女性是虚构的 And they are constantly breaking down.他们的形象通常会崩塌 We know of women who prefer swords and sports当我们发现有的女性更喜欢刀剑和运动 and men who prefer dresses and poetry.而有的男性更喜欢裙子和诗歌的时候 For Butler, Gender is performative.巴特勒认为 性别就是表演 We act it out everyday in our mannerisms我们按照自己的方式来出演 our speech, and our thoughts.还有台词和心理 And when we act it out, we’re not just putting on a show当我们表演时 并不只是完成这场演出 we’re consolidating and actively constructing these gender identities.更是固化并积极的维护了这些性别身份 Gender is not just an identity, it’s a ritual.性别不只是一种身份 更是一种仪式 If Gender is performative如果性别是一场表演 then perhaps our best course of action is也许我们最好的选择就是 to refuse to perform, perform differently, or even laugh at it.拒绝表演 表现得不同 甚至嘲笑它 When we refuse to perform our Gender script当我们拒绝了这样的性别剧本 the neat binary between Men and Women starts to fall apart.男性和女性的二元化界限就会开始崩溃 We see people with male anatomy我们会看到生理性别男性的人 who want to identify as female.心理认同为女性 And, vice versa.反之也存在 For some, that means seeking surgery to change their anatomy.对于一部分人 他们就会通过手术追求二者的统一 This begs the question, what is a real woman? 这就带来一个问题 真正的女性是什么样的? To which Butler responds,there is none.对比巴特勒的回答是 根本没有 Many others are quite content其他很多人很满意地 existing in a grey area between sexes and genders存在于这种生理和社会性别之间的灰色地带中 It’s this in between area which exposes that Gender is fluid.正是这样的区域证明了性别是流动的 Identity serves to restrict our very being and exclude those性别身份有助于限制我们的性别 who don’t conveniently fit into the binary of men and women并排斥那些不能适应性别二元化的人 such as homosexuals and transgender people.比如同性恋和跨性别群体 So the question is not can boys act like girls?所以问题不在于男性可以表现得像女性吗 but as Butler may ask, should the category of boys and girls even exist?而是巴特勒可能提出的 男性和女性这样的分类应该存在吗?
  • 2021-08-24皮克斯动画是怎样把你感动哭的[Shouts] “Hey, Buzz!You’re flying!”嘿 巴斯 你在飞行! In almost every Pixar film,几乎在皮克斯的每一部电影中 There’s a moment.都有让人难忘的时刻 It’s the scene you remember years later,许多年后 你依然记得 when you cried or laughed like a child.那个让你像孩子一样流泪或大笑的场景 These moments make us forget we’re watching a movie —这些场景让我们忘记了自己是在看电影 for a few seconds at least,we’re part of the story.至少有那么几秒 我们成为了故事的一部分 But what IS the Pixar Moment?那么 什么是皮克斯时刻呢? For this essay we’re going to为了回答这个问题 focus on scenes from three films:我们主要来看看三部电影中的场景 Toy Story, Up, and Ratatouille.《玩具总动员》《飞屋环游记》和《料理鼠王》 Though the movies themselves are very different,虽然这几部电影大相径庭 they each have a key scene that centers on但他们都有一个关键场景是围绕谎言展开的 what writer K.M. Weiland calls, “The lie your character believes.”也就是作家K.M. Weiland所说的“角色坚信的谎言” Characters usually have a preconceived notion about themselves, others, or the world.角色们通常对自己 他人或世界有先入之见 “It’s not that I like the Empire, I hate it,“我不止是不喜欢帝国 我讨厌它” but there’s nothing I can do about it right now.”“但是现在我对它无能为力” The story slowly tears down that falsehood随着故事中的谎言慢慢被揭穿 so the characters can grow and learn.人物才会成长并吸取教训 Sometimes the hero learns this lesson有时故事的主人公受到他人的煽动 early in the story as the inciting incident.早早地吸取了教训 “You’re a wizard, Harry.”“你是个巫师 哈里” Usually, the realization is saved for the climax,通常 人物在电影高潮的时候才会觉醒 when a character needs knowledge to overcome the final obstacle.这时候 人物已经学到了突破最后难关的本领 “He is the one.”“他就是那个人” And it doesn’t have to be the protagonist who believes the lie.相信谎言的人不一定是主角 It can be a villain —他也可以是一个反派 “You were right about me.”你对我的看法是对的 or even the sidekick —甚至是老朋友 “I’ll take the heat for it.“我来承担责任” We’ll wait for your father to come home,“我们等你父亲回来” and when he gets here, I’ll tell him that I did it.”“他到家之后 我会告诉他是我做的” -No, I’ll take it.“不 我来承担责任” So let’s examine how Pixar creates these moments of self-realization我们来看看皮克斯如何创造那些自我觉醒的时刻 and how we can find the Pixar moments in our own lives.以及我们如何在生活中发现自己的皮克斯时刻 [Sings] “Remember me…”[歌声]“记住我……” 什么是皮克斯时刻? If you’re new here,be sure to subscribe如果你是新观众 记得订阅我们的频道 and hit the bell to get notified about all of our new videos.点击这里就会有新视频通知 《玩具总动员》:关于自己的谎言 Toy Story centers on a clash of egos between two tiny toys.《玩具总动员》以两个小玩具之间的冲突为中心 Both characters have inflated egos.这两个角色都非常自大 Buzz thinks he’s a real space ranger巴斯认为他是一个真正的太空刑警 on a mission to save the galaxy.身负拯救银河系的重任 “I’m Buzz Lightyear, Space Ranger.“我是巴斯光年 太空刑警” I protect the Galaxy from the threat of invasion from the evil Emperor Zurg.“我保护银河系免受邪恶的祖格皇帝入侵” While Woody believes that he alone is central to Andy’s life.而伍迪认为 只有他才是安迪生活的中心 “ In a couple of days, everything’ll be just the way it was.“过几天 一切都会变回原样” They’ll see.“他们会知道” I’m still Andy’s favorite toy.”“我仍然是安迪最喜欢的玩具” Toy Story’s Pixar moment comes at the climax of the film.《玩具总动员》的皮克斯时刻出现在电影的高潮 After Woody rescues Buzz from Sid,伍迪从希德那里救出巴斯后 a series of obstacles keeps them from joining the others.各种阻碍让他们无法与其他玩具汇合 All of these letdowns bring the audience’s hopes to a nadir,这些阻碍使观众的心情跌倒谷底 preparing us for the final triumph不过这一切都是在为伍迪点燃火箭 when Woody lights the rocket.取得最后的胜利做铺垫 [Shouts] “To infinity and beyond!”[大喊]“飞向浩瀚无垠的宇宙!” In this moment, Buzz acknowledges, with glee,这一刻 巴斯欣喜地意识到 that he’s not a real space ranger他虽然不是真正的太空刑警 – but he’s learned to play pretend.但他学会了假扮 [Shouts] “Hey, Buzz! You’re flying!”“嘿 巴斯 你在飞行!” “This isn’t flying. This is falling with style.”“这不是飞行 这是帅气地下坠” And by adopting Buzz’s catch phrase,用巴斯的口头禅来说 [In unison] “To infinity and beyond!”[同时说]“飞向浩瀚无垠的宇宙!” Woody lets go of his self-importance and accepts his new buddy.伍迪不再自大 他接纳了新伙伴 So both have a more realistic sense of their places in the world.因此 他们更加清楚自己在这个世界的位置 And now that they’ve given up their egotistical delusions,现在 他们已经放弃以自我为中心的想法 they’re free to experience the joys of friendship.尽情地享受友谊带来的快乐 “ Besides, when it all ends,“反正一切都结束之后” I’ll have old Buzz Lightyear to keep me company. ”“我还有我的老兄弟巴斯光年来陪我呢” So Toy Story’s Pixar moment encourages us to break free所以《玩具总动员》的皮克斯时刻鼓励我们 of rigid preconceptions about who we are.要打破对自己的刻板印象 When we accept change, we grow —接受改变以后 我们才会成长 and we can perform feats we never imagined possible…甚至可以完成我们认为不可能的壮举 like falling with style.比如帅气地下坠 “AHHH!”“啊啊啊!” [Screams] “This is the part where we blow up!”[尖叫] “我们要爆炸了!” “Not today!”“不是现在!” 《飞屋环游记》:关于所爱之人的谎言 Moving on to Up.接下来是《飞屋环游记》 EVERYONE remembers the first ten minutes.每个人都记得开头的十分钟 Carl and Ellie’s marriage was happy, but tinged with sadness.卡尔和艾丽的婚姻很幸福 但又略带悲伤 They couldn’t have children and couldn’t他们不能生育孩子 afford their dream vacation to Paradise Falls.也没钱去梦想中的天堂瀑布 “And once I get there… Well.“一旦到了那里” I’m saving these pages for all the ADVENTURES I’m gonna have!”“我要把所有的探险经历记录下来填满这本书” When Ellie passes away, Carl believes she died unfulfilled.艾丽去世后 卡尔觉得她还有遗愿未完成 [Sighs][叹气] He wants to bring their home to Paradise Falls他想把他们的房子带到天堂瀑布 so he can finally make her dream adventure come true.这样就能实现艾丽梦寐以求的冒险了 [Shouts] “So long, boys![大声喊]“再见了 小伙子们!” I’ll send you a postcard from Paradise Falls!”“到了天堂瀑布 我会给你们寄明信片的!” Along the way he meets obstacles to this goal.一路上 他遇到了重重阻碍 “I’m tired.”“我好累啊” But Carl sticks to his mission.但是卡尔坚持着他的使命 “ Whether you assist me or not,“不管你帮不帮忙” I am going to Paradise Falls if it kills me! ”“我拼了命也要去天堂瀑布!” After succeeding, he shuns his new friends在到达天堂瀑布之后 他避开了他的新朋友们 so he can be alone in his grief.这样他才能独自缅怀 notice the first piece of furniture he sets up right注意 他扶起来的第一件家具就是艾丽的椅子 is Ellie‘s chair, a touching sign of respect.这感人的举动代表了他对艾丽的敬重 Now he’s essentially waiting to die,现在他基本上是在等待死亡了 so he and Ellie can be together again.这样他又可以和艾丽在一起了 But then… the moment.但是之后 就到了皮克斯时刻 He flips through the final pages of Ellie’s adventure scrapbook.他翻开了艾丽冒险日记的最后一页 The camera slowly pushes in on the photos and in toward Carl’s face镜头缓缓向照片推进 然后定格在卡尔的脸上 as he sees a lifetime of smiles.他仿佛看到了此生所有的笑容 Togeter,we realize that Ellie was grateful and content with her experiences.我们发现 艾丽感恩并满足于此生的经历 Carl believed he failed Ellie by not giving her excitement.卡尔认为他辜负了艾丽 因为他没能给艾丽带来刺激 But her final message says that she never regarded her life as a waste.但艾丽在最后留言说 她从不认为自己浪费了生命 She simply thanks him for the adventure.她很感激卡尔带给她的冒险 [Sobs][抽泣] Like Carl, many of us project our worldviews像卡尔一样 我们很多人把自己的世界观 onto the people we care about.投射到我们关心的人身上 Even when we’re trying to make our loved ones happy,即使我们是在试着让爱的人开心 we can be blinded by our assumptions of what that means —我们也会被自己内心的假想所蒙蔽 and fail to understand the people closest to us.以至于无法了解最亲近的人 Up teaches us that to truly know our beloveds,《飞屋环游记》告诉我们 要真正了解我们爱的人 we have to see the world from their perspective.我们要学会从他们的角度来看待这个世界 And also, we should remember我们也要记住 that every day with them is an adventure.和爱的人在一起 每天都是冒险 “Ready?” “Ready!”-准备好了吗? -准备好了! 《料理鼠王》:关于世界观的谎言 The final lie a character can believe is about their worldview.最后一个谎言是关于人物世界观的 “You know what I’m craving?“你知道我渴望吃什么吗?” A little… perspective.”“我想吃有创意的食物” This is beautifully portrayed in the climax of Ratatouille.人们把《料理鼠王》的高潮部分描绘得很美 Remy is a rat and aspiring chef,小老鼠雷米是一个抱负的厨师 mentored by the spirit of the late chef Gusteau已故主厨古斯特的灵魂时常指导他 who made famous the motto, “Anyone can cook.”古斯特的名言是:人人皆可烹饪 Gusteau’s restaurant is in decline,古斯特的餐馆正在走下坡路 suffering from a negative review受人尊敬的评论家安东·伊格尔 by the revered critic Anton Ego.总是给这家店差评 “My last review condemned it to the tourist trade.”“我的上一篇评论谴责了旅游业” Anton Ego is the antithesis of the idea “anyone can cook.”安东·伊格尔并不支持“人人皆可烹饪”这一观点 Even his name implies vanity,甚至他的名字也暗示着自负 elevating the individual over the masses.他认为自己高人一等 And this is the lie that he believes –这就是他所相信的谎言—— that only a select few can practice the fine art of cooking.只有少数有天赋的人才懂得烹饪的艺术 Then Remy serves him Ratatouille,接着小雷米给他做了蔬菜杂烩 which some dismiss as a peasant dish.有些人认为这是一道农家菜 “Ratatouille, it’s a peasant dish.“蔬菜杂烩 这是一道农家菜” Are you sure you want to serve THIS to Ego?”“你确定你要给伊格尔做这道菜?” Ego begins the meal with pen in hand,伊格尔开始吃饭时手里还拿着笔 like he’s a professional at the office.像一名办公室专员 First the dish, flanked by Ego’s notebook and fork.这道菜旁边放着他的笔记本和叉子 Then we examine the food from Anton’s shoulder,然后我们从安东肩膀的后方来观看这道菜 nearly from his point-of-view.这几乎就是他的视角 We’re seeing the food as he sees it —我们像他一样看着这道菜 as something to be studied.就像在研究什么一样 The food enters his mouth and then we他把食物放进嘴里 see Ego’s eyes close up for the first time.我们第一次看到安东目瞪口呆的样子 Through his eyes, the scene melts away通过他的眼睛 场景转换到另一处 and Ego is transported to a small cottage in his childhood.伊格尔回到了童年的小屋 Outside, his bicycle is broken.小屋外面是他坏掉的自行车 He’s crying.他在哭 But his loving mother cooks him a meal and,但是他慈爱的母亲为他做了一顿饭 without a word, tells him everything will be fine.吃着妈妈做的饭 他知道一切都会好起来的 In this moment,就在这一刻 he changes his view of food and of the world.他改变了自己对食物和世界的看法 Not only can anyone cook,不仅人人都能烹饪 but eating great food doesn’t have to be an intellectual, elitist pursuit.享受美食也不止是知识分子和社会精英的专利 It can be the simplest and most fundamental of joys,吃饭可以是最简单 最基本的快乐 one that carries us back home to our childhoods.它可以带我们回到童年的家 This moment is powerful because the audience is right beside Ego,这个片段很震撼 因为观众就在伊格尔身边 watching our adulthoods melt away.我们都回到了童年 In a flash, we’re all children again,一瞬间 我们又变成了孩子 sitting in a caring kitchen with a home-cooked meal.坐在温馨的厨房里 享受着家里的饭菜 “To say that both the meal and its maker have challenged“说这道菜和这个厨师 my preconceptions about fine cooking is a gross understatement.改变了我对烹饪艺术的先入之见还远远不够” They have rocked me to my core.”“他们彻底把我震撼到了” All of these Pixar moments encourage us to see that WE,所有这些皮克斯时刻使我们明白 might be holding onto false ideas about ourselves,我们都有可能对自己 对爱人 或对世界 our loves ones, or our world.持有错误的认知 Maybe we feel like we’ll always be alone or也许我们觉得自己会孤独终老 that workplace traditions can’t change,或者职场传统不会改变 that our economy can only depend on one energy source或者我们的经济发展只能依赖于一种能源 or that winning means everything.又或者成功意味着一切 “You must try things that may not work.“你必须去尝试那些看起来不可能的事 And you must not let anyone define your limits也不要因为出生低微 because of where you come from.就让他人限制了你的发展机会 Your only limit is your soul.”唯一的阻碍是你的内心” These deeply entrenched lies prevent us from growing.这些根深蒂固的谎言阻碍了我们的成长 Embracing the full TRUTH is the only way to escape a narrow point of view只有拥抱真理才能摆脱狭隘观念 and live our fullest lives.不负韶华 “There are times when a critic truly risks something“有时我们也要冒着很大的风险 and that is in the discovery and defense of the new.”去发掘并捍卫新的事物” On the other side of the Pixar moment,皮克斯时刻还代表着 it’s like the mental and spiritual equivalent of the Happy Ever After –人们内心期盼的大团圆结局 the experience of true freedom.也就是获得真正的自由 Life is exhilarating, full of possibility –生活是令人兴奋的 一切皆有可能 an adventure into infinity and beyond.生活也是一场突破极限的冒险 What’s your favorite Pixar moment?你最喜欢的皮克斯时刻是什么呢? Let us know in the comments below.在下面的评论区中告诉我们吧 And if you’re here for the first time,如果你第一次观看我们的视频 be sure to like and subscribe to our channel.记得点赞并订阅我们的频道 Thanks for watching.感谢观看 Hi, guys. Susannah and Debra here.大家好 我们是Susannah和Debra If you like what we do and want to help us grow,如果你喜欢我们的视频 想帮我们成长 one of the best things you can do is support us on Patreon.在Patreon上支持我们就是对我们最大的帮助 We make special polls for our patrons我们做了个特别的投票 where you can vote for a video you want us to make.你可以为你想看的视频投票 And right now we’re giving away three free months of Mubi,我们现在会赠送三个月免费的Mubi a really fantastic movie streaming service.它是一个非常出色的电影流媒体服务 Love Mubi.我爱Mubi We’re such fans.我们可是铁粉 And we’re giving that away to a limited number of patrons,我们也送给一些赞助者 so be one of the first to go check it out.赶快去看看吧 The link is right here.链接在这里
  • 2021-08-24如何杀死迪士尼反派?NT极客出品 杀手课程 Hi everyone, I’m Moose, and like many of you,大家好 我是Moose 和很多人一样 I was raised on the Disney animated canon.我也是看迪士尼动画经典长大的 That actually might be why可能正因如此 I’m hosting such a messed-up show like this,我才会来主持这个破节目 Some of these so-called kids’ movies有些所谓的儿童电影 are utterly terrifying.其实是相当恐怖的 And what did Santa bring you, honey?圣诞老人送了你什么?亲爱的 Over the last 80 years,在过去80年里 Disney has given us some of迪士尼塑造了一些 the most vicious villains in film history.电影史上最邪恶的反派 And despite their wholesome reputation,尽管迪士尼画风一向阳光健康 the House of Mouse is happy to dispatch their evil antagonists《妙妙探》仍然乐于用可怕的方式 in extremely gruesome ways.来除掉他们邪恶的反派 So, let’s get down to business.所以 让我们进入正题吧 Light your torch, mount your horse,点亮火把 翻身上马 and be prepared.做好准备 Because this is How to Kill Disney Villains.因为我要教你怎么杀死迪士尼反派 NT极客出品 杀手课程 怎样杀死迪士尼反派 No keyblade required.不需要键刃 A lot has changed since Walt Disney first founded his studio.沃尔特·迪斯尼创立工作室以后社会变化很大 The space race, the Internet,太空竞赛 互联网相继出现 #Take a spin now you’re in with the techno set##跟着电子音乐转起来# #you’re going surfing on the Internet!##一起去网上冲浪吧# the switch from cels to computer animation,从逐帧动画演变成了电脑动画 but throughout it all, one constant has remained:但在动画发展史中 有一点始终不变 Gravity#地心引力# 第一章 地心引力 《巴黎圣母院》 As the first full-length animated feature,作为第一部动画长篇 Disney’s ‘ Snow White’ literally changed the face of cinema.迪士尼的《白雪公主》是电影史上的转折点 And right from the start,而且从一开始 the studio had no qualms about killing off their villains.迪士尼工作室就对反派毫不留情 No!!!不!!! Whatever.随便吧 From Hilda, the violent and vain queen who poisons our porcelain-skinned heroine,恶毒虚荣的皇后毒害了瓷娃娃般的女主后 is cornered on a cliff by seven pissed-off dwarfs被七个愤怒的小矮人和他们的动物朋友们 and all their furry friends.围困在了悬崖上 She tries to crush them with a massive boulder,她想用一块大石头碾碎他们 but a bolt of lightning destroys the ground beneath,但一道闪电击碎了她脚下的岩石 sending her plummeting to a painful death.让她跌入痛苦的死亡深渊 And if the fall doesn’t kill her,就算她没摔死 that big ass rock sure will.也会被石头砸死 It’s over, thwack!去死吧!砰! The wicked queen’s demise坏皇后的死亡 was the first of many fatal falls in the Disney canon,开创了迪士尼动画史上摔落死法的先河 like Ratigan getting his bell rung,像后来的瑞根摇响铃铛后摔落 Ah!!啊!! or Muntz missing the leap back to his blimp.还有蒙兹没能跳回他的飞艇一样 It’s become a beloved cliche in its own right,摔死这个套路已经被迪士尼用滥了 which may be why they occasionally switch up the actual cause of death.所以 他们有时会用别的手段来杀人 Maleficent’s final form gets a sword through the chest玛琳菲森最后的龙形态被一把剑刺穿胸膛 before she falls into a field of flaming bramble,然后跌入了一片火红的荆棘 while Mother Gothel in ‘ Tangled’turns to dust《魔发奇缘》里的葛索妈妈在落地前 before she hits terra firma.就灰飞烟灭 And in ‘ Tarzan,在《泰山》中 ’ Clayton meets the most gruesome end in the history of the G-rating,克莱顿遭遇了大众级电影史上最可怕死法 when his neck is unceremoniously snapped by a vine.他的脖子被一根藤蔓粗暴地绞断了 Now, it’s not always necessary to go the extra mile,其实要杀人的话也不是一定要做到这份上 sometimes a deadly drop will do.有时一个致命摔就够了 The Gaston’s death《美女与野兽》中 in ‘ Beauty and the Beast’ is the perfect example of this trope,加斯顿的死就是个经典例子 when he falls from the castle,他从城堡上掉下来时 we know he’s in for a world of hurt,我们就知道他会受重伤 but we don’t need to actually see his splattered corpse to understand我们不必亲眼看到他带血的尸体 that he’s gotten his just deserts,就知道他是死路一条了 at least in the final film.至少电影最终版是这样的 Originally, there was a deleted scene depicted Gaston surviving his fall,在早期一个被删除的场景中 only to be torn apart by a pack of wolves加斯顿没被摔死 from earlier in the movie.但被一群狼撕得粉碎 Still alive! I’m still alive! Ah!!还活着!我还活着!啊! They’d recycle the idea three years later in The Lion King.三年后的《狮子王》中又使用了这个方法 Because few deaths are more satisfying than being eaten by animals.因为没什么死法比被动物吃掉更令人满足了 第二章 被动物吃掉 ‘The Lion King’ was loosely based on ‘Hamlet,’《狮子王》的剧情有参考《哈姆雷特》 where Scar’s Shakespearean counterpart Claudius dies刀疤的原型是莎士比亚戏剧中的克劳迪斯 when the titular Danish prince stabs him and forces him to drink poison,他被丹麦王子刺伤 并被强迫服毒而死 In the Disney version,在迪士尼的版本中 however, Simba’s uncle gets thrown from Pride Rock,辛巴的叔叔刀疤被从荣耀石上扔出 and torn to shreds by a pack of snarling hyenas一群咆哮的鬃狗曾得知刀疤想害死它们 who overheard him trying to throw them under the bus.于是把刀疤撕成了碎片 No! I didn’t mean it! No! No!不 我不是故意的!不!不! Natural selection is a harsh and unforgiving mistress, after all,毕竟 自然选择是残酷无情的 and with so many Disney films focused on animals,迪士尼有这么多关于动物的电影 it’s inevitable that a bunch of baddies will wind up as kibble.必然有一群坏蛋最终会沦为食物 There’s Hopper from ‘A Bug’s Life,’ the tiny terror,像《虫虫危机》里的霍珀 一个小恶棍 who gets torn asunder by the cutest CGI chickees ever,被一群激萌的三维动画小鸡撕成了碎片 Much like Yzma is eventually eaten by baby falcons又比如《变身国王2:高刚外传》中 in Kronk’s New Groove.伊斯玛最终被小猎鹰吃掉 See, I told ya so!看 我早说过吧! Though she’s alive and well for the TV show,不过她在电视剧中还活得好好的 so that one might not be canon,所以这段估计是假的 then again, neither may the TV show.不过话说回来 电视剧也可能是假的 Now, Disney usually has no problem showing nature take its course,一般来说 迪士尼都会尊重自然法则 but for some reason,但由于某些原因 they can’t close the deal when it comes to crocodiles.当牵涉到鳄鱼时 变数就比较大了 ‘The Rescuers’ leaves Madame Medusa clinging for her life《救难小英雄》中美杜莎夫人命悬一线 as two killer crocodiles lie in wait,因为下面守着两条鳄鱼 while their version of ‘ Peter Pan’ends with Hook safely而在他们出品的《彼得潘》的结尾 outside the bowels of the beast that took his hand.虎克船长被鳄鱼抓住手后 却成功逃脱了 Captain! Captain!船长!船长! But if you want to be absolutely,但是如果你想要绝对的 100% certain that your enemy 100%确保你的敌人 isn’t going to return for the terrible direct-to-video sequel, 不会再回来拍什么续集了 you can make it happen with some Magma.那你可以用上岩浆 第三章 岩浆 In ‘The Hunchback of Notre Dame,’在《钟楼怪人》中 the mad priest Frollo meets his grisly demise when a gargoyle gives way,副主教弗洛罗因为石像鬼的断裂而惨死 and drops him into a pool of molten copper,他掉进一池熔化的铜水里 symbolic of the ‘ Hellfire’ he crooned about象征着他所吟唱的“地狱之火” in Disney’s most sinister song.迪士尼电影中最邪恶的歌 This burning desire…#这燃烧的欲望# Many a Disney villain has perished许多迪士尼的反派角色 in a plume of liquid lava,都消失在熔岩之中 even when they’re seemingly immortal.即使他们看似是永生的 Like the nigh-omnipotent genie version of Jafar.比如近乎全能的精灵贾法尔 He may wield phenomenal cosmic power.他可以运用非凡的宇宙力量 Itty bitty living space.我的迷你小窝 But when Lago turns baby face,但是最后艾格弃暗投明 and kicks his lamp into a moat of magma,把神灯踢进了注满岩浆的壕沟 the diabolical djinn explodes in a burst of embarrassingly bad animation.恶魔灯神在一阵五毛特效的爆炸中死掉了 Nooo!!!不!!! The king of candy, aka Turbo,糖果之王 又名特伯 meets a slightly more spectacular demise.遭遇的死法更加壮观 When Wreck-It Ralph drops a metric ton of Mentos破坏王拉尔夫把一吨曼妥思 into the dormant Diet Coke volcano,投进了休眠的健怡可乐火山里 creating an irresistible geyser造成了势不可挡的火山喷发 that lures Turbo and the Cy-Bugs to their doom.引诱特伯和邪虫走向末日 Go into the light!!!拥抱光明吧!啊!! Now, in The Nightmare Before Christmas,在《圣诞夜惊魂》中 it’s debatable whether Oogie Boogie is killed by lava.关于巫奇·布基是否死在了岩浆里仍有很多争议 Since when his plot unravels,因为他的阴谋败露后 he ’s revealed to be a composite人们发现他的身体 being made of thousands of wicked worms and bugs.是由无数邪恶的蠕虫和臭虫组成的 A fair share of these infernal insects do drip into the lava below,有相当一部分坏虫的确是掉进了岩浆里 but jolly old Saint Nick strikes the killing blow但真正杀死他的 when he finally puts his foot down.是老圣尼克下定决心的一脚 Our first three entries make up我们前面说的三种方法 the lion’s share of Disney deaths.涵盖了迪士尼大多数死亡 Some of the gnarliest kills simply can’t be categorized,但有些极端扭曲的死法压根就无法归类 so let’s finish up with a Lightning Round.所以 最后还有抢答环节 第四章 抢答环节 After all, what the hell do you call it毕竟 对于恶棍被拖入地狱这事 when your villain is dragged to hell?也没个正式的叫法 Like when Hades takes a swim in the River Styx,就像哈迪斯在冥河游泳 I had feeling a little flushed!!!我有点小激动! Or Dr. Facilier’s debt to the voodoo spirits,又或是霍博士对巫毒神灵的亏欠 sends him to an early grave.让他早早地进了坟墓 And while we’re talking about spells and sorcery,说起咒语和巫术的话 I don’t know what’s going on in ‘The Black Cauldron’.我不知道《黑神锅传奇》里具体发生了啥 Watching the Horned King have the flesh agonizingly ripped from his bones,看着魔王的血肉被活生生从骨头上剥离 I can understand why ‘ The Care Bears Movie’ beat it at the box office.我就能想通为啥《爱心熊》的票房更高了 Come and visit Care-a-Lot, and join Tenderheart.#快来参观爱心屋 和温柔熊一起玩吧# I’m Tenderheart, a Care Bear.我叫温柔熊 一只爱心小熊 YES!!! YES!耶!!!好! The film was controversial for its dark themes and unflinching violence.这电影因其暗黑主题和放肆的暴力场面备受争议 But some of the kills that Disney’s depicted不过迪士尼把有些死亡场面 make it look like, well, ‘The Care Bears Movie.’画风做得像《爱心熊》这种电影一样 Take ‘ Oliver and Company’, a charming update of a Dickensian classic比如由狄更斯经典改编的《奥丽华历险记》 with cute little dogs and cats.角色是可爱的小猫小狗 Billy Joel, and an evil loan shark比利·乔和一个放高利贷的坏人 crashing a convertible full-speed into an oncoming subway train.全速开着敞篷车撞上一辆迎面而来的地铁 It’s almost as gruesome这段的可怕程度 as Syndrome getting sucked into a jet propellor.快赶上超劲先生被吸进喷气机螺旋桨了 But no less deadly than, say,同样致命的还有 Shan Yu riding a rocket straight to hell,单于骑着火箭冲向地狱 or Mor’du and Ernesto being crushed beneath massive weights.还有魔都和欧内斯特被压得粉身碎骨 《寻梦环游记》 《勇敢传说》 Now our final Disney death, and one of my all-time favorites,我最后要讲的迪士尼之死 由《小美人鱼》呈现 comes courtesy of ‘The Little Mermaid.’这是我最喜欢的电影之一 The film that launched the Disney Renaissance in 19891989年 这部电影开创了迪士尼的复兴 also introduced us to one of their most wonderfully weird villains in Ursula,同时登场的还有最经典独特的反派之一 乌苏拉 the sinister sea witch modelled after the legendary drag queen Divine.以传说中变装皇后迪瓦恩为原型的邪恶海巫婆 Ursula cons Triton into giving up his trident,乌苏拉使计让海神交出了他的三叉戟 which she then uses to grow to massive size又利用三叉戟把自己变成了巨人 and seize control over the seas.夺取了海洋的控制权 Her tempest resurfaces a wrecked ship,她引起的风暴使一艘沉船浮出水面 allowing Prince Eric to plunge the broken bow right through her sternum.埃里克王子抓住机会 用破船的船头冲破她的胸骨 You know, there’s been a lot of concern lately要知道 最近有很多人担心 that with Disney’s recent purchase of FOX,迪士尼收购福克斯以后 they’re going to sugar-coat and kiddify会把我们喜欢的一些特色血腥场面 some of our most beloved and bloody franchises.用更适合儿童的方式美化掉 But judging from the brutal, bonecrushing ways they’ve bopped off their iconic baddies,但考虑到迪士尼从前对付反派的各种残忍手段 I wouldn’t be too concerned.我们似乎没啥好操心的 How about ya wash that down with a couple of cool ones?请你们喝点冰水缓解一下如何? 死亡辣酱 Thanks for watching every one.感谢大家的收看 What is your favorite Disney villain’s death?你最喜欢哪个迪士尼反派的死法? Is it Clayton’s horrifying drop,是克莱顿惊悚的一摔 Syndrome’s sudden cape mishap,超劲先生的斗篷事故 or Scar getting scarfed by hyenas.又或是刀疤被鬃狗吞掉 Leave a comment, let us know.在评论区留言吧 And as always, please subscribe NowThis Nerd for more episodes of SLASH COURSE.想看更多杀手课程 赶快订阅《NT极客》
  • 2021-08-24皮克斯动画的进化史Woody: There’s no place like home!胡迪:金窝银窝不如自己的狗窝! This is a dog in 1995’s Toy Story.这是1995年《玩具总动员》中的一只狗 It was a staggering achievement at the time,这只狗虽然在当时是一个惊人之作 but the detail in the fur just isn’t there.但现在看来 其毛皮细节处理还没到位 Compare that to this cat in Toy Story 4,跟《玩具总动员4》中的这只猫相比 the difference is clear.区别一目了然 But getting from that dog to this cat required a lot of innovation in between.但从那只狗过渡到这只猫需要大量的创新 How Pixar’s animation has evolved over time皮克斯的动画制作如何进化 Pixar forever changed animation in 1995 with Toy Story,皮克斯自1995年《玩具总动员》始变换了动画制作技术 the first full-length computer-animated movie.这是第一部全程用计算机制作动画的电影 With Toy Story 4, it’s proving that it’s far from done changing the game.《玩具总动员4》表明 皮克斯远不止于改变了制作技术 Between 1995 and 2019,1995年至2019年之间 Pixar has made 21 feature-length films,皮克斯已经制作了21部长篇电影 four of those being Toy Story movies.其中四部是《玩具总动员》系列电影 When Toy Story was first released in 1995,1995年 《玩具总动员》首次上映时 nobody had ever seen anything like it before.没有人之前看过这样的电影 And in order to bring it to life,为了让电影生动有趣 the animators have to do some unbelievable things.动画师们必须做一些不可思议的事情 And one of the most important factors in how Pixar makes its magic happen involves rendering.让皮克斯得以施展魔法的一个最重要的因素就是着色 Rendering saves the computer image to the perfect finished image or video frame,着色使电脑图像变为已完美完工的图像或视频的一帧 with lighting and motion effects.同时带有灯光和动态效果 In order to render Toy Story,为了给《玩具总动员》着色 the animators had 117 computers running 24 hours a day.动画师们要让117台电脑一天24小时运行 Each individual frame can take from 45 minutes to 30 hours to render, 给每一帧着色需要45分钟到30小时不等 depending on how complex.这取决于着色的复杂程度 There were a total of 114,240 frames to render.而《玩具总动员》共有114240帧要着色 Throughout the movie,整部《玩具总动员》中 there are over 77 minutes of animation spread across 1,561 shots.共有1561个镜头 需要超过77分钟的制作时间 They had to invent a new software, called Renderman,动画师们不得不开发了新软件Renderman to handle all this footage.来处理所有的连续镜头 Woody: These guys are professionals.胡迪:这些家伙都是专业人士 They’re the best!他们是最棒的! Narrator: According to Producer Jonas Rivera, if they had to today, 制片人乔纳斯·里维拉说现如今 they could render Toy Story faster than you could watch the entire movie. 如果有必要 动画师们的着色速度可以比大家看完整部电影还快 However, the complexity of Toy Story 4 means it can take 60 to 160 hours to render one frame.然而 《玩具总动员4》的复杂性意味着一帧需要着色60到160个小时 And there were a lot of limitations.而且 还有着许多的限制 For instance, at this time, Pixar hadn’t quite figured out how to fully animate human characters.比如说 皮克斯这时还不懂怎样完成人类动画角色的制作 Animating clothes was time-consuming,制作动画人物的服装很耗时 so you’ll notice a lot of shots of hands and feet in the movie from a toy’s perspective. 所以 你会注意到电影里有大量从玩具视角看的手脚镜头 Additionally, they would sometimes choose not to fully light characters,此外 有时也会选择只给角色们制作部分的灯光 so you wouldn’t see any missing details, more on lighting characters,所以你看不见任何没做好的细节 而是更多地注意到有灯光的角色 and fully clothing them later.然后 在后面再给这些角色做好衣服 When Toy Story 2 came around in 1999,1999年 《玩具总动员2》上映时 they’d had some time to work out some of the kinks,他们花时间解决了一些问题 especially with 1998’s A Bug’s Life in between the two movies.尤其是两部电影之间——1998年的《虫子的生活》存在的问题 In this sequel, 在这一续集中 you’ll be able to see more visible, fully formed human characters.你能看到更加清晰的 完全成型的人类角色 One key thing the animators were starting to figure out here to help them tackle humans: smoothness,此时 动画师们开始想到帮助处理人类角色的一个关键点:光滑性 which they got practice on in A Bug’s Life.并且在《虫子的生活》中进行了实践 Here you can see the improvement in just a few years.可以看到 他们短短几年就有了进步 They wouldn’t be ready to have a fully human cast until 2004’s The Incredibles.直到2004年的《超人特工队》 皮克斯才有了一个完整的演员阵容 But before mastering humans,但是 皮克斯掌握制作人类角色的技术之前 they stepped into fantasy with 2001’s Monsters, Inc.曾因为2001年的 《怪物公司》而陷入幻想 Worker: Ooh, they’re so awesome!工人:哦 他们太棒了! Narrator: In Monsters Inc. , they tackled fur head-on.在《怪物公司》中 他们迎难而上处理了动物毛皮问题 Fur is hard to animate,毛皮的动画制作很难 whether computer-generated or stop-motion.无论采取计算机生成动画技术 还是定格动画技术 This is because it involves animating thousands, 这是因为其涉及对动画角色身上的成千上万 or even millions of individual parts of a character’s body.甚至上百万个独立部分进行动画制作 In the VFX world, characters are designed, then rigged by adding points of movement,在视觉特效的世界里 先设计角色 再给其添加动作轨迹 which can then be manually manipulated.这些可以手动操作 While limbs are typically manual based on the scene,虽然 肢体动画通常是随场景而手动制作 something like fur needed to be automated,但像毛皮之类的动画制作则需要自动化 since it would take a lot more time to move each individual strand of hair.因为让每一丝头发移动就需要大把时间 A Bug’s Life, which centers on insects, didn’t have a need for fur.以昆虫为中心的《虫子的生活》无需制作皮毛动画 In there is a dog in Toy Story, 那儿是《玩具总动员》里的一只狗 but as you’ll notice, it’s pretty smooth, as is the dog in Toy Story 2.但是你会注意到它跟《玩具总动员2》里的狗一样 非常平滑 Sully, who’s tall and covered head to toe in fur,而萨利很高 而且从头到脚满是皮毛 has over 1 million hairs on his body.全身有一百万多根毛 But it’s not just how it looks.但不只是看起来的这样 The animators had to get all of those hairs to move.动画师必须让那些毛发都动起来 To do this, they created a program called Simulation,为此 动画师们开发了一个程序——“模拟” in which certain elements that are too difficult to handy-animate are motion-simulated. 某些难以手工制作的元素就采用运动模拟技术 See, instead of looking at Sully’s hair as a whole,动画师们不是将萨利的毛发看作一个整体 they looked at each strand as a distinct particle.而是把每根毛发都看作不同的微粒 They had to look at every kind of force that would act on those particles, 他们必须研究每一种会作用于那些微粒的力量 and thus how each one would move in reaction to them.以及每种力量如何与微粒发生反应 So, if you want to work at Pixar,所以你如果想在皮克斯工作 you might need to know physics.可能还需要了解物理知识 They also found real-world fur on different animals, like llamas, for reference.他们还找现实世界中不同动物的皮毛作为参考 比如美洲驼 By doing this, they found the best way如此 他们找到了最好的方法 to make hair look and move realistically is to clump it together.可以让毛发的外观和运动更真实——让其扎堆成团 Monsters, Inc. laid down the technical foundation,《怪物公司》奠定了皮克斯的技术基础 which allowed Pixar to have over 250 furry monsters in the sequel Monsters University.于是 在续集《怪兽大学》中有250多只毛茸茸的怪兽 The tools at their disposal also helped them create fur on animals seen in Ratatouille and Up,手边的工具也帮助制作了 《料理鼠王》和《飞屋环游记》的动物皮毛 the moss on the submarine from this scene in Finding Nemo,还有《海底总动员》这一幕中潜艇上的苔藓 and the grass on the ground in Cars.以及《汽车总动员》中地上的草 Pixar’s next movie, 2003’s Finding Nemo, also required the animators to create things皮克斯2003年的又一部电影《海底总动员》也要求动画师们去创造 they’d never put on screen before.以前从未搬上过荧幕的东西 This time, they had to figure out这一次 动画师们必须搞清楚 how to make a movie set largely underwater.怎样制作以水下为主要背景的电影 Once again, science and real-world references would help them out.科学知识和现实参考会再一次帮助他们 Just as they did with hair,同处理毛发一样 they broke down the water as much as they could to get it right.他们尽量对水分解 至刚好的程度 According to director of photography Danielle Feinberg,据摄影导演丹尼尔·范伯格所说 they started with a real-life underwater clip,他们从一个真实的水下片段开始 re-created it in the computer,在电脑中重新创建这个片段 and broke it down to find the most essential elements,然后分解该片段 找到最重要的某些元素 the biggest one: light, and how it travels through water.最大的因素是光线 以及光线在水中传播的方式 The light they created affected both the visibility他们制作的光线既影响电影中光怪陆离的水下世界的可见度 and the color of the film’s elaborate underwater world.又影响水下世界的色彩 And while they need science to animate certain elements of a movie,他们虽然需要用科学知识来制作某些电影元素 there are times where they can use artistic license.但有时也可以加入艺术创新 For instance, they made the water in Sydney Harbour look fairly green to fit the mood of the scene.比如说 他们让悉尼港的水呈淡绿色以契合该场景的气氛 In reality, it would not be that color.现实中 悉尼港的水可不是那种颜色 Once the environment was created, they had to populate the world.只要创造了环境 动画师们就得使之活跃起来 Perhaps the most challenging sea creature they had to create was Hank,最具挑战性的海洋生物角色可能就是汉克了 the octopus from the 2016 sequel, Finding Dory.2016年续集《多莉去哪了》的一只章鱼 It was literally impossible for them to put Hank in Nemo,确实是不可能把汉克加入《海底总动员》 and you can see why.你知道其中的原因 Creating just one scene with him supposedly took about two years.据说创造一个有汉克的场景大概需要两年 Character supervisor Jeremy Talbot explained角色监制杰里米·塔尔博特解释说 that they had to break down an octopus动画师们必须先分解章鱼 and piece it back together again,再一点一点拼凑起来 which sounds a lot like how Pixar mastered fur and water.这听起来很像皮克斯制作皮毛和水的过程 One thing they discovered was that octopus tentacles don’t bend but almost unfurl.他们发现章鱼的触手不是弯曲 而是几乎张开的 An engineer spent six months just getting the curve of one of his tentacles right,一位工程师用六个月 只把汉克一个触手的曲线处理好 and this was even before they mastered his camouflage.这还是制作汉克的颜色之前的步骤 And as Pixar got better at developing the natural world,因为皮克斯的自然世界能做得更好了 it also improved on the man-made world.其人造世界也得到了完善 By the time 2006’s Cars came around,2006年《汽车总动员》上映时 Pixar had about 1,000 times the computing power it did on Toy Story.皮克斯的算力是制作 《玩具总动员》时的1000倍 Cars gave the animators a chance to hone their skills creating metal surfaces.《汽车总动员》给机会打磨动画师们制作金属表面的技术 As they did with the water in Finding Nemo,跟处理《海底总动员》的水一样 they took time to make the light reflect off Lightning McQueen.动画师们让闪电麦昆反光 Those metal surfaces would then be rusted up and seen in 2008’s Wall-E, 然后金属表面会生锈 又出现在2008年的《机器人总动员》中 often considered one of Pixar’s most visually stunning works.该作品通常被列入皮克斯最具视觉冲击的作品名单 Then when Ratatouille rolled around in 2007,2007年《料理鼠王》上映时 Pixar combined its ability to work with fur from Monsters, Inc. and with water in Finding Nemo 皮克斯结合《怪兽公司》的毛皮制作与《海底总动员》的水制作 to display wet fur.来呈现湿的毛发 Lighting is one of the most important factors in making CG animation look real.灯光是使CG动画逼真的最重要因素之一 It takes a lot of rendering time to get it right.处理好灯光则需要大量时间去着色 And it’s not just one or two lights we’re talking about.而且不只是我们说的一两束光 This one shot alone in Ratatouille contained 230 lights.《料理鼠王》中的这一个镜头就有230束光 But that’s nothing.但是 那不算什么 Jump ahead to 2017’s Coco.看看2017年的《寻梦环游记》吧 When Miguel enters the Land of the Dead,当米格尔进入死亡之国时 he’s laying his eyes on about 8 million lights.他眼睛所到之处约有800万束光 And even with a movie as visually ambitious as this one,而即使是像《寻梦环游记》这样视觉震撼的电影 something as simple as clothes can be the biggest challenge.简单的衣服制作也可能是最大的挑战 A lot of the characters that wore clothes in “Coco” were actually skeletons.《寻梦环游记》里很多穿衣服的角色实际上是骷髅 The animators found that while simulating clothing,动画师们发现模拟服装时 the cloth would often get caught between individual bones, creating a wedgie of sorts.布料经常会卡在一根一根骨头之间而呈各种楔形 For this, it implemented a technique called continuous collision detection,为此 皮克斯采用了连续碰撞检测技术 which allowed the animators to spot the clothes getting caught,使动画师们能发现衣服卡住了 even at moments where it was difficult to notice.甚至难以察觉的时候也能发现 A year later, when the long-awaited Incredibles 2 came out,一年后 期待已久的《超人特工队2》问世 they were back to working with humans: skin, bones, and all.动画师们此时回归人类角色皮肤 骨骼等的处理 There was a 14-year gap between the two Incredibles movies.两部《超人特工队》隔了有14年 And the benefits of improved technology actually allowed them实际上 技术改进让动画师们得以 to make Jack-Jack look even cuter than he did in the first movie.让小杰克看起来比第一部可爱多了 All of these movies would eventually lead to Toy Story 4.这些电影最终都引向《玩具总动员4》 Twenty-four years after the original was released,《玩具总动员》 头版电影上映24年后 it seems like this sequel is trying to do a lot of things the original just couldn’t.这次 续集似乎尽力去做很多原版无法实现的改进 The differences couldn’t be more stark.有许多差异再明显不过了 While Toy Story used a 1.85:1 aspect ratio,《玩具总动员》使用1.85比1的长宽比 Toy Story 4 expanded to 2.39:1.而《玩具总动员4》的长宽比扩大到2.93比1 So what you saw went from this to this.所以你看到的从这个变为了这个 Now that Pixar had figured out how to put fur on one character and then hundreds more,因为皮克斯已掌握了怎样为越来越多的角色制作皮毛 it could make the animals in this movie eye-popping.所以《玩具总动员4》里的动物令人眼前一亮 Fans pointed out that a cat in a clip for the movie looked 100% real.粉丝们说有个电影片段里的猫看起来百分之百真实 Compare that with Sid’s dog in the original,如果你真想了解皮克斯的发展情况 if you really want to know how far Pixar has come.把那只猫和原版电影里希德的狗比较一下吧 Even just compare how much different it looks from the cat in Coco.甚至比较它和《寻梦环游记》里猫的差别也可以 In the same vein, creating stuffed animals covered in fur was not the challenge it once was.同样 制作填充的毛绒动物不再像以前充满挑战 And it allowed Pixar to give Ducky and Bunny starring roles.而且 皮克斯可以让小鸭子和小兔子出演主角了 In addition, rain scenes are not easy to animate.此外 雨景的动画制作也不简单 Just like with the water in Finding Nemo,就像《海底总动员》里水的动画制作 the animators did a physics-centered, frame-by-frame analysis of raindrops.动画师们逐帧对雨滴做物理分析 Luckily, they’d done enough creating rivers in The Good Dinosaur很庆幸动画师们在《好恐龙》中已经制作了许多河流 that bringing a torrential downpour to life was a little less challenging.所以让倾盆大雨的场景活灵活现挑战性小一点儿 Like with Jack-Jack in Incredibles 2,正如《超人总动员2》的小杰克 the animators use sequels as an excuse to improve upon their classics.动画师借续集改进他们的经典作品 They didn’t just give Bo Peep a new outfit.他们不仅给了波比一套新衣服 They were also able to make her look like a much more convincing doll.还让波比更像一个真的洋娃娃 Years of perfecting shiny surfaces allowed them to really bring out Bo’s porcelain skin.不断完善的发光表面制作技术使他们能做出波比的瓷器皮肤 To effectively light this material, 为了有效照亮这种材料 the director of photography referenced lighting of female characters in movies made from the 1930s through the 1960s.摄影导演参考了20世纪30-60年代的电影女性角色的灯光制作 The team also realized they couldn’t use square lights on Bo.制作团队还认识到不能给波比配方形光束 Only circular lights without sharp edges would reflect well on porcelain.只有无尖锐边缘的圆形光束才能很好地照亮瓷器皮肤 Toy Story 4 also gave Pixar a chance to do something surprising: go back to basics.《玩具总动员4》也给了皮克斯一个“回归基础”的机会 Look no further than Forky. 看看福克斯吧 Forky:I don’t belong here! 福克斯:我不属于这儿! Narrator: There are no tentacles, no fur,福克斯没有触手 没有毛皮 no shiny surfaces here, just a plastic fork.没有发光的表面 他只是一个塑料叉 But he couldn’t be more real.但是他太真实了! And Pixar isn’t slowing down anytime soon.而且 皮克斯目前也没有放慢脚步 In fact, they’re moving Onward, literally.实际上 他们正在迈步向《1/2的魔法》
  • 2021-08-24《头脑特工队》的剧本创作方法Hi, I’m Michael.嗨 我是Michael This is Lessons from the Screenplay.这是《剧本分析》频道 A popular piece of advice for writers 很多人给创作者的一条建议 is to “ write what you know. ”就是“写出你熟悉的内容” While I do think a story’s emotional authenticity虽然我认为一个故事的真实情感 comes from the storyteller’s own experience,源自于讲故事者的亲身经历 I don’t like the stagnation this phrase encourages. 但这句话太保守了 我不喜欢 Instead, I prefer: “write what you want to know.”我更倾向的是:“写出你想认识的内容” Because, in many ways,因为 在很多方面 a story is as much a journey for the person writing it故事本身对于创作者和角色来说 as it is for the characters in it.都是一次旅程 Such was the case for Pixar’s “Inside Out.”皮克斯的动画电影《头脑特工队》便是如此 It took their team a lot of introspection to arrive他们的团队是经过了深入反省后 at the emotional truth that is the core of their story.才领悟出关于情感的真相 并以此作为故事的中心 So today I want to look at the process of writing this film.今天我们来了解下这部电影的创作历程 To examine how creating some of its most powerful moments看看电影中最富有感染力的一幕幕 required the writers to explore vulnerable places within their own psychology.是创作者怎样通过探索内心的脆弱而写出的 And show how trying to answer a simple question 并且向大家展示 尝试解答一个简单的问题 can lead to the discovery of a creative premise怎样让大家想出有创意的故事背景 and an emotionally honest theme.以及情感真实流露的主题 Let’s take a look at “Inside Out.”让我们一起看看《头脑特工队》 (前方剧透) 提出正确的问题 In my previous video I talked about how character arc 我在之前的视频中有提到过 should be an expression of the story’s theme.故事的主题应该由角色弧度表达出来 But as a writer,但身为创作者 how do you find the theme you want to explore? 你要怎样找到你想探讨的主题呢? Often, it can help to think about it通常 思考一个你想要回答的问题 in the form of a question you want answered.能有所帮助 For example, the question that led to’ ”Inside Out”比如 《头脑特工队》导演 Pete Docter 注意到 came when the film’s director,他女儿发生了一些状况 Pete Docter, noticed something about his daughter.而他脑海中浮现的一个问题 成了电影的灵感 According to Meg LeFauve, who wrote”Inside Out” with Pete Docter:与 Pete Docter 共同创作剧本的 Meg LeFauve 表示: “The director, he had a daughter.“导演有个女儿 And she was so happy all the time,她总是那么快乐 and she was so joyful.那么开心 And then she turned eleven.然后她11岁了 And suddenly she was quiet and she wasn’t smiling…突然间 她就变得沉默 也不怎么笑了 And he sat at breakfast and he wondered, ‘What happened to joy?’他坐着吃早餐时心想:‘开心怎么了?’ And then he thought:接着他决定: I’m going to make a movie about that.”就用这个问题拍一部电影吧” From this question, he came up with the idea of the story这个问题让他想出了一个点子 taking place in the mind of a young girl让故事发生在一个小女孩的大脑里 and having her emotions being characters in the film.把她的情绪变成电影中的角色 But asking the question is only the beginning.但提出问题只是个开始 The theme is expressed when you answer it.主题会在回答问题的过程中显现出来 To answer the question”What happened to joy?”要回答“开心怎么了?”这个问题 they needed to figure out the protagonists’s character arc,他们需要先想出各个主角的角色弧度 which required asking even more questions.而这个过程需要他们进一步提问 We always want to answer the same questions不管我们创作的是什么电影 for any movie that we start.我们都要回答同样的问题 What does the character want?这个角色想要什么? What does the character need?这个角色需要什么? They quickly decided that Joy’s want is for Riley to be happy.他们很快就决定 Joy 是想要 Riley 开心 But figuring out her need proved more difficult.至于她需要的是什么 就更难回答了 The writers realized that pairing her up with someone创作者们意识到 让她有个搭档 would help express her need,能帮助她把需要表达出来 so they partnered Joy with Fear.于是他们就让Joy跟Fear搭档 Stop!够了! You have caused enough trouble.你惹出的麻烦已经够多了 But the lessons she learned while on the journey with Fear 但是她在和Fear一起的旅程中学到的教训 didn’t seem to answer the question.似乎回答不了这个问题 “Pete Docter, the director, says that “导演 Pete Docter 说 when he was an adolescent he was mostly afraid.他少年时期大都是在惶恐不安中度过 So he wanted to explore fear.所以 他想要探索恐惧 But his problem was但他的问题是 that when they got back up to headquarters,当他们回到总部的时候 he didn’t know what he wanted to say about fear.”关于恐惧 他不知从何说起” This is one of the many reasons the writing process is so difficult.这就是创作过程如此困难的原因之一 This question came from Pete Docter’s personal life,这个问题来源于 Pete Docter 的个人生活 so I’m sure it seemed logical to try to answer it based所以我很确定 尝试用自己在恐惧中成长的亲身经历 on his own experience growing up with fear.去回答这个问题是合情合理的 But sometimes the right answer requires uncomfortable self-reflection.但有时候想得到正确答案 就要进行痛苦的自我反省 Hi. Pete here.嗨 我是Pete I’m out walking in the woods because I’m stressed.我现在压力很大 所以就到这片树林里散散步 Realizing that the film wasn’t working,Pete Docter 认识到电影还没有成型 Pete Docter took a walk in the woods,于是就到树林里散步 allowed himself to be vulnerable, and started asking himself some questions.允许自己脆弱 然后开始问自己一些问题 I started thinking, ‘Ok, what if I lost everything,我开始想 好 如果我失去一切 what would mean something to me?’什么东西对我来说还会有意义? And like most of us, I think, the answer is relationships.我想 我的答案跟大多数人一样 就是人际关系 The people that really mean something deeply对我非常重要的人 are those that I have cried with,就是那些跟我一起哭过的人 that I’ve been pissed off at, that I’ve experienced fear with.我曾经气过的人 以及和我一起经历过恐惧的人 It’s all the aspects of emotions that bond us together.正是这方方面面的情感把我们联结在一起 And only then was he able to finally figure out 这个时候 他才终于想出了 the answer to his original question.他最初那个问题的答案 So that gives me this idea.这赋予了我一个想法 That maybe joy, as much as we all want it in our lives, 虽然大家在生活上想要快乐 is not the answer.但是快乐或许并不是答案 The answer is actually sadness.悲伤才是答案 And now that he had the answer,他得到了答案之后 Joy had a character arc and the film had a theme.Joy就有了角色弧度 电影也有了主题 As much as Joy wants everything to be happy all the time,尽管Joy想要一直快乐下去 to have healthy relationships但是要想拥有健康的人际关系 she needs to embrace sadness.她还是需要接纳悲伤 So how do you bring the audience along on this journey?那么 怎样才能把观众带上这次旅程呢? The first step is to bring them into Joy’s point of view.第一步是让他们置身于Joy的视角 In order for the audience to要想引导观众 discover sadness the same way that Joy does,像Joy那样体会到悲伤 they have to be able to empathize with Joy’s beliefs就必须让他们在故事一开始 in the beginning to the story.体会Joy的想法 But there were two obstacles in the way of that.但是过程中有两个障碍 The first was that Joy was a jerk.第一个是 Joy 是个混蛋 So weak. No way we’re going to that! 太弱了 我们不可能那么做 Joy…Joy…… We should spit in that girl’s face.我们应该向那女生的脸吐口水 Whoa!什么?! They originally made Joy angry and entitled,起初 他们给了 Joy 容易生气且予取予求的性格 hoping that by giving her this flaw希望这个性格弱点 there would be opportunities for humor.能够带来些许幽默 But she pretty much just came off as unlikeable.但这让她看起来非常不讨人喜欢 Francis. That rat-faced creep.Francis 那个鼠脸怪胎 We ought to break his legs. 我们应该打断他的腿 Whoa! Yikes!哇哦!天啊! But even after they toned that down,虽然他们后来把她柔化了 they realized the audience might not immediately identify with Joy但他们意识到 观众可能仍不会马上认同Joy and her aversion to Sadness.以及她对Sadness的排斥 To solve this, they made Sadness as annoying as possible.为解决这个问题 他们尽量把Sadness的讨人厌放大 Sadness! You nearly touched a core memory!Sadness!你差点碰了一个核心记忆! And when you touch them, we can’t change them back!你碰了 我们就再也没法把它变回来了! I keep making mistakes like that.我一直犯那样的错 SADNESS:I’m awful… JOY: Nooo, you’re not.SADNESS:我真坏…… JOY:不 你不坏 SADNESS:…and annoying. JOY: Well… uh…SADNESS:……而且很烦人 JOY:那个……嗯…… You know what? you can’t focus on what’s going wrong.你不能只把注意力集中在出错的地方 There’s always a way to turn things around,总有弥补的方法 to find the fun!重新找到乐趣! And Joy’s need to fix thingsJoy解决问题的需要 was a solution to another obstacle they ran into,正是他们遇到的另一个障碍的解决方法 which is that incessantly happy characters are annoying.这个障碍是 一直都开心着的角色往往讨人厌 “You have to make it very clear你必须让大家清楚 that Joy’s chipperness is her solution to her vulnerability.”活泼开朗是Joy应对脆弱的一种方式 “If you don’t have the vulnerability behind the’ha-ha-ha’如果你在哈哈哈的笑声背后并不脆弱 you’re just annoyed at her.你就只会讨厌她 The writers included several moments where写稿人在电影中穿插了一些 we see Joy deal with doubt and worryJoy用强颜欢笑来应对 by forcing happiness back into the situation.怀疑和忧虑的情节 Dad just left us.爸爸离开我们了 Oh, he doesn’t love us anymore.哦 他不爱我们了 That’s sad.真伤心 I should drive, right?应该由我开车 对吧? Joy?Joy? SADNESS:What are you doing? JOY:Uh, just uh, gimme one second…SADNESS:你在干嘛? JOY:额 额 给我一秒钟…… You know what I’ve realized?你知道我刚想到什么了吗? Riley hasn’t had lunch!Riley还没吃午饭呢! By showing that Joy’s incessant happiness was a defense mechanism,通过表现出 Joy 无止尽的开心状态是防御机制 and by making Sadness as annoying as possible,并且极力渲染Sadness的讨人嫌之处 the Pixar writers allowed the audience to empathize with Joy皮克斯创作团队让观众同情Joy and see things from her point of view.了解她看事情的角度 With this connection made,随着这种连接的建立 the story could finally begin to explore the importance of sadness.故事终于可以开始探究悲伤的重要性了 “So you’ve set the belief system, 你把信念体系建立起来了 and then act two is literally psychologically saying to them,然后第二幕就是 从心理角度向他们表达 ‘Is that true?’‘这是真的吗?’ You’re trying to break their psychology,你尝试击破他们的心理状态 you’re trying to bring something to consciousness.”让某个想法浮现在意识之中” Act one clearly establishes第一幕清楚地证明了 that Joy believes being happy all the timeJoy 认为 一直快乐下去 is the right way to live.才是生活的正确方式 So in act two the writers start to poke holes in that belief system.所以在第二幕中 创作者开始在这个信仰体系中戳洞 One of the clearest examples is 一个最清楚的例子就是 when they’re trying to get to the train station,他们试着赶去火车站 but Bing Bong’s rocket is pushed into the memory dump.但Bing Bong的火箭却被推进了记忆废墟 Riley can’t be done with me.Riley不可能已经忘了我 Here, both Sadness and Joy have the same objective.在这里 Sadness和Joy的目标都是一样的 They want Bing Bong to lead them to the train station.他们要Bing Bong带他们去火车站 But by having them use different tactics,但是通过他们采用的不同策略 the story demonstrates to the audience and the characters这个故事向观众和角色 the lesson that needs to be learned.展示了他们有待学习的一个教训 Joy impatiently tries to make Bing Bong feel betterJoy不耐烦地敦促 Bing Bong振作起来 the only way she knows how—但她用的是她所知道的唯一方法: by forcing him to be happy强迫他开心起来 Hey, who’s ticklish, huh?嘿 谁怕痒啊? Here comes the tickle monster…痒痒大怪物来了…… No response.没有反应 Hey! Bing Bong, look at this!嘿!Bing Bong 看这里! Dohoioih!朵伊哦伊哦伊! She makes a silly face. Nothing. 她扮了个鬼脸 但还是没反应 Oh, here’s a fun game!哦 来玩个有趣的游戏吧! You point to the train station and we all go there!你指指火车站 我们就可以一起去啦! Won’t that be fun?那不是很有趣吗? Come on, let’s go to the train station.来吧 一起去火车站吧! When this tactic doesn’t work, 这种方法不奏效 Sadness sits next to Bing Bong于是Sadness坐在了Bing Bong旁边 and patiently empathizes with him.耐心地安抚着他 I’m sorry they took your rocket.他们拿走了你的火箭 我很抱歉 They took something that you loved.他们带走了你心爱的东西 It’s gone, forever.永远也找不回来了 Sadness, don’t make him feel worse.Sadness 别让他更难受 Sorry.对不起 It’s all I had left of Riley.这是Riley留给我的最后一样东西 I bet you and Riley had great adventures.你和Riley一定有过很多精彩的冒险 We were best friends.我们曾经是最好的朋友 Yeah.是啊 It’s sad.真伤心 Bing Bong puts his head on Sadness’ shoulder and CRIES.Bing Bong把头靠在Sadness的肩膀上哭着 Sadness keeps her arm around him until he’s done.Sadness继续抱着他 直到他哭完为止 I’m okay now.我感觉好多了 C’mon, the train station is this way.来吧 火车站在这边 This shows Joy that she might be looking这让 Joy 了解到 她对生命的看法 at life the wrong way—可能一直是错误的 that happiness isn’t always the answer.快乐并不总是答案 This idea is pretty unconventional, especially for a kid’s movie.这个想法非常突破传统 尤其是对一部儿童电影来说 As a culture we tend to constantly seek happiness and joy,在一种鼓励寻求开心和乐趣 and look at sadness as something to be avoided at all costs.尽可能远离悲伤的文化氛围中 But this moment rings very true to me,这种时刻对我来说十分真实 and I think it’s because it’s actually based on experiences from Meg LeFauve’s life.我认为 这是因为这段情节其实源自于Meg LeFauve的亲身体验 “My son went to what’s called an attachment preschool,“我儿子去了所谓的依恋学前班 where they’re not teaching ABCs, 123s, they’re teaching emotional intelligence.在那里他们教的不是ABC 123 而是情商 Let your kid have whatever emotion they’re having right now.让你的孩子感受当下的情绪 And just meet them where they are.然后接纳此时此刻的他们 And then you would just keep narrating it,你只需要继续叙述 and they would talk, and you’d narrate it.”不管他们说什么 你只管叙述出来 “And then they’d pass through and toddle off这样 他们的情绪就会消散 而他们就会走掉 and be happy or angry whatever next emotion is coming up.”然后经历其他情绪 比如开心或者愤怒 But Joy doesn’t fully learn the lesson here,但是Joy还没有完全学会这个教训 as later in the film she chooses to leave Sadness behind在电影的后半段 她找到了回总部的路 when she finds a way back to headquarters.却选择丢下Sadness I’m sorry.我很抱歉 Riley needs to be happy.Riley需要开心起来 Joy?Joy? She’s still refusing to let go of her old beliefs,她拒绝放弃她的旧观念 and this selfish choice is met with catastrophe.但这一自私的选择导致了一场灾难 Ah!啊! Joy!Joy! Joy realizes that despite her best intentions,Joy意识到 尽管她的本意是好的 she’s found herself at her lowest point yet.但是她却陷入到了低谷 It’s the same point that Pete Docter found himself in当 Pete Docter 意识到电影进展不顺利的时候 when he realized the film wasn’t working.他陷入的也是同一个低谷 He thought he wanted to talk about fear,他以为自己想要讨论的是恐惧 but it wasn’t what he needed to talk about.但他需要讨论的不是这个 And for both he and the character of Joy,他和Joy的角色 it took arriving at this dark, painful place 必须陷入到这个既黑暗又痛苦的地方 for them to realize the truth.才能领悟到真相 Mom and Dad…爸爸妈妈 The team…伙伴们…… They came to help because of Sadness.他们是因为Sadness才赶来帮忙的 Joy, as much as we all want it虽然我们在生活上都想快乐 in our lives, is not the answer.但是快乐并不是最终答案 The answer is actually sadness.悲伤才是答案 Joy’s character arc mimics Pete Docter’s.Joy的角色弧度与Pete Docter的类似 And her realization is powerful and authentic 她的觉醒很真实 也富有感染力 largely because it was inspired by the director’s主要是因为这段情节的灵感 own discovery of the importance of sadness.是从导演发现悲伤的重要性的过程中获取的 The mysterious thing about telling stories is讲故事的奇妙之处在于 that it ends up changing you.它最终会改变你 As a storyteller, the research that you do,作为讲故事的人 你做过的研究 the sort of, almost meditation-like focus你像做冥想一样 on a theme that you’re dealing with,对你在当下构思的主题上的专注 It ends up seeping into your own system最终会渗透到你自己的心灵中 and changing the way you look at the world.改变你看待世界的方式 Knowing the mechanics of storytelling is important.熟悉讲故事的手法 非常重要 But it’s also important to remember但同样重要的是 that the ultimate goal of telling a story讲故事的最终目的 is to share something.是为了分享某个想法 And I believe the way to ensure that your story is generous并且我相信 要想保证你的故事有内涵 and not simply a vanity project而非虚有其表 is to for it to be emotionally authentic故事就必须在情感上真实可信 —which is rarely an easy thing to do.这件事通常是不容易做到的 As Meg LeFauve says…就像Meg LeFauve说的 “There should probably be, as a writer—now,“作为创作者 I’m just talking about myself, personally…其实应该是对我个人而言 probably a point in the process when you’re writing that当你在进行创作 描绘某个场景时 to write this scene,总会有某一个时间点 you feel like you’re going to throw up because it’s so emotional.你会觉得场景非常触动人心 以至于让你想吐 It’s so digging into something in your psychology.它触动了你心灵深处的某些情感 In other words,换句话说 you’re asking the audience to have a cathartic experience…你在要求观众经历一次情绪宣泄的体验 odds are you probably need to have one when you’re writing.”你在创作过程中大概也需要一次这样的体验 This is something the team at Pixar fully embraced,皮克斯团队全盘接受了这一点 and the result is a film that deeply resonated with many people,结果是这部电影让许多人产生了很深的共鸣 both kids and adults.小孩和大人都不例外 The writers allowed themselves to be vulnerable,创作者允许自己变得脆弱 went on a journey into their minds,在他们的脑海中开始了一段旅程 and returned with an emotional truth to share with us.在回来时找到情感的真相 并且与我们分享 The power of the film 这部电影的力量 didn’t come from a clinical, outside-in approach,并非出自毫无人情味的 由外向内的创作手法 but rather, from the inside-out.而是通过由内向外的角度来呈现 Hey guys, Michael here.大家好 我是Michael I hope you enjoyed this video which was sponsored by Squarespace.希望你喜欢这个由Squarespace赞助的视频 Today, with their support, I’m creating an email list.今天 有了他们的支持 我正在列一份邮件清单 Some of you have mentioned有人提到 that you’re not always notified when I release a new video.当我更新视频时 你们不一定会收到提醒 Now, you can go to my website, sign-up,现在 只要访问和登录我的网站 and never miss another upload.你就再也不会错过新视频了 The link is in the description below.链接就在下方的简介中 If you’re thinking of starting a website,如果你们想建一个新网站 Squarespace is the place to do it.来 Squarespace 这里就对了 It’s super simple to design the site you want,设计你想要的网页非常简单 and they have a ton of features to give you exactly the functionality you need.网站上有很多你想要的功能 And you can start a free trial by going to squarespace.com/LFTS,只要访问squarespace.com/LFTS 你就能享有免费试用期 where you’ll also get 10% off your first purchase.首次购买 还能享有10%的折扣 As always, I want to say a big thank you to all of my patrons on Patreon.就像往常一样 我想由衷的感谢我在Patreon上的赞助人 Without you guys, this channel would not be possible.没有你们 就没有这个频道 So thank you!因此谢谢你们 If you want to support this channel on Patreon如果你想在Patreon上支持这个频道 you can by clicking on the link below.点击下方的链接就可以了 Thanks for watching.感谢收看
  • 2021-08-24《桃色血案》电影解析This is why I think”Anatomy of A Murder”为什么我认为《桃色血案》 is the best courtroom drama ever made. 是有史以来最好的法庭剧 First, the case.首先 案件本身 Before the movie begins, 在故事开始前 Lieutenant Frederick Manion弗雷德里克·梅森中尉 shot and killed innkeeper Barney Quill.枪杀了旅馆老板邦尼·奎尔 One hour after Manion’s wife, Laura, 一小时前 梅森的妻子 劳拉 arrives home bruised 带着淤青回家 saying Quill raped and beat her in the woods.她说奎尔在树林里强奸并殴打了她 The District Attorney is going to 地方检察官准备 prosecute Manion for first degree murder以一级谋杀罪起诉梅森 So Manion hires Paul Biegler to defend him所以梅森请律师保罗·比格勒为他辩护 Second, the complications.第二 案件复杂性 In a normal courtroom drama在一般的法庭剧中 You’d be encouraged to root观众被煽动 for the protagonist’s client to win全力支持主角取胜 for some kind of justice to prevail. 以彰显正义总能战胜一切 But director Otto Preminger does everything he can但导演奥托·普雷明格尽其所能 to remove justice from the equation.来打破这种定式 The case itself is ambiguous.案件本身扑朔迷离 Clearly it was a revenge killing 很明显这是一场仇杀 But revenge is no justification for murder.但复仇不能算成杀人的正当理由 Will the jury or the audience be sympathetic enough陪审团和观众会因同情凶手 to go along with the claim of temporary insanity?而接受他因情绪失控而杀人的说法吗? “… the unwritten law on my side”“……道义是站在我这边的” “The unwritten law is a myth, Lieutenant”“道义只是一个神话 中尉” Preminger challenges that sympathy普雷明格通过塑造梅森令人厌恶 冷酷的形象 by making Manion generally unlikable, even cool来抵制人们对他的同情心 The rape itself is never shown.影片没有展现强奸过程 The murder victim and alleged rapist is never introduced.也没有介绍本案的受害者和所谓的强奸犯 And Preminger adds doubt by making Laura flirty并且普雷明格通过塑造劳拉的风流形象 and clearly unhappy in her marriage.以及对婚姻的明显不满来增加疑点 What’s more, it’s made very obviously that另外 很明显的是 Biegler is not interested in the case for it’s moral content,比格勒对案件的道德内涵不感兴趣 but for the legal challenge that it represents.而更在乎此案对法律制度的挑战 That keeps us from identifying too strongly 这也使我们不能完全认同 with the great Jamie Steward.伟大的詹姆斯·斯图尔特 “What you need is a legal peg “你需要一个合法的理由” so that the jury can hang up there something on your behalf“让陪审团能站在你这一边” What’s your legally excuse,lieutenant?“你的合法理由是什么呢 中尉?” So what’s the payoff of all these work?这些设定有何作用呢? Of designing a case that’s messy,通过设计一个一团糟的案子 a defendant who’s unsympathetic,一个让人毫不同情的被告 a lawyer who’s in it only for the challenge.和一个只在乎输赢的律师 What happens when justice is removed?如果不考虑正义 会发生什么? What are you left with?还剩下什么呢? “But if you’re not telling me to cop out”“但如果你不想要我认罪” “what are you telling me to do?”“你想让我干什么?” “I’m not telling you to do anything.我不需要你做任何事 I just want you to understand the letter of the law.”我只想你明白法律的明文规定 That’s it, the law,没错 法律 that’s what makes “Anatomy of a Murder” so special and unique.是它让《桃色血案》如此特殊且独一无二 The movie carefully was designed to make the law visible.这部电影的巧妙设计使法律可视化 And what does the law look like?那法律应该是什么样 Well, it looks a lot like…narrative.它看起来很像……叙事 “What the defense is trying to do被告方努力想做的 is introduce some sensational material是想拿一些煽动人心的东西 for the purposes of obscuring the real issues.”来掩盖真正的问题 “Your Honor, how can the jury accurately estimate 法官大人 陪审团不能准确的判断 the testimony being given here法庭上的证词 unless they first know the reason behind this whole trial?”除非他们事先知道整个审判背后的原因 Each lawyer is trying to carve out a story from the evidence.每位律师都尽力从证据中塑造出个故事 The prosecution wants the jury to see the murder检方希望陪审团关注谋杀 and the defense wants the jury to see the rape.而被告方希望陪审团关注强奸 The prosecution wants the audience to see the act,检方希望观众关注行为结果 the defense wants the audience to see the motive.被告方希望观众关注行为动机 And in their efforts to place each fact在他们努力将每一个事实穿插进 in their desired context.他们预期的框架下时 The importance of words语言的重要性 becomes more and more and more apparent. 显得越来越突出 “Mr.Paguette,the attorney for the people asked you帕戈特先生 公诉律师问你 if Miss Manion was tight梅森小姐是不是有点醉 and you said that she was high.你说她喝高了 Speaking as a bartender, what’s the distinction between the two?”作为一个酒保 你认为两者有什么区别呢 “I don’t think I understand.”我没听懂 “Well, when we say a person’s tight,好吧 当我们说一个人醉了 we usually mean that我们一般是指 they’re a little stupid with a drink isn’t that so?”当他们喝完酒后有些迷糊 对吧 “I guess that’s about it, yes.”我觉得是这样 没错 “And if they’re high, they’re gay and enjoying themselves.”如果喝高了 他们会很快乐且沉醉其中” “Yes.”是的 “In other words Mr.Manion was happy.换句话说 梅森小姐乐在其中 -What now is there anything wrong with being happy in thunderbay Inn?” -“No.”-那么说在雷鸣湾酒馆很开心没什么错吧? -没有 The prosecution attempts to检方企图把 paint a picture of Laura Manion as promiscuous.劳拉·梅森塑造成一个浪荡的女人 But Biegler drills down into the vocabulary但比格勒咬文嚼字 to show that suggestion from a different linguistic point of view从另一个语言角度做出暗示 “What would you call a man with an insatiable penchant for women?”你会怎样称呼一个对女性疯狂痴迷的男人 Earlier in the trial Biegler made the same witness审判之初 比格勒让同一个证人 describe Barney Quill描述邦尼·奎尔 by cycling through synonyms until he reached the word通过替换同义词的方式逼他说出 “Wolf?”色狼? “Sure,I heared that,to slipped my mind.”是的 我听过 我刚想起来” Once Mrs.Manion’s panties become relevant to the trial当梅森女士的一条内裤成为了相关证据时 the judge asks the lawyers if they know an alternate term,法官问律师能不能换个替代词 because of the juvenile affect that word 因考虑到它在法庭上使用 is having on the courtroom. 对少年的影响不好 [Laughters][笑声] “There isn’t anything comic about a pair of panties,一只内裤没啥好笑的 which figure in the violent death of one man它是关乎一个男人的死亡 and the possible incarceration of another.”和另一个男人是否面临监禁的重要线索 Watching from this unique perspective, 从这个独特的角度看 this movie about a murder trial transforms into 这部关于谋杀案审判的电影变成了 a granular study about the construction of stories.对于叙述结构的细致研究 How language itself, how every word语言本身 每个词语 is loaded with history. 是如何承载着历史 And when you choose a word,当你选择了一个词 you’re choosing its history too.你也选择了它所承载的历史 All the stories that go with it.所有故事都围绕于此 Preminger deliberately guides us into this place, 普雷明格故意引导我们看到这一点 understanding I think that, 是想要我们理解 the courtroom is a zone 法庭正好是一个 where all these mechanics of narrative play out可以呈现上述叙述结构的场合 and that if you could just remove that sense of justice,而且如果你将正义感除去 those mechanics would become clear in a singular way.那些叙述结构就会变得清晰明了 Now listen it’s a cross-examination of a muder case. 现在是对一起谋杀案的交叉质询 It’s not a high school debate!可不是什么高中辩论 What are you and Dance trying to,你和丹瑟想干什么 railroad this soldier into a clink?草率的把这个士兵送进大牢? “Anatomy of a Murder” zooms in to show how story《桃色血案》突出展示了 is latent into language, intonation, and gesture.语言 语调和手势如何与叙事融合 And it zooms out to show how story并从整体展示叙述过程是如何 is embedded in a fundamental part of穿插进最基本的 the practice of law. 法庭辩论中 It makes sense that the thing这就讲得通 which essentially locks in the victory for Biegler最终让比格勒赢得胜利的 isn’t some new piece of evidence不是什么新的证据 but a moment in which his opponent’s story而是在那一刻他对手的供述 is revealed to be unworkable.站不住脚了 “Ms.Plant,are you Barney Quill’s mistress?”普朗特女士 你是邦尼·奎尔的情人吗? “No.No I was not.”不 我不是 “You know it’s common knowledge in Thunderbay you were living with Quill.”在雷鸣湾大家都知道你和奎尔住一起 “It’s not true.Barney Quill was…”不对 邦尼·奎尔是…… “Was What? Ms. Pilant.”是什么?普特康女士 “Barney Quill was what, Ms.Pilant?”邦尼·奎尔是你的谁?普特康女士 “Barney Quill was my father.”邦尼·奎尔是我的父亲 When verdict was read, 当裁定被宣读后 there was no close-up on the defendent没有给被告特写镜头 who is found innocent even know he killed someone.即便他杀了人却也被判无罪 Or on his wife,他妻子也没有特写 may or may not have wanted him to be put away. 不论她是否企图陷害丈夫 This is not that kind of movie.这不是那种电影 There are plenty out like that.那种电影有很多 Some of them are fantastic.其中一些非常棒 But Otto Premingers’s “Anatomy of a Murder” is但奥托·普雷明格导演的《桃色血案》 the puriest kind of courtroom drama.是最纯粹的法庭电影 Because its focus is actually the drama of a courtroom.因为其核心是展现法庭的戏剧冲突 How can the jury disregard what is already heard?陪审团怎么能忽略他们已经知道的东西 They can’t,lieutanent.他们不能 中尉 They can’t.他们不能 Everybody, thank you so much for watching谢谢大家观看 This is definitely in my top 5 favorite movie of all time这绝对是我最喜欢的五部电影之一 And Jamie Steward is my favorite actor ever.詹姆斯·斯图尔特也是我最喜欢的演员 So I really enjoy making this 我很喜欢这期视频 and I hope you guys enjoy watching it 也希望你们能喜欢 This episode was brought to you by SQUARESPACE本期视频由Squarespace呈现 If you want to make a website 如果你想做一个网站 and you want to be a really easy processer想成为一个轻松的制作人 SQUARESPACE has some beautiful award winning designers’ templates to choose fromSquarespace有精美的获奖设计模板可以选择 And makes that’s process so simple这使制作过程变得简单 It’s got 24-hour customer service 他还提供24小时客户服务 No upgrades,nothing to install,no purchase ever不用更新 不用安装 不用购买 And picking your domain name is super easy too选择你的域名也非常简单 You can start your free trial at SQUARESPACE.com你可以在Squarespace网站免费体验 And if you use the offered code 如果你使用提供的代码 You can support this channel and get 10% off your first purchase.支持这个频道 第一次够买可以打九折 Thanks guys! I will see you next time.谢谢大家!我们下次再见
  • 2021-08-24《一天》影评TYT network presentsTYT网络出品 “When we were at university, I had a crush on you.”“上大学时 我就爱上了你” “I felt the same.”“我也有同样的感觉” “The problem is I fancy pretty much everyone.”“问题是我对很多人都有这种感觉” “It’s like I’ve just got out of prison all the time.”“我就像刚出狱一样 每次都这样” “It’s a real problem.”“这是一大问题” Christy: Hi, welcome to What the Flick. It’s a really busy day.Christy:大家好 欢迎收看《什么电影?!》 这真是忙碌的一天啊 Now we’re gonna talk about One Day,我们来谈谈电影《一天》 which is also a busy day cause it keeps happening over and over again.这一天 每年都要度过 故也是忙碌的 I’m Christy. That’s Ben.我是Christy 他是Ben This is Alonso Duralde all day.这是Alonso Duralde And in the corner silence is Matt Atchity,在那边不说话的是Matt Atchity he hasn’t seen the movie but he’s gonna heckle,他虽然没看过这部电影 但会向我们提问 Matt: Exactly.Matt:没错 Christy: which is probably more fun than the movie itself. Alonso: Keep it so.Christy: 或许 这比电影本身更有趣 Alonso: 那就这样吧 So go ahead, Ben, take it away.开始吧 Ben 把它拿走 Jim Sturgess and Anne Hathaway,吉姆·斯特吉斯和安妮·海瑟薇 they meet one day, July 15th while they’re in college.在大学期间相遇 这一天是7月15号 C: 1988. B: That’s right.Christy: 1988年 Ben: 没错 And then the story unfolds for what seems like the next 173.好像是在接下来的173年中 故事展开了 B: That’s my … M: So they keep repeating the same day over and over again like the…Ben: 那是我的…… Matt: 一遍遍的 他们重复着每年的同一天 像…… No, they check in on them every year不 每年他们都会见面 A: Year after year, C: on the same day,Alonso: 年复一年 Christy: 在同一天 B: Year after year. A: after year after year…Ben: 年复一年 Alonso: 年复一年复一年 Anyway, so he is Dexter, we meet Dexter,无论怎样 我们先来谈谈德克斯特 and that’s Jim Sturgess, he is uh,他由吉姆·斯特吉斯扮演 这个人…… an insufferable prick, who no one would like ever under any circumstance.令人难以忍受 不招人喜欢 A: Cause he is, cause he is a TV personality. B: Right.Alonso: 因为 因为他是一个电视名人 Ben: 没错 Which means he is a wrapped asshole.也就是说 他是个戴着面具 恼人的家伙 ha, he is low so no one would like him,他很轻浮 没人喜欢他 B: let alone Emma, that’s Anne Hathaway, C: uh-huh.Ben: 更不用说艾玛 也就是安妮·海瑟薇 Christy: 哦哦 who were supposed to believe is unattractive for a while,我们应该相信 有一段时间 他们没有爱上对方 come on.继续 Anyway, so they’re sort of a maddening, meandering relationship,总之 他们的关系曲曲折折 令人抓狂 is relieved, I think only a little bit by a tremendous amount of grief.关系发生转变的契机 或许是男主过于悲痛 So, you know, at least it’s fun, here is One Day.不过 这部电影至少挺有意思 这里是《一天》影评 [From the moment they met][从他们相遇的那刻开始] “You gatecrashed my birthday party, called me Julie,“你闯入我的生日聚会 叫我朱莉 and spilled red wine down my top.”还把红葡萄酒洒在了我的上衣上” “Ouch.”“啊哦” [Emma and Dexter][艾玛和德克斯特] [were destined to be…][注定会成为……] “…I’m not good at this.” “Maybe we could just be friends.”“……我不擅长这个” “或许我们可以只做朋友” [friends?][朋友?] “It means ‘a perfect union of opposites’.” “It means ‘wear some socks’.”“它(太极)的意思是‘完美结合的统一体’” “它的意思是‘该穿袜子了’” “I’m a disaster.” “…everyone’s lost at 25.”“我就是个不幸的人” “……每个人在25岁时都会迷茫” “You’re not.…TV producer.”“但你并没有迷茫……你是个电视节目制作人” “Welcome to the Late Night Lock In.”“欢迎收看《深夜锁定》” “Group sex Tuesdays and Fridays.” “Yeah, but you know, I’m crying on the inside.”“你周二和周五还可以花天酒地” “没错 但你知道 其实我也很痛苦” “I just called…to let you know that you are the best friend I’ve ever had.”“我打电话来……就是想告诉你 你是我有过的最好的朋友” “Dexter?” “You’re amazing, and famous.”“德克斯特?” “你真了不起 而且出名” “I’m gonna be one of those inspirational teachers.”“我将成为一位励志的好老师” “Those who can, do, and those who can’t, teach.”“有能力的人 就干一番大事 没有能力的 就跑去教书” “And those who can teach say, go to hell.”“教书的人就说 见鬼去吧” “I love you, Dexter, I just don’t like you any more.”“我爱你 德克斯特 我只是不再喜欢你了” [Based on the #1 International Bestseller][根据排名第一的国际畅销书改编] “You’re getting married.” “Yeah.”-“你要结婚了” -“对” [From the Acclaimed Director of”An Education”][由一位广受赞誉的“教育家”导演执导] “I missed you, Dex.”“我想你 德克斯” “I screwed up my career…I screwed up my friendships.”“我搞砸了我的工作 也搞砸了我的友谊” “That’s not true.”“事实并非如此” [Anne Hathaway][安妮·海瑟薇] [Jim Sturgess][吉姆·斯特吉斯] “I need to speak to someone, not someone, you.”“我想找个人说说话 不是别人 必须是你” [twenty years][二十年] “She made you decent, and then in return, you made her so happy.”“她让你成为体面的人 作为回报 你让她变得幸福” [two people][两人] [one day][一天] Ok, so do you get it? So it’s the same day over and over,发现没 这部电影重复着每年的同一天(7月15日) and things happen.事情就在这一天发生 C: And repose just wait with many breath for many things together. A: Not, not that many things happen really.Christy:电影的其它时间 只是无聊的等待许多事情同时发生 Alonso:不 实际上并没有那么多事情发生 But they do, they crammed in so much stuff,他们硬生生的把许多事情添了进去 and there isn’t the emotional groundwork laid for it to matter to us.两人并没有情感基础来为这些事情做铺垫 而这却很重要 No, who, who are these people is the question this movie never answers.他们是谁 这部电影也没给出答案 Who are they, I mean, apparently in the book which I havn’t read,至于他们是谁 显然 那本我没读过的书里有答案 there is lots of interior monologues,书中有大量的内心独白 there is lots of things that kind of give you the,大量的信息通过独白的形式给出 the background material to make you give the tiniest crap有了背景材料的说明 就能清楚的知道 about these people and what happens to them.人物及发生在人物身上的事 But, you don’t know who they are in this movie,但仍不知道的是 这部电影里他们是谁 you don’t care if they get together or not, it’s dismal.可悲的是 你并不关心他们是否在一起了 A: And Anne Hathaway, worst British accent since Keanu Reeves and Bram Stoker’s Dracula.Alonso:而且安妮·海瑟薇 是继基努·里维斯主演的《吸血僵尸惊情四百年》之后 英式口音最差的 C: It is very inconsistent, it’s true. A: Woof!Christy:这虽然很矛盾 但也是事实 Alonso:哦! M: Wait, what uh, what… B: I just realize what uh,Matt:等等 什么…… Ben:我刚想到 额 How to make this movie worse in It’s, with, uh, interior monologues.把这部电影变得更差的 正是内心独白 A: No, you can do that in a book, I don’t want see that in a movie, C: Suppose this book is great.Alonso: 对 书中可以有大量内心独白 但对电影而言 这却很令人反感 Christy: 设想这本书写得很好 but just some kind of character backup.但这只是刻画人物形象的辅助手段 M: I have to jump in and correct the ones on the worst British accent of all timeMatt:我甚至想跳进电影里 去纠正演员蹩脚的英式口音的 is Kevin Costner and Robin Hood Prince.是凯文·科斯特纳和他主演的《侠盗王子罗宾汉》 A: Well, that he didn’t do end it all though,不过 他并没有把它把一切搞砸 that’s, that’s a sin of omission.这也是一种过失吧 M: What can I say? A: But supposing the book is great.Matt: 我能说什么呢 Alonso:但前提是假设这本书写的很好 C: I have a lot of… A: This is a sin of commission.Christy: 我有很多…… Alonso: 这也是一种过失吧 I have very intelligent friends, I do have some,我有非常聪明的朋友 我确实有一些朋友 who say the book is really good.说这本书很棒 They read the book and they’re like,他们读过这本书 并且很喜欢它 “Oh, what a bomber, the book is great.”“哇 令人震惊 这本书很棒” Look, they must make sense to me, right? B: Yeah, well, I… A: It was a book club fav apparently yeah, I, but I…对我来说 这些评论肯定是有道理的 对吧? Ben: 对 但我…… Alonso: 显然 这只是原作读者的评价 但是我…… No, I’m sure obviously an interior monologues in a book would work.不 很明显 可以确定的是 对一本书来说 内心独白很重要 A: Yes. B: I thought there were just no, I thought there were some development,Alonso: 没错 Ben: 所以并不是(内心独白的问题) 是电影需要改进 some groundwork laid with Anne Hathaway.一些基于安妮·海瑟薇的情感(需要改进) And I thought, I thought she was fine.我认为 她表现还行 Um, but there is, I thought really none with her.呃 但 这或许与她无关 I mean, she really is sort of insufferable, bored through most of the movies.我是说 大多数电影里 她真的让人无法忍受 让人觉得很无聊 You would never ever ever be friends.男女主绝不会成为朋友 Anyone with any sort of degree of quality to their lifes,一个人 对自己的生活品质没有高要求 any sort of decision-making that we would trust不善于决策 我坚信 we never be friends with this guy in a billion years.我永远不会和他成为朋友 And then, there are moments when he is fine,可有些时候 他又还不错 but it’s either one or the other, there is no complication to have both,上面只是分开谈每种情况 但一个人 很可能同时具有这两面 B: whatsoever. A: You would have to choose your friends for their looksBen: 无论怎么样 Alonso: 你如果凭借长相来选择朋友 to keep this guy around,或许会和他(男主)成为朋友 because otherwise you would cut him off, you know.否则的话 你绝不会与他交朋友 你懂的 Yeah, that story, he just, that character is not written with any degree of complexity at all.从多个角度来看 故事中 他这个角色一点也不复杂 And they gave him a coke problem, which is also shorthand for he must be a shallow prick.他是个瘾君子 这导致他必定是一个肤浅的混蛋 Like besides being on television, he also has a coke problem, that’s how they…平时他也有些用药成瘾 他们就是因此(而难有进展)…… And movie’s where they, where somebody has to become famous,借助电影 他们变得有名气 that they just feels like just a sort of lazy shorthand,这让他们逐渐感到有点怠倦 and they do it for both characters.他们为彼此做了许多 They both become famous at some point.某种意义上 他们都出名了 Cause she then later becomes this popular novelist since like, oh, man.因为 后来她成为了一位受欢迎的小说家 噢 天呐 The only thing this movie has to offer is the parade of horrible 90s fashions,这部电影唯一的成功之处 是展示了九十年代的时尚服装 and the pop songs you wish you’d forgotten.和那个时代里你希望已经忘记的流行音乐 Although I did like her Audrey Hepburn phase on July 15 2003,虽然我确实喜欢她在2003年7月15号这一阶段的奥黛丽·赫本造型 she is very fetching in her little dress on her pixie cut.她穿着小裙子 配上精灵般的发型 显得特别迷人 Yeah, it’s another, it’s like we already had Princess Diaries and Devil Wears Prada.对 另一方面 这个电影就像之前她演的《公主日记》和《穿普拉达的女王》一样 Once again another movie that tries to convince us这些电影 让我们再一次相信 that Anne Hathaway is just the ugliest dog that ever walked the face of the earth.安妮·海瑟薇只是一只世界上的最丑的狗 Let it go.先别管这些了 They’ll just try to flubdub so hard,他们只会尽力哗众取宠 A: it’s like, I don’t know, just, there is Anne Hathaway just, B: that she burnt.Alonso: 它就像 我不知道怎么说 安妮·海瑟薇只是 Ben: 她燃烧了自己 dying to come out, yeah, that’s ridiculous.最终走向死亡 这真是太荒唐了 And I thought she was fine in this,我觉得她还不错 I, except mean, she is, there are, I like Jim Sturgess,客观上 她就是这种人 我喜欢的是吉姆·斯特吉斯 there’s obviously something they…很显然 有些事他们…… C: Is there… A: they’re appealing for performance,Christy: 这里…… Alonso: 他们渴望表演 but they, the script is not giving them anything to work with.但剧本限制了他们展现自己 It’s not fair to judge anybody by this.用这部电影 无法公正的评价他们 We should mention the director of this,应当提一下 这部电影的导演 is Lone Scherfig. B: Yeah.是罗勒·莎菲 Ben: 没错 Was a Danish director who did An Education a few years ago,几年前 这位丹麦导演塑造了一个优秀的教育家形象 which was excellent, which was so freaking good.那个角色非常成功 And had a much better script by Nick Hornby.那部电影也有尼克·霍恩比写的(比《一天》)更好的剧本 But also L has the clothes though, here the sort of, some of the production values here.但罗勒·莎菲服装上占优势 服装对电影来说也是很重要的 C: It does have that going for it. A: Yeah, I know.Christy: 这部电影服装上占优势 Alonso: 嗯 我知道 C: But there’s just no script, yeah. A: No.Christy: 它只是没有好的剧本而已 Alonso: 没错 C: Tracing numbers? B: Yeah, it was painful.Christy: 评分是多少呢 Ben: 呃 很惨淡 What do you have, uh, Matt we don’t talk to.Matt 还没说呢 评分是多少 C: I can’t remember. A: Don’t know, I…Christy: 我不记得了 Alonso: 不知道 我…… C: It’s down the other page. B: Down the other page.Christy: 在另外一页 Ben: 在另一页 My, my number is important, I give it a zero.我的分数很重要 我给0分 Oh, I didn’t see it.噢 因为我还没看(这部电影) I did give it a 3.7 just again like cause我给3.7分 原因像上面所说 I think it looks pretty great and the clothes.我认为它服装很好 Yeah, I gave it a 2.2 for hairstyles,因为发型不错 我给2.2分 and that’s all that.这就是我们所有的评分 Yeah, wow, I come in as the alone man here,呀 只有我还没评分了啊 I gave it a 2.1.我给2.1分 Nothing I, nothing I hate more than a movie that is,没有什么比一部非常慢节奏的电影 painfully painfully slow and dull, then,更令我讨厌了 then tries to solve that problem by also being really sad.然后就试着通过把故事变得悲伤 来解决所有的问题 Yeah, that’s a cheap, cheap way to kind of make the audience of all them.这确实是个吸引观众的简单方法 B: Yeah. A: The whole passing of time thing,Ben:没错 Alonso:只是随着时间的流逝 It just makes you feel like, “Oh, god,你会对它感到失望 天呐 What, uh, another, how many more years until this movie is over?”啊 你知道在这部电影里过了多少年吗? literally, you know.你知道的 这个意思 B: Yeah, It’s so. C: So don’t, don’t see it.Ben:对 确实 Christy:所以千万不要看这部电影 So where are we in Tomato and on one day?那我们的分数在《烂番茄》上的排多少 Anyway, first of all, we get, we come out to 2.7.不管怎样 首先 我们给出了2.7的评分 Ok, ok.行 行 Yeah, where is it, Matt?嗳 Matt 分数多少 Uh, 28.嗯 2.8 C: Yeah, there you go. B: Wow, we are rolling on it.Christy:给你 Ben:哇 我们在分数上面徘徊 M: Right there.Matt:就在这里 C: Bye bye, have fun.Christy:再见 祝你开心 [Presented by the TYT Network][TYT网络出品]
  • 2021-08-24为何蜘蛛侠将告别漫威电影宇宙Peter Parker continues to have bad luck with his parents.彼得•帕克的坏运气延续到了”他的父母”身上 While his real mom and dad are long gone,在他的亲生父母去世的同时 Spider-Man’s real-world guardians Disney and Sony蜘蛛侠现实生活中的监护人迪士尼和索尼 have been disputing over how best to look after him.正在对如何安排蜘蛛侠而争论不休 The web-flinging vigilante is a member of the Marvel Cinematic Universe这个用蛛网飞行的义务警员是漫威电影宇宙中的一员 Thanks to Tom Holland-starring films这归功于汤姆•赫兰德领衔主演的电影 2017’s Spider-Man: Homecoming and 2019’s Spider-Man: Far From Home. 2017年的《蜘蛛侠:英雄归来》和2019年的《蜘蛛侠:英雄远征》 He’s also made a handful of appearances in the MCU’s ensemble movies –同时他在MCU的全部电影中多次参与 But he’s always remained the property of Sony Pictures.但他仍属于索尼影业的财产 For months now, Disney, Marvel Studios,好几个月以来 在迪士尼 漫威影业和索尼 and Sony have been in talks over how to split financial stakes致力于更新他们在2015年订下的 in the Spider-Man franchise共同托管合约时 他们正在 as they worked to update the shared custody deal蜘蛛侠经销权的问题上进行商讨 they struck in 2015.怎样去分摊收入 That landmark agreement allowed Marvel to在索尼持所有权时 have access to the Spider-Man character while这个里程碑式的协议使得漫威能够 Sony retained ownership.使用蜘蛛侠这个角色 The stand-off reportedly ended on August 20,据报道 这场冷战在八月二十日结束 when,according to Deadline, the two companies当时 根据Deadline报道 failed to reach an agreement.这两家公司并未达成一致 The inability to strike new terms in a deal,迪士尼没有办法在合约里新加一条合约 which would have seen Disney obtaining a co-financing这则合约是想让它在这份资产中 stake in the property,能够联合出资 means that Marvel Studios president Kevin Feige这意味着漫威影业总裁凯文•费奇将 will no longer produce Spider-Man films.不再制作蜘蛛侠系列电影 Furthermore.Marvel will cease any involvement此外 漫威将不再参与赫兰德即将 in the Holland-starring Spidey universe moving forward领衔主演的蜘蛛侠宇宙 – meaning that Spider-Man is swinging away from the MCU意味着蜘蛛侠正在荡出 and crawling back into Sony’s web. 漫威电影宇宙 爬回索尼的网 Deadline’s sources indicated that the talksDeadline的线人最先称 ended because of a disagreement over money. 谈不拢的最终原因还是钱 Disney is said to have requested据说迪士尼希望 在未来的蜘蛛侠电影中 a 50 percent co-financing stake in future Spider-Man films是对半开的联合出资 – of which there are reportedly two,据报道将有两部电影 anticipated to feature both actor Tom Holland,计划由演员汤姆•赫兰德主演 and Jon Watts returning in the director’s chair.乔•沃兹执导 The talks also involved Disney potentially extending that stake这次商讨也包括迪士尼希望 into other Spider-Man-adjacent films,将此延续到蜘蛛侠的衍生电影 like the growing Venom franchise.比如发展势头良好的《毒液》经销权 A 50 percent stake is a hefty increase from Marvel Studios’就漫威影业现在在蜘蛛侠系列电影 current share of the Spider-Man movie series,中的分成来看 50%的收入是一次大幅的增长 which is” five percent of first dollar gross” –之前迪士尼的分成是 先期总票房的5% or the money that a film makes during its first day out in theaters.或者影片首映那天赚的钱 Sony wanted to keep that deal intact, Disney didn’t,索尼还想按原来的合同走 但迪士尼不想 and so Disney came forward with its own proposition. 所以迪士尼提出了自己的建议 As Deadline’s Mike Fleming Jr. put it, Sony executives,正如Deadline的编辑Mike Fleming Jr. 所说 quote,” turned that offer down flat”以下为引用 索尼经理”直接拒绝了提议” – apparently not even approaching Disney with a counteroffer.很明显不允许迪士尼讨价还价 According to the report,据报道 the studio had no interest in splitting ownership over what电影制片厂并不想分割它最成功的 has become its most commercially successful franchise.商业经销商的所有权 It’s probably not a coincidence that just a day这应该不是巧合 在这场决裂发生的前一天 before this news broke, Spider-Man:蜘蛛侠:英雄远征票房超过了Skyfall Far From Home officially edged out Skyfall 成为了索尼旗下的 to become Sony’s highest-earning movie ever.最高收入电影 Kevin Feige, a big fan of Spider-Man,凯文•费奇是蜘蛛侠的死忠粉 reportedly had every intention of continuing to据报道 如果索尼和迪士尼重新商讨条款 produce movies featuring the teen hero 凯文•费奇打算继续拍摄 if Disney and Sony were able to renegotiate terms.这位青少年英雄的电影 Sony is clearly confident that the franchise has索尼自信满满认为没有了费奇 a bright future ahead without Feige和漫威影业参与制作电影 or Marvel Studios involved in producing it.前途也一片光明 In addition to the now Sony-controlled Spider-Man sequels,除了目前索尼控制的蜘蛛侠续集 the studio is confirmed to be working索尼影业也被证实拍摄由安迪•瑟金斯执导的 on a sequel to Venom directed by Andy Serkis,毒液续集 《吸血博士莫比乌斯》 a Morbius: The Living Vampire movie starring由杰瑞德•莱托担纲 Jared Leto, and a film centered on Kraven the Hunter.还有一部关于猎人克莱文的电影 According to Deadline,据Deadline报道 they’re also still working on that Black Cat/Silver Sable thing索尼也许要打造黑猫和银貂 they’ve been trying to get made forever.这都是他们一直想做的 The big question surrounding this news is how it will affect the MCU,围绕这个消息最大的问题是 which has heavily featured Spider-Man这将对MCU造成怎样的影响 in its overarching narrativeup to this point.如今MCU已经完全将蜘蛛侠作为他们的重点了 In just a handful of movies,在不多的几部电影中 Holland’s Spider-Man went from a spunky kid who played pinch hitter赫兰德的蜘蛛侠经历了从 during one tense airport battle to a universe-travelling hero一个在飞行斗殴时挺身而出的勇敢男孩 who would put his life on the line to到冒着自己的生命危险 save other people.营救他人的宇宙航行英雄 Peter Parker also developed a deeply moving dynamic with Tony Stark,彼得•帕克也与托尼•史塔克发展了一段让人深受感动的关系 serving as his protégé-on-the-rise成为史塔克的被看护者并 and standing as the closest thing to a son that Tony ever had.保持着最亲密的关系 就像他从未有过的儿子 For Marvel fans, now it looks like they’re both gone.对于漫威忠粉来说 现在这一切都消失了 It seems like Spider-Man will never again cross paths看起来蜘蛛侠将不再与其他MCU英雄 with other MCU heroes, and携手共进 而是会把他接下来的 will instead spend his next few movies cozying几部电影都贴合到索尼创造的 up to characters in Sony’s Spidey universe.蜘蛛侠宇宙中去 Check out one of our newest videos right here! Plus,在这里查看我们的最新视频 even more Looper videos about the Marvel Cinematic Universe are coming soon.更多《循环电影》关于MCU的节目即将上线 Subscribe to our YouTube channel and hit the订阅我们的YouTube频道并 bell so you don’t miss a single one.点击订阅键 以防错过信息
  • 2021-08-24听导演本人如何理解复联3中的英雄嗨 我们是罗素兄弟Hi! Russo brothers here. 我们是《复仇者联盟之无限战争》的导演We’re the directors of Avengers: Infinity War. 我们将逐个谈谈We’re here to talk about every hero 《无限战争》中的每个英雄in Avengers: Infinity War, 那我们就开始吧so let’s get started. 《复仇者联盟:无限战争》 英雄简介Every hero in Avengers: Infinity war (内含剧透)(This video contains spoilers) “托尼·史塔克是钢铁侠”Tony Stark is Iron man. 从很多方面看 他都是漫威宇宙的灵魂人物Think in a lot of ways, he is the heart and soul of the Marvel Universe. 他的能力让人神往Tony Stark’s powers are fascinating 因为这些能力来源于他的头脑because they basically come from his mind. 来源于他的科学知识与才华They come from the scientific knowledge, his brilliance, 才智与抱负his intelligence and his sort of aspirations. 从中我们能摸索到角色的成长历程It allows you to sort of track a journey in the character 看着他在运用能力的过程中and watch him evolve and sort of better himself 不断转变和完善自我through the use of these powers. 我们都喜欢这个有魅力的角色He is a fascinating character, a character we love, 因为他有明显的缺点because he’s eminently flawed, 我们喜欢这种挑战性的and we like characters that are challenging 能体现人性的角色and that express their humanity. 我觉得托尼·斯塔克就是这样的一个角色And I think Tony Stark does that as well as any of the characters. 他从一个自恋狂和酒鬼成长为英雄He started off as a narcissistic, alcoholic 我觉得正是因为这种转变and grew into a hero which I think makes him 所以使他成为漫威宇宙的代表人物 这一点要引起重视eminently relatable why he signifies what the Marvel Universe stands for 因为漫威的理念就是注重角色本身is in the notion of the character first, 他们的选择使他们成为英雄and that heroes are defined through the choices that they make. 他的能力设定在英雄里面算得上最燃的He’s one of the most exciting power sets of any of the characters. 雷神托尔是一个阿斯加德神族Thor is an Asgardian god. 是阿斯加德王位继承人He started off heir to the throne of Asgard 但他觉得自己没资格继承王位and found himself not worthy of taking on the mantle of King of the Asgardians. 我认为 他的英雄之路非常艰辛And I think he’s been on a very complicated journey 他凭借自身神力来努力证明自身价值where he struggles with his ability to feel worthy and be worthy. —他从没打倒过我—打倒过-Thor: Well, he’s never fought me.-Rocket Raccoon: Yeah, he has. —我不会再一次让他打到Thor: He’s never fought me twice. 并且一直都在生活中寻找自己的道德指南And he’s looking for a moral compass in his life. 在《无限战争》中 他的魅力在于What we love about him in the Infinity War is that 他的神力被剥离只剩下自己本身he’s been torn down to his essential parts. 对一个出身高贵的人来说And he goes on a hero’s journey, 他的英雄之路是一条逆袭之路which is a very underdog journey for someone of a stature 因为他失去了他生命中的一切because he has lost everything in his life. “灭霸!”Thanos! 从各个方面来说他都是推动剧情的主要英雄之一In a lot of ways, he is the driving heroes arc to the movie, 他与灭霸的理念针锋相对which stands in direct opposition to Thanos’s argument. 如果在电影末尾 他杀死了灭霸I would argue that had Thor chopped his head off at the end of the movie 那这部电影的主角就是托尔that the movie would belong to Thor, 可惜他不是 主角是灭霸but because he didn’t, it belongs to Thanos. 这些演员在很多电影中出演过这些漫威角色Now that these actors have played these characters over multiple movies, 克里斯·海姆斯沃斯举足轻重 他出演过《诸神的黄昏》Chris Hemsworth was very valuable, coming of Rognarok. 我们导演过这些电影Because we were executing these movies before 所以能够完整的处理好这些角色的过往we are able to fully process what had been done with the character. 在对这个电影人物独特历程的理解上Both Chris Hemsworth and Taika Waititi were really really important to us 克里斯·海姆斯沃斯和塔伊加·维迪提对我们非常重要in terms of understanding that very unique journey that that character had in that movie, 这样就可以接着前面的剧情so that we can figure out how to pick up the narrative 来开始后面的故事with where he was in his life now. 绿巨人The Hulk 他的处境很有意思He is in a very interesting place 在《无限战争》中In Infinity War, 他和班纳在谁主宰躯体上争执不下he and Banner have been at odds over who control the host body. 布鲁斯·班纳从一开始 就是《化身博士》主角的翻版Since we first met Bruce Banner, it’s a Jekyll and Hyde relationship 两个人格逐渐相互厌烦they grow at turns weary with one another. 不知道 我们之间有点问题-I don’t know. We’ve sorta been having a thing. 浩克拒绝帮助班纳Hulk resisted to help Banner, 因为他觉得班纳只是利用他去解决问题because he believes that Banner only uses the Hulk to solve problems. 浩克呢 我想他已开始考虑谁应该控制这具身体And Hulk, I think he started perceive himself as who should control the host body 因为他并不想被班纳一直呼来唤去because he doesn’t feel like Banner brings it off a lot to the table. 在《无限战争》中 班纳需要当一回英雄In Infinity War, Banner has to become the hero. 投入到和灭霸的斗争中And go to war with Thanos in the…. 他做的很棒很成功And he does sound and successful, 但最终没能打败灭霸but ultimately not at beating Thanos. 美国队长Captain America 我是史蒂夫·罗杰斯I’m Steve Rogers. 《美国队长·冬日战士》是我们执导的第一部漫威电影We enter the MCU by directing Captain America: Winter Soldier. 我们喜欢这个角色体现的人性What we love about the character is the humility of the character, 他出身草根the fact that he came from very basic roots 出于自身意志和抱负and through sort of his will and his aspiration 加上一些运气 被选入“超级士兵”项目and the sort of fortune of being chosen for the Super Soldier program. 他总能做到对自身的超越He was able to sort of make more of himself, 从不满足于本来的能力than he would have been able to otherwise. 我想正是这个特质非常受人钦佩I think that’s what people really admire about the character. 乔和我从来没真正拘泥于早期的漫画故事Joe and I never really responded to the earlier comics 那时美队只是个符号化的爱国者where he is sort of a simplistic symbol of patriotism. 我们一直乐于发掘这个角色的复杂性We were always in… interested in exploring something a little more complex with the character 以及在人性的层面理解这个角色and really understanding him on more of a human level. 这也是通过这些电影 我们和角色们的共同经历That’s I think the journey that we’ve been on with that character through several films now. 黑寡妇Black Widow 她有着从反派到英雄的独特经历Her unique distinction of being a villain who was turned into a hero 她的人设 对我们来说 她是个比较丰满的角色makes her, for us, one of the richer characters to work with. 作一名演员来说 斯嘉丽戏路变化的幅度大得令人难以置信Scarlett transfers in incredible ranges as an actress, 比如 她可以同时演绎脆弱和坚强like can embody at the same time vulnerability and toughness. 我认为这是很难做到的And I think that’s very difficult to do. 我们很幸运能通过三部电影来丰富这个角色:We’ve been fortunate enough to grow that character over three films: 《冬日战士》 《内战》以及《无限战争》The Winter Soldier, Civil War and Infinity War. 在《冬日战士》中In The Winter Soldier, 我们发现 她和美国队长的组合很吸引眼球we found some compelling about pairing her up with Captain America 因为美队是个道德标杆was he is a, sort of this paragon of morality, 而黑寡妇则身处灰色地带and she is a paragon of gray. 但他们却一起成长But they’ve grown together, 在电影中 你会发现and I think when you find them in this movie 两年里 他们都是复仇者联盟的秘密成员and they’ve been in the secretive Avengers for two years because 他们都曾被政府的罗斯探员所追捕they’ve been hunted by Ross in the government. 如今 黑寡妇 山姆·威尔逊和史蒂夫·罗杰斯之间They are like a tight-knit family now, 就像一家人一样紧密her, Sam Wilson and Steve Rogers. 一定程度上 这不容易It’s hard to all of them in a way, 对三人逃亡你很难不有所触动you can’t go on a run without it affecting you emotionally. 所以我觉得 对所有角色来说So I think all of those characters, 特别是在《无限战争》中活下来的角色specifically the ones who survive in the Infinity War, 像美队和娜塔莎 更艰难的处境在等着他们Cap and Natasha, you will see them with a much harder edge. “山姆 回来!你的翅膀烧着了”– Alright, back up Sam, you’re gonna get your wings singed. 战争机器War Machine 在《内战》中Rhodey is coming out of Civil war, 罗迪双腿瘫痪and he lost the use of his legs. 他是个军人 明白什么叫责任和牺牲He is a military man who understands duty and sacrifice. 当他接受美队 黑寡妇和猎鹰归队时The moment where he accepts Cap and Widow 这一刻是彰显罗迪性格和他自身定位的最好证明and Sam when they return, is a real testament to his character and who he is. 他明白在拯救宇宙的使命面前He understands that the priority of saving the universe 相互的分歧微不足道outweighs the priority of petty differences. 他有着高贵的品质You know, he’s a very noble character. 这使他成为”复联”中不可或缺的一员And he’s in becoming an integral part of the Avengers’ team. 奇异博士Doctor Strange 我们能抄手奇异博士的制作 确实很兴奋We were really thrilled to be able to work with Doctor Strange 首次就能在《复仇者联盟3:无限战争》中制作for the first time in Avengers: Infinity War. 关于这个角色最引人注目的是And one of the things we are most excited about with that character in this film 他与托尼·斯塔克的冲突is sort of smashing him against the character of Tony Stark. 我会毫不犹豫地让你们去死Dr.Strange: I will not hesitate to let either of you die. 我们喜欢这两个角色都有些自大的事实We like the fact that the two characters are kind of narcissistic 并且都具有领袖气质and I have an alpha energy to them, 他们相遇会引发什么 是我们所考虑的问题and we thought what would… what happens when you put them in same room together. 一个献身于他的科技思想One dedicated to his idea of science 另一个醉心于法术and one dedicated to his idea of magic. 我们得体现不同观念之间的冲突The conflict that we can result from the different points of view 以至于奇异博士在《复联:无限战争》中戏份很重so Doctor Strange played a very powerful role in Avengers: Infinity War. 我从小就收集漫画书As a kid, as comic book collector, 当时就喜欢奇异博士身上的神秘元素what I loved about Doctor Strange was his mystical element to him. —我当然不是在自言自语Dr.Strange: Certainly not I speaking to myself 他看到的东西比其他人要多He knew more than everyone else, 因为他拥有魔法感应because of his connection to magic. 奇异博士是个先知性的角色Doctor Strange is a prescient character 他能看到一个事件的四千万种未来可能性and the fact that he was able to view the events on folding 40 million times. 他看到了四千万次的失败 这对他打击很大And watching them lose 40 million times is weighing heavy on his heart 并且这能力在电影收尾时也没有救下他and doesn’t save him at the end of the movie. 我们想展现的是 无论你有多强大的能力So again we wanted to show that no matter what level of power you had, 你都无法阻挡灭霸 他才是最终胜利者Thanos is an unstoppable force and ultimately the victory is gonna be his. 蜘蛛侠Spider-Man 能和汤姆·赫兰德一起重新演绎蜘蛛侠It was a great thrill for us to be able to reintroduce this character 以及他和托尼·斯塔克的特殊关系with Tom Holland playing Spider-Man and the relationship, 我们感到很高兴the special relationship that he has with Tony Stark “孩子 你现在是“复联”的一员了”Tony Stark: Kid, you’re an Avenger now. 这种师徒关系是相当纷繁复杂的That mentor-mentee relationship is very rich and complex. 我们把蜘蛛侠设定成一个青少年And having cast the character as a real teen, 并在两个演员之间建立了相似的互动we really set up a very similar dynamic between Robert Downey Jr. 就像是电影角色的翻版and Tom Holland, that’s very reflective of the characters. 罗伯特在拍摄过程中对汤姆来说Robert was very much a mentor to Tom 真的就像导师一样through the shooting process 饰演超级英雄可不容易and it’s not easy to play a superhero. 我觉得罗伯特起了很大作用And I think Robert was very instrumental and helping Tom 他帮助汤姆找到了演蜘蛛侠的感觉find that voice in him for that character. 这能够映射电影中角色之间的关系 相当吸引人It was very charming how it was sort of reflective of the character relationship. 瓦坎达万岁!Wakanda forever! 在漫威宇宙中 黑豹有很大潜力Black Panther has tremendous potential as a character in Marvel Universe. 在《复联:无限战争》后半段 瓦坎达很重要And I think Wakanda is essential to whatever may happen post Avengers: Infinity War 无论是世界的走向to how the world may deal with, 还是复联队员们的命运and what is happen to them. 查德维克把这个角色演绎出了漫威宇宙的新高度Chadwick portrayed that character as a whole new level to Marvel Universe. 他饰演的黑豹外冷内热 充满王者气质He’s bringing it quiet and intensity and regality to that character. 瓦坎达显露出的科技实力The technology that Wakanda has is in exposal, 对集合大家奋勇向前非常重要is valuable to repairing the world to moving forward. 在《内战》中我们就很喜欢这个角色He was a character that we love working with in Civil War. 然后电影的最后大家有目共睹And you see by the end of the film, is that, you know, 他克服了分歧he rises above the fray 他所显露的 宽恕这一高贵品质and he displays forgiveness, that nobility is critical, 也是有别于其他漫威角色的一点and again something that seperates him from some of the other characters in Marvel Universe, 因为他总是如此 他因此才无可替代‘Cause that’s not always the case, that’s what makes him all unique. 卡魔拉是个很有张力的角色Gamora is an extremely strong character. 她是灭霸的女儿She is a daughter of Thanos, 是灭霸在横行宇宙征服星球中which means she was held captive by Thanos, 抓来的俘虏as Thanos was moving through the universe, conquering worlds. 灭霸一直在掠夺小孩He would collect a range of children. 对灭霸来说 卡魔拉很特别She also was very special one for him. —来 试试这个Thanos: Here, you try. 灭霸与卡魔拉的关系He had a relationship with her, 和他与其他孩子不同unlike any he had with any of his other children, 他对她的期待远远高于其他所有孩子he thought more highly of her than he thought of any of his other children. 反抗灭霸和寻找自我And it’s sort of her struggle to find her own identity 是卡魔拉的斗争and realize how to push back against Thanos, 是她个人旅程的重要部分it’s a big part of her journey. 对她妹妹星云来说也同样重要that journey had shared with her sister, Nebula. 和卡魔拉一样 星云也是灭霸的孩子Like Gamora, Nebula is a child of Thanos, 不是真正的孩子但也是被灭霸掠来的not a literal child, but she has also been collected by him. 随着星云找到解放自我And while Nebula also finds a way to finally liberate herself from 反抗灭霸的方式and oppose her father, 她也到了个人旅程的重要部分 虽比卡魔拉稍慢she comes to that, part of her journey a little more slowly than Gamora does. 并且两个角色的关系很紧张And there remains a lot of tension between the two characters, 这种气氛一直笼罩着两人的剧情线revolving around the two arcs that they have to go through. 最终 她们能够肩并肩的In the end, they end up both standing up against Thanos 奋起反抗灭霸and standing together with one another. —我是洛基 阿斯加德的王子Loki: I, Loki, prince of Asgard. 洛基是个品性复杂的神 是托尔的弟弟Loki, a god of mixture, for he’s Thor brother, 他是另一个作为反派登场的角色is another character who began his journey as a villain. 我认为 当他在《无限战争》中去暗杀灭霸And I think finally shows his true colors in Infinity War 试图将他哥哥从悲剧后果中解救出来时when he makes an attempt to murder Thanos 他才是最终显露了本色to save his own brother to tragic consequences. 幻视:我们得摧毁这块宝石Vision: We need to destroy the stone. 幻视这个角色的作用很特别Vision of course plays a very special role. 在《无限战争》中 他是唯一一个身体内And in Infinity War, he is the only character who has a infinity stone 嵌有无限原石的角色actually built into his body. 因此我们知道 他的位置在电影叙事中很特殊We knew that put him in a very special place in our story telling because of that. 他难以得到幸福 深处危险之中His sort of wellbeing and safety was at stake, 因为灭霸在追寻着原石if Thanos is going after the stone, so… 他和旺达的关系在电影中很重要His relationship with Wanda was very important to us in this film 因为他们之间的浪漫关系越发展because as their romantic relationship continues to develop, 幻视的利害关系和生命对旺达就越重要the stakes of that character and his life are… become so important to her. 幻视:“留在我身边吧”Vision: Stay. Stay with me. 电影中最悲剧的时刻之一One of the most tragic moments of the movie, 当然也是我们最喜欢的情节one of our favorite moments of the movie of course, 就是当旺达必须摧毁幻视头上的原石is when she has to take his life in order to stop Thanos from getting the stone, 来阻止灭霸拿到它的时候and by destroying the stone that’s in his head. – 是时候了- 不!Vision: It’s time.Wanda: No. 这对角色在接近这个时刻的表现And to watch those two characters approach that moment 是整个电影观看中最感人的部分之一and the way that they did, really one of the most inspiring parts of this story for us. 保罗·贝坦尼经常说Paul Bettany has always said 他认为从源动力上看he thinks about Vision as primary motivation 幻视只是在追求对人性的理解is just someone who seeking to understand humanity. 我觉得通过他最后的表现来看And I think that with that final gesture Vision 幻视最终找到了人性的答案really achieved it for humanity. 绯红女巫和黑寡妇有些像Scarlet Witch like Black Widow, 都有着复杂的经历had a complicated history. 一般有着黑历史的人If you start off as a villain, 经常会被个人利益所驱动it’s usually, you know, you motivated by self interest. 而她的魅力在于What’s so compelling about her is that 她转变成了一个乐于对其他人she has become one of the most… a character that are readily 表达爱和同情的角色to display empathy and love towards someone else. 她和幻视的爱情故事And her love story with Vision 是这部电影的基本内核was really the essential core of the film. 《无限战争》的真正悲剧在于And the real tragedy of Infinity War was 当他们的爱情不断深化的同时as they were cementing their relationship with one another, 不可抗力也随之到来this external force injected itself, 逼着她做出痛苦无比的抉择:you know, force her to make an incredibly difficult decision: 作为英雄 你能为了拯救宇宙而牺牲爱人吗?As a hero, could you kill someone you love in order to save the universe? 这也许是种双重悲剧Maybe it’s doubly tragic too, 因为她曾经痛失过她的弟弟because of her history, the character history of having lost her brother, 对我们来说这也是个悲剧桥段certainly one of the more tragic and also in some ways, 但某种程度上又是令人激动的部分you know, inspiring parts of the story for us. 山姆·威尔逊 也就是猎鹰 不像罗迪和提恰拉Sam Wilson, Falcon, unlike Rhodey and T’Challa, 他清楚个人利益要服从大局understands how to put the common good ahead of any self interest. 他是个军方的英雄 出身秘密的“猎鹰计划”He was a military hero, came out of secret program of the Falcon project. 他所谓的“超能力”来源于他的心灵His super power, quote unquote, comes from his heart 这让他有别于他人and soul that makes him distinctive. “冬兵”巴基·巴恩斯 曾是美队最好的朋友Winter Soldier, the journey that Bucky Barnes has gone on 他的故事开始于被九头蛇组织抓住from being Cap’s best friend, being captured by Hydra, 并被作为实验对象and then sort of experimented on by Hydra 而改造成了“冬兵”and turned him to the Winter Soldier. 我和乔认为 冬兵和美队的核心冲突That was the heart of the conflict of Captain America, Winter Soldier 是美队陷入了这样一种困境:for Joe and I with the idea that Cap was in a situation 他不得不和好友自相残杀where he had to fight his best friend 却又相信他好友的人格仍在and the sort of dedication to reaching that friend 并千方百计的设法唤醒它that he still believed was inside the Winter Soldier 这是本电影的灵魂所在was sort of the heart of the film for us. 我们去除了这个角色的很多黑暗面We get away with a lot of darkness in that character 因为他的意识 甚至说灵魂是被控制的because of the fact that his mind control even more soul 这和其他有黑历史的角色不同than other characters who have sort of villain in these paths, 比如绯红女巫和黑寡妇like Scarlet Witch or Black Widow. 我们可以让这个角色的黑暗面远离他This character, we can push that villain even further. 正是这些让这个角色既危险又有趣That’s part of what makes the character both dangerous and fun. 海姆达尔:众神……Heimdall: Godfathers… 让黑暗魔法最后流过我的身体……let the dark magic flow through me one last… 海姆达尔是全知全视的阿斯加德守门人Heimdall was the all-seeing and all-knowing gate keeper for Asgard, 《无限战争》开篇时为了将绿巨人at the beginning of Infinity War, sacrifices his life to 送回地球而牺牲send the Hulk to earth, 因此布鲁斯班纳博士(绿巨人)能够警告人们 他们正面临来自灭霸的威胁so that Bruce Banner can warn everyone there about the threat of Thanos. 奥科耶是女子护卫军的首领Okoye is the head of the Dora Milaje, 承当着保护瓦坎达国王黑豹的任务tasked with protecting the king of Wakanda, Black Panther. 她对待自己的工作非常严谨And she takes her job very very seriously 并在《复仇者联盟之无限战争》最终存活下来and comes to the ultimate test in Avengers: Infinity War. 伊特里:“反正最后他杀了所有人”Then he killed everyone anyway. 伊特里 矮人族 一个Eitri, the dwarf, is a very special 制造武器的特殊种族race of being to weapons’ makers 他们为阿斯加德国王服务了数千年and they have served the Asgardian Kings for many millennia. 伊特里:“国王神器”A king’s weapon. 他有工具和能力去He has skills and tools 制造武器 比如说托尔的锤子that create weapons that are… like Thor’s hammer —就像他在这部电影中表现的一样—有魔力 是的没错– like his acts in this film that to make yeah.- Magical, yeah. 比如 他可以用冰霜巨人的力量Like, he can be with the power that by frost. 所以 你能想到 他的能力让他备受尊崇so, you know, his skill set is his revered 王:“宇宙大爆炸产生了六种元素晶体…”Wong: The Big Bang sent six elemental crystals… 王是一位伟大魔法师 他劝服奇异博士Wong is great magician who compromise Dr. Strange 成为了圣地和秘术的守护者as a protector of Sanctum and the mystic arts. 他和奇异博士相互竞争 彼此陪伴He and Strange have a competitive and companion relationship. 他的特点在于And I think that’s what makes him special 比起单兵作战 他更是个好队友is that they are better as a team than they are individually. 螳螂女:“打爆你 托尼”Kick names,take ass. 螳螂女 银河护卫队中最有趣的成员之一Mantis, one of the most fun members of the Guard in the Galaxy. 她是一位新成员 她有一项非常特殊的技能She’s a newer member, she has very special skills that 使得她能在情感和精神双重层面影响他人can reach people on emotional levels and mentally. 她是复仇者联盟计划中一个核心的角色She’s a very pivotal role in our Avengers’ plan 在电影的高潮部分击倒了灭霸 虽然没有影响剧情的走向to take down Thanos in the climax of the film, things go right nonetheless. 但她确实是快乐的源泉But she certainly a source of great fun. 德拉克斯:“我已经掌握了这种能力”Drax: I’ve mastered the ability “保持站着不动 非常难以置信的事情”of standing so incredibly still “我将隐身不见”that I become invisible to the eye. 毁灭者德拉克斯 他出生在悲惨的环境中Drax The Destroyer, he’s born out of tragic circumstances. 他的家庭被灭霸屠杀His family was murdered by Thanos 作为灭霸屠杀宇宙的一部分as minions part of Thanos is calling of the universe. 在灭霸得到这些宝石之前 他会接二连三地前往任何星球Prior to obtain the stones, Thanos would go planet by planet, 并且不加选择地毁灭星球上一半的人口destroy half of population of each planet indiscriminately. 他作为一个为家人复仇的角色登场He’s a character seeking revenge for his family. 但他的高冷造就了非常有趣的色调性格But his arctic creates really interesting tonal character 时而伤感 时而欢欣there’s a time’s tragic and another time’s hilarious. 格鲁特 因为绝大多数人无法理解他Groot, because of most people’s inability to understand him, 我认为他是一个非常有灵性的人物I think he’s a very spiritual character. 但也因为他是元素精灵 你知道的 他是一棵树But also because he’s elemental, you know, he’s a tree. 他是一个非常强大的角色He’s a very powerful character. 他内心住着个英雄His heart is well as something that carrys him as a hero, 当第一部《银河护卫队》电影里的树人牺牲时就说明了这点and it was illustrated in the first Guadian when he made that sacrifice. 在这部电影中 尽管他逐渐的重新In this film, even though he’s progressively going through 经历青春期 也许会让你让你变得that adolescence again, which as a tendency to make you 有点自私又有点内敛a little self-interested and a little internal, 在需要他的时候他正处于这样的状态 然而他做出了正确的抉择he does that at the moment when he’s needed and made the right choice, 并献出了手臂完成了武器and offers up his arm to complete the weapon 最终导致灭霸的终结that can bring about the end of Thanos. 火箭浣熊:“这把枪多少钱?”冬兵:“不卖”Rocket: How much for the gun?Winter Soldier: Not for sale. 火箭浣熊:“好 那这支手臂值多少钱?”Rocket: Ok, how much for the arm? 火箭浣熊是个颇受欢迎的角色Rocket is a favorite in many people. 好吧 我将得到这支手臂Oh, I’ll get that arm. 在情感层面上 他与其他角色相差甚远And he keep himself very distanced in emotional level from other characters. 这使得他的内心很难破冰And that makes him very tough to crack 有时甚至很难相处and very tough to even get along with sometimes. 但这点也是使得此角色有趣的地方But that’s part of the fun of the character 想办法和别人建立情感联系figuring out ways where he can emotionally connect with someone. 这是我们在电影《无限战争》中最喜欢的故事情节And that was a favorite story line of ours in this film in Infinity War 他和雷神之间的特殊关系where that special relationship that he develops with Thor. 看着雷神受苦 就像他也在受苦一样Seeing Thor suffer, like he’s come to suffer. 他失去了拥有的一切还有所有人The fact that he’s lost everything and everyone 最后也经历这种内心破冰finally kind of cracks. 火箭浣熊 我想他内心深处的某些自我意识明白这些Rocket, I think there’s a little bit of self interest in there he knows that 雷神并没有全神贯注地Thor doesn’t sort of get focused 完成他的本职工作and do the job he supposed to do. 他们都可能死于灭霸之手They may all die at the hand of Thanos. 除非在电影中他们之间真的产生某种特殊联系And then unless they do, form a very special relationship in this movie. 星爵 我们开始介绍一个新角色Star-Lord, we begin a new character, 他在极端环境下成长he grew up under extreme circumstances, 被太空海盗俘获 然后被海盗抚养长大captured by space pirates and raised by pirates 母亲在他很小的时候就因癌症去世taken away from his mother who was dying for cancer in a very early age. 我觉得这让他有点像个流氓I think it’s made him a bit of a rogue. 星爵:“我喜欢你的计划 除了它很烂 所以让我来做吧”I like your plan, except it sucks, so let me do the plan. “如果那样 事情可能会好些”And that way, it might be really good. 星爵是一个与我们联系紧密的角色Star-Lord is someone we relate to greatly, 他的“超能力”是他的小机智 他的激情his super powers are his wits, his passion 以及他内心的强大and his strength in character. 再说一遍 他并不是那种成年人Again, he’s not some of these adult with 不是拥有超能力或继承了父亲的超能力的人super powers outside of his heritage with his father 至少他是这样想的 他的能力更多地来源于他的人性but his idea that, you know, he relates more to his humanity, 而非他自我中的“神性”部分than he does to this “godlike” part of himself 这就是他如此有趣的原因that’s what makes him so interesting thus. 舒瑞是漫威宇宙中聪明绝顶的人Shuri is the smartest person in the Marvel Universe. 她是黑豹的妹妹 瓦坎达公主She is the sister of T’Challa, a princess of Wakanda. 她是瓦坎达令人难以置信的先进技术背后的大脑And she’s the brain behind you know Wakanda’s incrediblely advance technology. 阿由是朵拉·米拉吉女子护卫队的主要成员Ayo is key member of the Dora Milaje, 我会说她是奥克耶的右手 她负责保护舒瑞和实验室I would say Okoye’s right hand, she is charge with protecting Shuri and the lab 为了保护她的安全 舒瑞试着把宝石从幻视体内分离to keep her safe while Shuri trys to remove the stone from Vision. 她和黑寡妇有过一次难忘但短暂的摊牌And she had a very memorable but brief showdown with Black Widow 还有《美国队长:内战》and Captain America: Civil War. 快走 否则你会被强制赶走Move, or you will be moved. 尼克·弗瑞在《复仇者联盟3:无限战争》中出演了一个非常简短而不幸的角色Nick Fury makes a very brief and unfortunate appearance in that Avengers: Infinity War. 但没有尼克·弗瑞就没有复仇者们But none of the Avengers are here without Nick Fury, 他是复仇者联盟的命脉he is the life blood of the Avengers program, 这也是为什么世界上有复仇者联盟的原因and the reason that the world even had the Avengers in the first place. 玛丽亚·希尔是一名神盾局特工Maria Hill is a SHIELD agent. 她和尼克·弗瑞合作得非常紧密She is worked very closely with Nick Fury, 也和尼克·弗瑞一起在《无限战争》中有一个短暂但不幸的出场also has a brief but unfortunate appearance in Infinity War with Nick Fury. —“我可能…我不敢相信有多少角色消失了”—“我知道”-I might… I can’t believe how many characters is gone.-I know. 我们是罗素兄弟We’re the Russo brothers. 感谢粉丝们的观看 希望我们都收获多多Thanks to our fans for watching, we hope we learned a lot. 谢谢Thanks. 星爵:答对了!火箭浣熊:好的Star Lord: Bingo!Rocket: Alright. 团结一致 我们能击败灭霸Thor: Together, we can stop Thanos.
  • 2021-08-24皮克斯动画如何用音乐传递情感好吧 这好像比较简单Alright, so this seems relatively simple, 你要做的只是拍摄一个很悲伤的场景 找些非常伤感的音乐all you have to do is to take a really sad scene and get some really sad music 接着在悲伤的场景中播放些伤感的音乐then play that really sad music over the really sad scene, 然后你就完成了一部完美的皮克斯作品 它会让观众哭得像孩子 是这样吗?and then you have the perfect Pixar composition to make your audience cry like babies. Right? 哦 事情没有那么简单Oh, nothing is ever that simple. 如果你确实想让观众落泪If you actually wanna make people cry, 你需要给悲伤的情景配上快乐的音乐you have to get happy music and play that over your sad scene. 或至少 配上与情景表达形成对比的音乐Or the very least, have the music contrast what’s going on the scene. 皮克斯在这方面是专家And Pixar’s mastered doing this. 好 首先我们要清楚是什么让音乐听起来有快乐和伤心之分Ok, so first we have to establish what makes music sound happy and sad. 好吧 现在很多人都是这么认为的Alright, now a lot of people out there are just gonna be like, “哦 伤感的音乐是小调而欢快的音乐是大调”“Oh, just the sad music in Minor and the happy music in Major.” 他们错了!And those people are wrong! 你看 有些音乐元素在人们身上普遍适用See, there are some elements of music that are universal across all humans. 比如 如果我放一段非常低沉的音乐Like, if I play a really low sound, 你会本能地认为这是一件重大并令人恐惧的事情you’re gonna instinctively assume that it came from something big and intimidating. 如果我放一段非常高昂的音乐 你会认为这是件无足轻重的事情And if I play a really high sound, you’re gonna assume it came from something small, 因为物质世界就是这个感觉because that’s how physics works. 因此 所有的大型凶残掠食者发出的声音都是更加低沉的So all the big nasty predators are gonna make lower sounds, 而所有小狗的叫声都是尖锐的and all the puppies are gonna squeak. 如果吓人的大狗叫声却很尖锐 这多少有点搞笑And it’s kind of joked behind Alpha Up, big scary dog, funny squeaky voice. 但文化中将大调小调和音调符号与幸福和悲伤联系起来But associating Major and Minor skills and key signatures with happiness and sadness 是大部分人随着时间的推移发展形成的is something that most people have actually developed over time through culture. 没错! 如果你曾住在欧洲或历史上某个欧洲殖民地Yes! If you lived in Europe or European colonies throughout most of the history 听欧洲音乐and listened to European music 那么对 你就会有这个联想then yeah, you’re gonna have this association. 但这并非内建于在人类本性中But it’s not built into the human condition. 看!举个例子 我会给你放这首曲子See! Here’s an example, I’m gonna play this piece of music for you 你可以猜测曲子的内容 这首曲子想要表达的是什么?and you’ve gotten to guess this context – what is this piece trying to convey? 这是一首记录于1950年的摇篮曲This piece is actually a lullaby recorded in 1950 由一名名为Lanaiditsa的祖尼族老妇人记录by a grandmother named Lanaiditsa from the Zuni nation. 它与拉姆斯摇篮曲“一闪 一闪 小星星”的歌词差别有点大It’s kind of far away from “Twinkle, twinkle, little star” of that Brahms lullaby. 如果你记得19世纪的祖尼族And if you remember the Zuni nation in the 19th century, 你倾听这些欧洲乐曲后会作何反应how might you react to listening to these European pieces. 对你来说 这些曲子是否都听起来像摇篮曲呢?Do they sound like lullabies to you? 不管怎样 你不能仅仅是让音乐听起来悲伤并希望大家都能明白你的用意Either way. You can’t just make music sound sad and hope that everybody catches your drift. 那就太怠惰了!That’s just lazy! 媒体创作者为了普及他们的作品并使其达到一定的效果What Media Composer do to make their music universal and effective 会创作能够is that they develop themes 代表某种品质或行为的主旋律或音乐or pieces of music that represent certain character or action 以推动故事情节的发展to then influence the development of the story. 皮克斯把这一点做得非常好!Pixar does this really well! 现在请记住 如果我们想要利用观众的情感Now remember, if we wanna play with people’s emotions 你就要使他们的视觉和听觉产生冲突you wanna have a conflicting message between what they hear and what they see. 那么我们以这部电影为例So let’s take Monsters, Incorporated for example, 在这个情景里 Sulley将Boo抱到了床上Here in this scene, Sulley’s putting Boo to bed, 当Boo睡着后and when she falls asleep, 你看到了Sulley此刻对Boo的情感流露 然后你听见了这段音乐you kind of see Sulley has this little moment for Boo and you hear this, 创作者在整部电影中点缀了这个主题And they dot this theme over the movie, 但真正的问题是如何点缀 在哪儿点缀以及为什么要点缀but the real questions are how, where and why. 观众再次听到这个主旋律是Sulley在刺激器内展示了一次完美的恐吓之后Well, the next time you hear this theme is after Sulley demonstrates a good scare in the stimulator, 却意外吓到了Boobut accidentally scares Boo in the crossfire. 这次的情景与我们初次听到这个主旋律的情景形成了鲜明的对比Now this is in stark contrast how we first heard the theme. 观众第一次听到主旋律时 一切都很平静The first time we heard this theme, everything was really peaceful. 事实上 Sulley特地提醒过Boo不会吓到她的In fact, Sulley had just gone out of his way to remind Boo that she wasn’t gonna get scared. Sulley吓到Boo之后主旋律再次响起Now that the theme comes back after Sulley scares Boo. Sulley不得不想办法修复他们之间的友谊And he has to repair that relationship. 你看 这不是关于Boo或是Sulley的主旋律See. This isn’t Boo’s theme or Sulley’s theme. 这是代表了两人间友谊的主旋律This is the theme that represents the relationship between these two. 观众再次听到这个主旋律是在Sulley必须将Boo抱回Boo的房门内的时候And the next time you hear this when Sulley has to put Boo back in her door, 恰好在双方的友谊即将结束之前right before it’s gonna get shredded. 你看 这里Sulley觉得这是他最后一次跟Boo见面了See. Here Sulley thinks this is the last time he’s gonna see Boo 而这首主旋律唤起了Sulley和Boo关于彼此的回忆And that theme evokes memories of Sulley and Boo, Sulley开始意识自己不必害怕Boowhen he first realized that he didn’t have to be afraid of her, Boo也意识到自己不必真的害怕Sulleyand when she realized that she didn’t have to really be afraid of him. 简单的主旋律庆祝也提醒了观众Sulley和Boo之间的友谊That simple little theme celebrates and reminds the audience of Sulley and Boo’s relationship, 接着来到故事的尾声just as it’s coming to an end. 最后 在电影的结尾你最后一次听到了主旋律And finally, you get that theme one last time just at the end of the movie, Mike关上门 Sulley又看了Boo一眼when Mike puts the door back together and Sulley gets to see Boo again. Boo?Boo? 猫咪!Kitty! 做得好!Awesome job! 并不是皮克斯动画撩拨观众心弦的一个典型范例So another great example of Pixar confusing your heartstrings isn’t Up. 我知道你们当中很多人会说I know a lot of you are gonna say, “现在我只想找到一个简单的例子 因为是以一组极其悲伤的镜头开始的”“Now I’m just going for the easy target cause Up started with that super sad sequence.” 我们来看看吧Let’s actually look at that. 这部影片由Michael Giacchino配乐So this film is scored by a guy called Michael Giacchino. 在他关于这部电影的专访中And in his interview specifically about this movie, 他表示他希望自己所有的配乐作品都拥有一种音乐身份he talks about how he likes all his movies to kind of have one musical identity. 就而言 他说到自己喜欢这个和弦And for Up specifically, he talks about like this one chord. 我也一直在寻找 对 我能否在一首和弦里总结自己的情感And I’m trying to search for, ok, if I can sum up my feeling in one chord, 那将会是怎样的呢?what’s gonna that, gonna be? 就这部电影而言是这样的And, for the films here was this, [钢琴曲][Piano Music] 这个旋律 你懂的 我的意思是 大体上它不是F调That chord right there, you know, I mean, basically it’s not F. 不是C调 它几乎同时是这两个调 这是 你懂的 F调和大七度相结合的结果It’s not C. It’s almost both. It’s, you know, F and Major seventh. 但如果是悲伤的情境会有这样的味道But it has this tinge if sadness to it. 我不知道 这首和弦有一些东西……I don’t know. There’s something about that chord that… 非常的…… 有点呼应之前It’s very, oh, it kind of reaches back. 好 我们回过头去听听葬礼的主旋律So, let’s get back to that funeral theme. 听一听葬礼主旋律的主题是否有什么变化Listen to what happens to that main theme during the funeral theme. 钢琴独奏Solo piano. 现在这是观众唯一一次听到钢琴独奏的主旋律Now this is the only time we hear the theme of solo piano. 观众第一次真正听到它是在Ellie给Fredricksen Ellie徽章的时候The first time we actually hear is when Ellie gives Fredricksen the Ellie badge. 接着主旋律再次响起 这时Ellie发现自己不能生育正自己一个人坐着And then again, when Ellie sitting by herself after she finds out she can’t have kids Fredricksen让她回忆她的探险本and Fredricksen reminds her of her adventure book. 这里 Giacchino将之称为“Ellie的主旋律”Now, Giacchino calls this the Ellie theme. 这样 在葬礼上And so, by the funeral scene, “Ellie的主旋律”已经建立在听众的脑海里了Ellie’s theme has already been established in the listeners’ mind. 那主旋律大致概括了Ellie的冒险精神和她在Fredricksen生命中的存在That kind of encapsulates her sense of adventure and her presence in Fredricksen’s life. 又一次 主旋律再次响起时So again, the next time the theme comes up Fredricksen已经从法庭回来并准备好离开自己的家is when Fredricksen is coming back from court and is getting ready to leave his home, 他找到了Ellie的本子and he finds Ellie’s book. 这个本子激起了Fredricksen探险的欲望And she inspires him for adventure. 又一次 Ellie的主旋律真真切切代表了Ellie传递给Fredricksen的冒险精神Again, Ellie’s theme really represents the sense of adventure that she gave Fredricksen. 随后 Ellie的主旋律在电影的其他部分出现很少And then, the theme kind of fades away for the rest of the movie, 除了在两个关键时刻except for two critical points. 第一次是Fredricksen似乎已经放弃的时候The first is when Fredricksen seems to have given up. 他将自己的房子安置在天堂瀑布He’s put his house on Paradise Falls 但他注意到Ellie一直在自己的探险本上but notices that Ellie has being filling up her adventure book 记录两人生活中一起经历的事情with all the things they did throughout their lives together. 观众第二次听到那首主旋律 是在Fredricksen将Ellie徽章送给Russell时And you hear that theme again when Fredricksen is passing on the Ellie badge to Russell. 这两个瞬间都激发了Ellie传递给Fredricksen的冒险精神Both times evoke that sense of adventure that Ellie gave Fredricksen 也提醒着观众and really serves to remind the audience that 或许Ellie不在房子或本子里maybe Ellie might not have been in the house or the book, 但她却从未真正离开Fredicksen的身边but had never really left Fredicksen aside. 即使你不那么深入地去看这个主题And even if you don’t wanna look at the theming that deeply, 从进行中的悲伤葬礼you still have the theme from the sad funeral Fredricksen的神情 Ellie的幸福生活being played over Fredricksen looking over how happy Ellie’s life was 以及Russell的徽章仪式上 你还是可以体会到这点and over Russell’s badge ceremony. 同样的 有些情景应该是快乐的Again, something that was supposed to be a happy occasion. 那么 皮克斯还运用了哪些其他的方法呢?Now, how else has Pixar done this? 那么 如果我不聊聊的结局我一定会很难受Well, I’d be hard-pressed if I didn’t talk about the end of Toy Story 3. 天呐!每次看这个结局我都会哭 每一次!God! I can’t watch the end without crying, every single time! 这个情景里 进行配乐并点缀其中之前Just before the music begins in the scene, and dotted throughout, 创作者引用了玩具总动员1中的歌曲they make small references to You’ve Got a Friend in Me in the original Toy Story. 如果我没有了解的这么仔细And if I didn’t know any better, 我会说他们参考了Jessie的中的部分I’d say they throw in some of Jessie’s When Somebody Loved Me as Well. 但可能只有我会But that just might be me. 我觉得自己没有必要去解释这点I don’t think I really have to explain this one. 我不确定自己是否能够表达清楚I’m not sure I can put into words. 好吧 聊的够多了Alright, but enough talk. 我们自己来分析一个情景吧Let’s do one ourselves. 我们以一个超级情绪化的情景为例Let’s take a scene that try to be super emotional, 不过由于音乐信息的缺失可能不会有效but maybe wasn’t that effective from the lack of musical information. 这里有一个情景And I got one right here for ya. 这个情景来源于This scene from Big Hero 6. Boymax正向Hiro展示自己信息库内所有关于Tadashi的记录When Baymax is showing Hiro all those recordings of Tadashi in his workshop. 这个情景中添加了音乐 但是效果并不明显So this scene has some music in it but it’s kind of subtle. 并没有在电影的任何片段真正建立起某种纽带And it’s nothing that was really established anywhere in the movie. 我是说即使建立了I mean even if it was, 也太过隐晦 以致于不能使第一次观看影片的观众联想起什么it’s so hidden that it wouldn’t really be able to remind a first-time watcher of 任何电影之前的情景any of the previous scenes from the movie. 因此在电影的大部分情景里 导演似乎决定通过对话使情景变得沉重So for the most part, it looks like the director decided to go with the dialogue heavy scene, 音乐大多成了衬托and just have the music be mostly incidental, 的主题曲能够流行真是一件奇怪的事情which is weird considering how prevalent the main theme is in Big Hero 6. 不管怎样!我觉得不利用这个情景是错失了一个绝佳的机会Either way! I felt like this scene was a huge missed opportunity. 所以我们尝试让它更好So we are gonna try to make it a little better. 好吧!我们打算创作一个Alright! So, what we wanna dois we wanna get an established musical theme 能够和电影中的情景形成直接对比的音乐主旋律that directly contrasts with what’s going on in the scene. 这个情景中发生了什么呢?And what’s going on in the scene? Hiro想起了他过世的兄弟Hiro’s being reminded of his dead brother. 那么如果我们能够浏览音乐目录So what if we can scan the musical catalogues 并找到一首歌颂家族纽带的电影的主旋律 播放它会怎样and find a theme from a film that celebrates the family bond, and play that over the top. 我找到一首!And I found one! 的主题曲Nemo’s Egg from Finding Nemo. 观众第一次听到这首曲子是在Nemo的妈妈和兄弟姐妹被一只邪恶的鱼杀死之时So when you first hear this piece, Nemo’s mom and siblings all just died of an evil fish. Marlin带着残留的一只鱼卵独自离开了and Marlin was left alone with an egg that got a little messed up. 主题曲开始响起And then the theme plays. 所以这首主旋律代表着Marlin和Nemo 这对父子之间的情感纽带So this theme is encoded to represent not just the bond between Marlin and Nemo, father and son, 它也代表着双方共同经历的创伤but it also represents this trauma bond that the two have, 不管怎样 这对父子已经紧密地关联在一起了that no matter what, this two have to stick together 因为在这个世界上他们是彼此的唯一because they are all they have in the world. 那是一种非常强烈的关系远比Liam Neeson更可靠That’s some pretty intense stuff way more relatable than Liam Neeson. 每当这首主旋律响起And every time this theme comes back, 是Marlin和Nemo在某种程度上进行情感互动的时候Marlin and Nemo in some way are interacting with each other. 第一次 当Marlin必须从水母那里解救Dory时First, when Marlin has to save Dory from the jellyfish, 他试着保持清醒 但他清醒时说的最后一句话是 Nemohe tries to stay awake but his last conscious words are, Nemo, 接着Nemo的镜头逐渐模糊 Nemo告诉它爸爸它有生命危险just as the camera fades to Nemo talking by his dad to kill him. 第二次 当Nigel开始向Nemo讲述Then again, when Nigel starts to tell Nemo about all the adventures that 为了找到自己的儿子 Nemo Marlin的种种经历时Marlin’s gone through just to try and find his son, Nemo. 第三次 当Marlin告诉DoryThen again, when Marlin is telling Dory that 他答应Nemo会保证自己的安全 不会有事时he promised Nemo that he would be safe and nothing would happen to him. 第四次 三只鱼成功解救Nemo 使其避免最终沦为加油站的鱼寿司时Then again, after the trio saved the school fish from being turned into gas station sushi. 最后是在电影结尾时And then finally, at the very end of the movie, 当Nemo第一天来到职业安全与健康署认可的学校时when Nemo goes to his very first day of OSHA-approved school, 他短暂地离开课堂最后一次拥抱了爸爸and he briefly leaves his class to give his dad one last hug. 如果这个主旋律不是关于家族纽带的话 那我就不知道什么是了If this theme isn’t about family bonding, then I don’t know what is. 好吧 在Baymax努力使Hiro和他哥哥重逢的情景里 我们配上那首主旋律Alright, so let’s take that theme played over the scene of Baymax trying to reunite Hiro with his brother. Tadashi已经不在了!Tadashi’s gone! Tadashi在这儿!Tadashi is here! 不 他不在这儿!No, he’s not here! Tadashi在这儿!Tadashi is here! 啊 我觉得这个有效果Awww, I think that worked. 这个创意是我们从情感上震撼了观众The whole idea is we shocked our audience emotionally. 对 Hiro和他的哥哥重逢了Yes, Hiro and his brother are reunited. 主旋律概括了这点And the theme encapsulated that. 但实际他们并没有在一起 因为哥哥太欣赏他的教授了But they aren’t really together, because his brother liked his professor a little too much. 这是一种让人想哭的复杂情感And it’s that mixture confusing feelings that make people cry. 在我们开始说“哦 的电影配乐更好”之前Before we start saying, “Oh well, Finding Nemo just had a better soundtrack.” 那并不相关That’s irrelevant. 那只与如何运用音乐有关It’s all about how the music was used. 创作者本可以在里设计一个关于朋友或家庭的主旋律They could have established a friend or family theme in Big Hero 6 当两兄弟在房间里玩骑马游戏时when the two brothers are horsing around in their room, 或是当Tadashi和自己的朋友一起为Hiro的演讲道贺时or when tadashi and his friends are all congratulating Hiro on his presentation, 或是他们本可以在葬礼的蒙太奇画面中配上一段主旋律or they could have even established a theme during the funeral montage, 当Boymax播放录像时可以再次运用进来and then brought that back when Baymax is playing the recordings, 甚至在对话中也可以even over the dialogue. 这是Hiro和哥哥之间本可以建立起的一种音乐纽带Just something that would have established a musical relationship between Hiro and his brother. 至少 这会意味着什么At least, it would have been something. 感谢收看 希望你喜欢
  • 2021-08-24《阿甘正传》隐藏了哪些深意欢迎来到地球影院Greetings, and welcome to EarthlingCinema. 我是节目主持人盖瑞克斯·沃姆洛德I am your host, Garyx Wormuloid. 本周的作品是《阿甘正传》由地球上的汤姆·汉克斯主演This week’s artifact is Forrest Gump,starring Earth’s own Tom Hanks, 他被广泛认为是穷人版的贾森·比格斯widely considered to bethe poor man’s Jason Biggs. 《阿甘正传》的故事Forrest Gump tells the story 是关于一位名叫阿甘的羽毛收集者of a feather-collector named Forrest Forrest Gump, “我是阿甘 佛李斯特·阿甘”“I’m Forrest, Forrest Gump.” 他总是喜欢把自己一连串的故事who likes to bombard people 毫无目的地讲给人们听with his life story for no apparent reason, 甚至他的听众换了一波也不会发现often not even noticingwhen his audience changes. 尽管他先天残疾Although he is born a cyborg, his 但他很快就丢弃了机械腿robotic implants soon fall apart, and he 他能跨过这一关 成为一个普通人了is able to pass as a human. 他在学校遇见了一个小巧的女生 名叫珍妮At human school, he meets aminiature female named Jenny. 他打橄榄球He plays football, 这项运动对他来说很简单除了直线奔跑 就没有其他要求了which is really easy and doesn’t require anything but running in a straight line. 再往后阿甘心血来潮 参军了After that, Forrest joins the Army on a whim. 他在炮火中拯救了每一个人He saves everyone from getting exploded, 但是他的伙伴布巴却死于虾中毒but his friend Bubba dies of shrimp poisoning. 对于他经历的苦难阿甘获得了一条闪闪发光的崭新勋章For his trouble, Forrest gets a shiny new necklace. 他开始打乒乓球逐渐成为一位响彻全国的名人He plays ping pong and becomes a national celebrity. “我所做的一切就是打乒乓球”“All I did was play ping pong.” 因为除了桌球 乒乓球是全美国最受欢迎并广泛讨论的一项运动because ping pong was America’s most popular and widely-discussed sport, other than flasketball. 阿甘偶然之间和他前长官丹中尉联系上了Forrest coincidentally reconnectswith his old sergeant, Lieutenant Dan, “丹中尉!”“弱智!”“Lieutenant Dan!””Imbecile!” 就在他们开始合伙开了连锁商店之时right around the time they starta chain of restaurants together. “我们赚的比戴维•克罗克特还要多”“We got more money than Davy Crockett.” 珍妮匆匆赶回来但没过多久 她又一次离开了Jenny comes back for a quickie and runs away again just kicks. 于是阿甘便去跑步 要把这事儿想明白然后他遇见了自己的儿子Forrest goes for a jog to think things over, then meets his son, 阿甘和珍妮结婚 又亲自葬了珍妮marries Jenny, and buries Jenny. Finally, 最终我们看到电影最后一幕we get one last look at the true hero 那位真正的英雄——该死的羽毛of this film, that goddamn feather. 除了马丁路德金的暗杀事件Aside from the Martin Luther King 和林肯的暗杀事件assassination and the Abraham Lincoln assassination, 《阿甘正传》涉及了60年代和70年代Forrest Gump features nearly every significant social or political event 每一个重要的社会或政治事件的特点of the 60s and 70s. 但是 阿甘身边的人 都被他那莫名其妙的政治官话所吸引But whereas everyone around Forrest is engrossed by all that political mumbo jumbo, 很明显 阿甘Forrest is oblivious, “很抱歉 我在你们黑豹党“ Sorry I had a fight in the middle 中间引发了一场争斗”of your Black Panther party.” 很让人纳闷的是 他专注于自己了解最透彻的东西——爱singularly focused on the thinghe best understands: love. “Forrest, “阿甘 你不明白爱是什么”you don’t know what love is.” 不 他知道 珍妮!Yes he does, Jenny! 这部影片最典型的特征就是叙事角度The defining characteristic of thefilm is its perspective. 通过一个无知的笨蛋的眼睛Through the eyes of an innocent simpleton, 我们看到了一个理想中的地球we see an idealized vision of Earth 这里没有冷酷的社会现实就像电影里描述的一双“啤酒眼”that ignores grim social realities, like a pair of cinematic beer goggles. 在阿甘谈到越南战争的时候When Forrest talks about the Vietnam War, 他特别阳光开朗he’s all sunshine and lollipops. “越南好的地方在于 这儿总有事情等着你去做”“The good thing about Vietnam, therewas always something to do.” 关于珍妮 他视其为一位非常漂亮的公主With Jenny, he sees a pretty, pretty princess, 即使在现实中even though in reality, she ’ 她其实是一团糟s a pretty, pretty big mess. 年轻的阿甘在如画的南方奔跑着Young Forrest runs throughpicturesque Southern landscapes, 过了一会 他路过了一座关满囚犯的监狱and moments later, breezes past a prison chain gang 但他就好像一点儿也不介意like it ain’t no nevermind. 他和丹中尉有一段完整的对话He has an entire conversation with Lieutenant Dan “丹中尉!冰淇淋!”“Lieutenant Dan! Ice cream!” 在镜头告诉我们 中尉已经失去双腿之前before the camera reveals he lost his legs. 阿甘依旧把丹中尉视作一个完整的人Forrest still sees him as a whole man, 很明显 他没有意识到人类的肢体不会再生apparently unaware that human beings can’t regrow their limbs. “神奇的一双腿”“Magic legs.” 而且 阿甘养了可能不是自己亲生的孩子What’s more, Forrest may be raising a kid that isn’t his. 珍妮曾经操纵过别人的情感Jenny has a history of emotional manipulation, 在她生病需要帮助的时候and could have just decided to call him 本可以打电话给阿甘once she got sick and needed help. “如果你病了 我会照顾好你 ”“I’ll take care of you, if you’re sick.” 她会给你发一张 “免为人父”卡如果你想的话Her “get out of parenthood free” card, if you will. 阿甘视其为一种高级的浪漫观众也这么认为Yet Forrest sees it as highromance, as does the audience. 实际上 很有可能In fact, it is entirely possible 阿甘并不是一个值得信赖的叙述者that Forrest is an unreliable narrator, “那是最重要的!”“That tops em all!” 这是我觉得特别可悲的事情something I find utterly deplorable. 这个故事大部分基于他的记忆Much of the story depends on his memory, 理想化 也许还有点儿错误which is idealized and perhaps a bit faulty. “你知道的 年轻人的回忆总是很滑稽”“You know it’s funny what a young man recollects.” 电影中两次出现这个场景珍妮告诉阿甘 “快跑 阿甘 快跑”In both instances where Jenny tells Forrest to “ run, Forrest, 每个人都穿着同样的衣服run, ” everyone is wearing the same clothes, 除了珍妮 只有她会买衣服except Jenny, who only buys designer shit. 不管这是魔幻现实主义也好Either this is magical realism, 还是阿甘把这两次记忆合并了也好or Forrest’s mind is conflating the two memories 当他和部队在越南时回忆起来的是反常的天气变化While with his platoon in Vietnam,he recalls unnatural weather shifts, 这使得敌人的攻击突然中止变得更加诡异made all the more suspect when immediately punctuated by an enemy attack. 若我们不相信And if we can’t trust a 一个人可以精确报告气象变化man to accurately report meteorological activity, we 我们则什么也不会相信他can’t trust him for anything. 不管怎样 就像伟大的哲学家阿甘的母亲所说In any case, as the great philosopherForrest Gump’s mom says, “生活就像一盒巧克力 你永远都不知道自己会得到什么”Life is like a box of chocolates.”You never know what you’re gonna get.” 但是 你如果通过阿甘的眼睛看看这个世界But if you look at the world through Forrest 你一定会觉得Gump’s eyes, you can bet it 巧克力是甜美的’ s going to be sweet. 依我对自己运气的了解我的巧克力里可能是该死的椰子肉And knowing my luck, it’llprobably have fucking coconut. 这里是地球影院我是Garyx WormuloidFor Earthling Cinema,I’m Garyx Wormuloid. 点击订阅按钮给你的腿装上钛棒To replace your legs with titanium rods,click the subscribe button.
  • 2021-08-24如何塑造令人难忘的反派角色?大家好 我是《近距离》的HenryHi, guys! Henry here from the Closer Look 今天我想问这样一个问题:and today I’ll be asking the question: 是什么造就了一个成功的反派?what makes a great villain? 对于这个问题 我将主要关注For this case study, I’ll be focusing primarily on 《黑暗骑士》中的小丑the Joker from the Dark Knight. 本视频中使用的所有素材All materials used in this video of 均出于剪辑的合理需求a nonprofit educational purposes 为非盈利性教育目的for welding the guidelines of fair use. 那么 《蝙蝠侠:黑暗骑士》So, the Dark Knight. 这部电影受到了普遍赞赏This film received practically universal praise and 根据IMDB的数据 它是有史以来第四部最佳影片according to IMDB, it’s the fourth best film of all time. 有许多原因可以解释There are many reasons 为什么这部电影受到如此高的赞誉why this film is considered in such high regard. 但今天我只关注其中一点But today I’ll be focusing on just one, 小丑the Joker. 绝大多数的制片人 编剧 以及小说家The vast majority of filmmakers, screenwriters and storytellers alike 都会告诉你同一件事情will all tell you the same thing 那就是 反派必须比主角更强大that the villain must have more power than the protagonist. 我个人认为这是一个有意思的说法Personally, I think it’s an interesting statement. 但我觉得还有待商榷But I respectfully disagree, sort of. 在《黑暗骑士》中In the Dark Knight, 小丑没有钱 更别提资源the Joker has no money and no resources to mention. 他绝对不是传统意义上的强大反派He has absolutely no power in the traditional sense. 然而 他仍是有史以来最成功的反派角色之一Yet, he is still one of the best villains of all time. 一个糟糕的电影制片人会给反派树立众多敌人A bad filmmaker will give his villains a massive army 和近乎无穷的力量and near limitless power. 比如《美国队长》的红骷髅Take for example, Red Skull in Captain America, 《魔界》的索伦 《雷神2:黑暗世界》的玛雷基Sauron in Lord of the Rings, Malekith in Thor 2 《哈利波特与魔法石》的罗南Ronan in Guardians of the Galaxy. 数不胜数The list is endless. 所有的这些角色All of these characters 都拥有传统意义上的强大力量have massive amounts of traditional power and 无穷无尽的资源none whatsoever of the non-traditional saw. 这就是这些反派和小丑之间的区别This is where these villains differ from the Joker. 小丑拥有力量 但不是我们所熟知的那种He has power, just not in the way we’re accustomed to. 他的全部力量来源于他His entire power comes from his ability to 机智且狡猾的攻击attack with great intelligence and cunning, 能直击黑暗骑士最致命的弱点straight at the Dark Knight’s greatest weaknesses. 小丑甚至都承认The Joker even confesses 他根本没有真正的资源how he has no real resources at all. “看看我用几颗毒气和几颗子弹“Look what I did to this city 对这个城市做了什么”with a few drugs of gas and a couple of bullets.” 因此 这就引出了第一点So this leads me to add point one 该如何去塑造反派角色on to the villain creation guide. 相对于英雄 你的反派角色需要更多力量Your villain needs to have more power than the hero. 但不要错误地只赋予他们But don’t make the mistake of giving them 我们刚讨论的那种传统力量only the traditional power we’ve just discussed. 没关系 你的反派可以拥有大量的钱财It’s fine for your villains to have massive amounts of money. 有一群令人生畏的追随者You’re a group of intimidating henchmen. 但除非你能同时拥有一位魅力十足的反派But unless you can back that up with an interesting villain, 否则电影情节将会平淡无趣your conflict will be bland and uninteresting. 这就引出了第二点This leads me to my second point, 塑造角色的另一个要求which is another field of characterization 同样是小丑出彩的地方that the Joker excels out. 好吧 我知道这和前面说的毫无关系Okay. I know this is completely unrelated to everything. 但是 你知道瑞秋这一角色But did you know the character Rachel 在《蝙蝠侠:侠影之谜》和《黑暗骑士》里was played by two different actresses 是由两位不同的演员扮演的吗?in Batman Begins and the Dark Knight? 上周有人告诉我这件事 让我大吃一惊Someone told me last week and it blew my mind. 总之 我觉得你吧…Anyway, I I just thought you. 我就是觉得你可能想知道I just thought you might want to know. 无论如何 塑造角色的另一关键Anyway, another element of characterization 就是动机 这也是小丑出彩的地方that the Joker excels at is motivation. 这点是塑造一个成功反派的基本要求This right here is the bread and butter of a good villain. 如果你的反派动机很弱 或缺乏真实动机If your villain has a very weak or no real motivation, 那么你的观众就不会相信这个角色then your audience won’t believe that character at all and 并且情节也会再次变得乏味无趣the conflict will again become bland and uninteresting. 一个建议:A word of advice: 如果你想让观众对角色产生共鸣If you want your audience to empathize with the villain, 最好的办法就是设计一个强有力的动机having a solid motivation is the best way to do so. 比如《雷神》里的洛基Take for example, Loki in the film Thor, 他的动机不是获得更多力量或者复仇his motivation is not more power or revenge, 而是得到他父亲的爱和支持but rather the love and approval of his father. 如果你想知道我是怎么得出结论的If you want to see how I reach that conclusion, 请点击观看我的视频they click here to see my video on 《为何<雷神>是有史以来最好的漫威电影》why Thor is the best marvel movie of all time. 抱歉 有时候控制不住自己Sorry. Sometimes I can’t help myself. 总之 小丑有一个超棒的动机Anyway, the Joker has an amazing motivation Alfred清楚地解释了这件事which is cleverly explained by Alfred right here. “因为有些人追寻的不是符合逻辑的东西 比如钱“Because some men aren’t looking for anything logical like money.” “他们不接受收买 威胁 劝说 或协商”“They can’t be bought, bullied, reasoned or negotiated with.” “有些人只是想看到世界毁灭”“Some man just want to watch the world burn.” 小丑的动机The Joker’s motivation 不是获取更多的力量或者个人利益is not more power or personal gain 而是类似其他99%的反派and like 99% of all other villains, 他只是一个虚无主义者he quite simply is a nihilist, 这意味着他没有任何道德或信仰which means he doesn’t have any morals or beliefs. 他压根不关心任何人He genuinely doesn’t care about any human life 包括他的追随者 也包括他自己including his henchmen and also including his own, 当蝙蝠侠把他从屋顶上扔下去时which is illustrated by how he starts laughing maniacally 他狂笑的样子说明了这一切when Batman throws him off the roof towards the end. 小丑这种一切都无关紧要的人生规则The Joker’s philosophy of nothing really matters 在电影中至少被花样诠释了50次is illustrated at least 50 different times in the movie. 但我最喜欢的一次是But one of my favorite times is 他讲他伤疤来历的那次when he tells a story about how he got his scars. 第一次他说The first time he says 是他父亲耍酒疯时干的his father did it while on a drunk rampage and 第二次他说 他是为了让妻子高兴而自残the next time he says he did it to make his wife happy. 这两个故事的区别在于是否是意外The difference between these two stories is no accident. 这表明小丑真的不关心任何事情It proves that the Joker truly doesn’t care about anything, 包括他的过去including his past. 因为对他而言 这无所谓Because to him, it doesn’t matter. 对他而言 所有事都是笑话Because to him, everything is a joke. 信不信由你And believe it or not, 他的终极目标从不是摧毁高谭市his end goal was never to destroy Gotham. 而是为了证明 内心深处 所有人都与他无异It was to prove that deep down, everyone is like him. 小丑和蝙蝠侠之间的斗争This battle between the Joker and Batman 在最后共同的镜头达到高潮is highlighted in their last shared scene. “该死 他们将要加倍速率了”“Hell. They’ll be doubling up the rate.” “这座城市的居民疯了”“The city’s inhabitants are losing their minds.” “这座城市只会让你相信“This city just showed you 生活在其中的都是好人”that it’s full of people ready to believe in good.” “直到他们的精神被完全摧毁”“until their spirit breaks completely.” 小丑不想毁灭世界The Joker doesn’t want to destroy the world. 他只是想证明当世界末日到来时He just wants to convince it that when it comes down to it, 其他人和他没什么区别him and the rest of humanity are not so different. 在他看来 把一个普通人变成小丑In his opinion, for a regular person to become the Joker, “所需要的只是轻轻推一把”“All it takes is a little push.” 蝙蝠侠自己甚至都说:Batman even says it himself: “你是要证明“What were you trying to prove 每个人内心深处都同你一样吗?”that deep down everyone’s exactly as you?” 蝙蝠侠的人生规则正好相反And the Batman’s philosophy is the exact opposite. 他相信所有的罪犯都还有的救He believes all criminals can be redeemed that 每个人内心深处都有好的一面deep down everyone has the potential for good. 小丑和蝙蝠侠之间的互动The dynamic between the Joker and Batman is 与其他英雄和反派之间的互动不同not the same as most other hero villain dynamics out there. 在大多数故事中 反派想要完成最终目标In most other stories, the villain wants to achieve an end goal 英雄是他们成功路上的唯一阻碍and the hero is the only obstacle in the road that can stop them 反之亦然 英雄想要实现终极目标or vice versa, the hero wants to achieve the goal and 反派是唯一的障碍the villain is the only one who can stop them. 然而 《黑暗骑士》中 却并不是这么回事Well, in the Dark Knight, that is not the case. 他们都为了相同的目标对抗They are both competing for the exact same goal: 即哥谭镇的灵魂The soul of Gotham. 我认为 让小丑这个角色锦上添花的是And what I consider to be the icing on the cake for the Joker. 最终 小丑胜利了It’s in the end, he wins. 小丑很有趣 因为在每一次行动中The Joker is interesting because at every point, 他都比蝙蝠侠提前一步he is one step ahead of the Batman. 小丑的一次绝妙行动是哈维和瑞秋那次A genius move by the Joker was with Harvey and Rachel. 他骗了蝙蝠侠 隐藏了他们被困的地点He lied Batman and sucked their addresses, 不管蝙蝠侠做出什么选择 最终他都会输meaning no matter what Batman chose he would lose. 他选择去救瑞秋He chose to save Rachel. 她会死 而小丑会胜利She would die and the Joker would win and 如果他选择去营救哈维if he chose to save Harvey, 哈维会死 而小丑又会胜利he would die and the Joker would again win. 最后 小丑实现了他真正的目标In the end, he accomplishes his true goals and 向世界揭露了哥谭镇的真面目shows the world Gotham’s true face, 这就是一个巨大的谎言the face of a big lie. 瞧 小丑把哈维·丹特变成双面人See when the Joker turned Harvey Dent into two-face, 他做这件事有一个特殊原因he did it for a very specific reason 是为了设计另一个计划to create another scenario 一个蝙蝠侠不可能胜利的计划where it is impossible for the Batman to win. 如果蝙蝠侠和戈登决定向世界揭露If Batman and Gordon decided to reveal to the world 哈维成了双面人that Harvey became two-faced, 他谋杀无辜的人民that he murdered innocent people, 那么哥谭镇政府的名誉then the reputation of Gotham’s government 将永远留下污点 小丑将会胜利would be forever tarnished and the Joker would win and 而如果他们决定掩盖哈维的暴行if they decided to cover up Harvey’s atrocities and 继续维护他作为哥谭镇白衣骑士的名誉maintain his reputation as a white knight of Gotham, 他们最后也正是这样做的 小丑还是会取得胜利which is what they did in the end, the Joker would win. 因为这整个司法系统Because an entire system of justice 数百万人如今所信任和信仰的millions of people now believe and place their faith 都是一个巨大的谎言in one big lie. 此时 小丑露出看戏般充满恶意的笑容Now that’s one hell of a last laugh that even the Joker can appreciate. 这令我想到另一个塑造成功反派的要点This leads me to another point of making a great villain. 让他们赢Let them win. 这不是说非得让他们在结尾大获全胜This doesn’t mean they have to have a complete victory in the end. 当反派取得胜利时 即使是像But when the villain is victorious, even in small little waves 小丑在整部电影中所取得的那种小胜利like the Joker did throughout the whole movie, 也能给故事增加真实性it adds a realistic grit to the story and 使观众更费心地去寻找英雄makes the audience feel even more invested in the hero’s quest, 因为观众更想让英雄获胜as they want him to succeed even more. 若小丑的所有计谋都不能成功And the Joker did not succeed in any of his plans. 观众将难以参与到电影里The audience would have been less engaged in the story. 我有一个很喜欢用的技巧I have a technique I like to use. 当我想要测试反派与主演之间Whenever I want to test whether the villain 是否有一个有趣的互动时will have an interesting dynamic with the protagonist, 试着把这个反派换成小说中的其他反派try and swap your villain around with other villains in fiction 然后问问自己 这对叙事是否有丝毫影响and ask yourself does it have any impact on the narrative 交换之后仍然一样吗?and is it still largely the same? 如果你的回答是没有影响If your answer is it makes no difference, 那么你的反派角色还需要继续打磨then your villain still needs a little more work. 如果Nalan把另一个版本的小丑加进电影里If Nolan put another version of the Joker in this film, 效果就没那么好了it just wouldn’t work right. 杰瑞德·莱托饰演的小丑 杰克·尼科尔森饰演的小丑Jared Leto’s Joker, Jack Nicholson’s Joker or 甚至是系列动画里的小丑even the animated series Joker, 由于电影的性质 他们都不可能成功none of them would have worked because of the nature of the film. 但是这是蝙蝠侠唯一的化身But this is the only incarnation of Batman 是绝对的现实主义that has gone for absolute realism. 如果小丑开一些古怪的玩笑And if the Joker were making wacky jokes or 用一些廉价的毒气弹using explosive Whoopie cushions for cheap gags, 这是没有什么信服力的it just wouldn’t be believable. 小丑的基调The Joker is delivered in a tone 与《黑暗骑士》三部曲的其余部分是一致的that is consistent with the rest of the Dark Knight trilogy. 这种基调是一种彻底的现实主义A tone of utter realism and this is why 这就是为何这个版本的小丑是有史以来最好的the Joker in this film is the best villain of all time. 当杰克·尼科尔森扮演的小丑When Jack Nicholson’s Joker killed a man 用羽毛刺穿喉咙 杀死这个人时by throwing a quill at his throat, 这很有意思it was interesting. 但也是相当荒谬的But it was also quite ridiculous 提醒观众他们看到的并不是现实生活and reminded the audience that they weren’t watching real life. 他们只是在看电影They were watching a movie and 而在动画世界里in the animated universe where the 小丑带着微笑毒死一群人Joker poisons a group of people with his smile gasps. 这确实令人震撼It’s shocking, yes. 但是这也很符合动画的特征But it’s also quite cartoony in nature and 提醒观众他们看到的并非现实世界reminds the viewer that they aren’t watching real life. 他们是在看动画They are watching an animation. 而这就是《黑暗骑士》与影史上But that is where the Dark Knight is completely different 其他版本的小丑完全不同的地方to every other incarnation of Joker in history. 当小丑用铅笔猛击一个人的头时When the Joker slams a pencil through that man’s head, 令人毛骨悚然 但是完全可信it was shocking, yet completely believable. 当小丑炸毁医院When the Joker blows up their Hospital, 烧掉一叠钱sets fire to that pile of money and 最后被扔下楼差点摔死时last when he’s thrown to his death, 这些片段都以一种these moments are all delivered 完全可信的方式呈现出来in a completely believable way. 《黑暗骑士》里全程无尿点At no point in the Dark Knight does the immersion break for the audience. 因为小丑以一种Because the Joker is delivered 如此惊人的真实方式呈现出来in such a terrifyingly realistic way. 观众相信他在荧幕上的每一分每一秒The audience believes every second he is on screen, 他不只是书中的一个角色he isn’t just a character from a book. 而是一个活生生的人He is a real-life human being. 红骷髅 索伦 洛基Red Skull, Sauron, Loki, 他们不是天生的反派they aren’t inherently bad villains. 但是观众不相信But the audience doesn’t believe 他们真实地存在于我们的世界中that they truly exist in our world. 而小丑 他是如此逼真But with the Joker, he is so believable, 如此准确地反映了现实生活so hauntingly accurate to real life. 当观众在看《黑暗骑士》时That while the audience is watching The Dark Knight, 小丑可能就隐藏在他们身后the Joker could be right behind them. 感谢收看本周的视频Thanks for watching this week’s video. 这是我在频道中上传的第二个视频This is the second video I’ve ever uploaded onto my channel. 我不清楚我是否应该继续上传这类视频And I have no clue whether I should continue uploading this kind of content. 在改善视频内容上 如果你有任何建议If you have any ideas at all on how I can improve my content, 请在下方评论告诉我then please tell me in the comments below. 不论反馈如何 我都很感激所有评论All feedback both good and bad is hugely appreciated. 如果你喜欢请订阅Also if you could like and subscribe that 我将十分感谢would be pretty prime soon, 总之 感谢观看Anyway, thanks for watching and 我们下次节目再见I will see you guys next time on the Closer Look.
  • 2021-08-24《肖申克的救赎》隐含的意义警告内含明显的剧透警告:内含明显的剧透 “我们叫你吃就吃”You eat when we say you eat. “叫你拉就拉”You shit when we say you shit “叫你撒就你撒”you piss when we say you piss “听明白了吗? 你这蠢货”You got that,you maggot-dick motherfucker? 当一部电影包含一系列不和谐的元素Can a film which is grated are for a host of obscenities 由一群不信教的演员和工作人员制作produced by a cast and crew of non-believers 并且把唯一的基督徒描绘成邪恶的伪君子and which paints the only Christian as evil hypocrite 它能成为史上最伟大的基督教电影吗?be in fact the greatest Christian movie ever made? “把信仰寄托给神”But you trust in the Lord “把贱命交给我”your ass belongs to me “欢迎来到肖申克监狱”welcome to Shawshank 《肖申克的救赎》是好莱坞最受欢迎的电影之一the Shawshank Redemption is one of Hollywood’s most beloved films 根据IMDB上的公众投票according to public voting on IMDB 它的排名仅次于排名第一的《教父》it ranks just above the Godfather in the number one spot 人们被这部电影深深吸引people are drawn to this film for its message 是因为它所表达的希望与持久的友谊of hope and enduring friendship “杜弗兰 我警告你把它关掉”I am warning you Dufran turn down off 他们因为基督的救赎走到了一起remarkably come together in a Christianact of redemption “二楼245囚室的人不见了”man missing on tier 2 cell 245 在电影开场两小时之后when Andy Dufran escapes after 2 hours 即在故事中的十九年之后 安迪逃脱了of screen time 19 years in the story 这是影片中一个彻底的翻转it hits as a total twist “他昨晚熄灯时还在他的房间‘he was in his cell and lights out 所以今早他也应该还在”sansa reasoning still the air in the marginal’ 他执行了计划quintessential lead-up or execution of a plan “不 先生 狱长 我没话要说”No, sir, warden. Not a word 安迪消失了Andy just disappears “天啊 这真是个奇迹Lord, it’s a miracle! 就像一个屁在风中消失了”like a fart in the wind or if “请给我一个石锤”you might give me a rock hammer 鉴于越狱是监狱电影所特有的given that escapes are endemic to prison films 观众也许已经猜到了这个情节viewers might have expected it my 但《肖申克的救赎》将人们的注意力转向了别处the Shawshank Redemption in a slight of hand turns attention elsewhere 和所有猜想不同的是 肖申克监狱里的凡人害怕被释放contrary to every expectation, prisoners of Shawshank fear release 即使他们讨厌监狱的高墙while they may hate the walls of the prison 他们也不想从中逃跑they’re not seeking to escape it neither “所以我要怎么做”how to do the setup off anyway “我只是来和他道别 难道你没听说他的假释批下来了吗?”I do nothing I come in here to say fairly well. Ain’t you heard his parole’s come through 被关押了五十年的布鲁克斯就是这想的This is embodied in Brooks after being locked up for 50 years 对于自己的假释Brooks responds to his parole 布鲁克斯尝试杀害自己的朋友by attempting to kill a friend just so he 只是为了留下来can stay behind bars “我告诉你 这些墙很有趣I’m telling you these walls are funny 一开始你恨它们 但随着时间流逝 你变得离不开它们”praise to hate himenough time passes guess so your depend 对布鲁克斯来说 自由是将他驱逐到另一个他不属于的世界For Brooks, freedom is an exile to world he doesn’t belong 所以 当他最后发现自己只剩孤身一人So when he ultimately finds himself in that exile emptying alone 除了自杀外 他别无选择he sees no other option, but to hang himself 这是肖申克监狱里的囚犯们的主要问题This is the principle problem for the prisoners of Shawshank 但对杜弗兰来说不是这样and yet not for any Dufresne 无罪的安迪进入了肖申克监狱 他不想放弃希望Andy comes to Shawshank as the innocent outsider and refuses to give up hope 他颠覆了监狱里那些没有人性的规章制度he subverts the prison’s dehumanizing system of rules and regulations 并给了他的狱友来自外界珍贵而又特别的提醒extending to his fellow prisoners rare and extraordinary reminders of the outside world 一天劳累后的冰啤 监狱广播里的天使颂歌cold beer after hot days work, angelic music over the prison speakers 他给受过教育的人找来新书new books to educate men 安迪的力量来自于他的无罪Andy’s strength derives from his innocence 但当监狱长将他无罪的证据抹去后but when at last the warden erases evidence of his innocence 安迪似乎陷入了和他狱友们一贯的绝望Andy appears to succumb to the same institutional pessimism of his fellow prisoners “安迪来到装货台Andy come down to the loading dock 他让我给他一节绳子”he asked me for a length of rope “还记得布鲁克斯·海特伦吗?”remember Brooks Hatlen “不 安迪不会那样做”no, and he’d never do that 他回自己的房间 并似乎要在这里自杀he returns his cell and there appears to hang himself 这时 意外发生了That’s when the unexpected occurs “你最好是病了或死了 不然我就一枪毙了你you better be sick or dead in there I shit you not 你给我听着”you hear me 他们没发现死了的安迪 他的房间是空的instead of finding Andy dead, the cell is empty “噢 我的天哪”oh my holy God 如果你认为它和其他监狱电影一样 现在停下来想一想now stop and think about that if you thought this film was just another prison flick 换个角度看一看take another look 电影将安迪的出逃描绘成新生的象征the film infuses Andy’s escape with a symbolism of new birth 一次通过女人子宫的新生a symbolism of new birth it proceedsthrough a woman’s womb 而在通道的另一头 他的脑袋先出来and ends with him something headfirst from the other end 这个象征与监狱整体的寓意相符this symbolism fits within the film’s larger allegory 进入肖申克监狱的囚犯们赤裸着身子 穿上白色囚服prisoners enter Shawshank like newborns, naked and coated in white “如出生之日赤身裸体的男人”a macho and naked of the day you were born and they 害怕被释放对应了对死亡的恐惧come to fear release with life’s corresponding dread of death 通过出逃 安迪重生了 并且变成了全新的人in his escape Andy is born again becomes a new man “泄露了他的小秘密spilling her little secret 一个没有人关注的男人”a man, nobody ever laid eyes on 利用了为监狱长获取财富的身份he appropriate the identity of wealth McHugh stop I set aside for the warden 直到那一刻他才存在until that moment he didn’t exist “我希望你能好好享受国外生活”I hope you’ll enjoy living abroad “谢谢你”thank you 在接受自己的新身份的过程中and in taking on this new persona 安迪对典狱长和他虚伪的体制进行了审判Andy passes judgment on the warden and his hypocritical system 最后 监狱长在他认为安迪完蛋之前的一刻完成了他的信仰in the end, the warden performs on himself the faith that only moments before he is assumed to be Andy’s end 现在 再来看看这个空的狱室now look at the empty cell again 这是对空音调的暗示it’s an allusion to the empty tune “噢 我的天哪”oh my holy God 安迪的逃脱是耶稣重生的反映Andy’s escape is an echo of Jesus resurrection 但是单单这一点 不足以让肖申克的救赎成为有史以来最好的基督电影but this alone isn’t what makes Shawshank the greatest Christian movie ever 《肖申克的救赎》超越了暗示 以一种传播基督的电影所没有的方式触动了人们it’s beyond the illusion where Shawshank touches people in a way that gospel films don’t 不单单是以重生结尾 肖申克的救赎还强调了它的重要性rather than ending with the resurrection, Shawshank goes on to show why it matters 安迪是肖申克监狱里唯一一个无罪的人 他变成瑞德最好的朋友并不是意外it’s not by accident that Andy the only innocent man in Shawshank becomes the best friend of Red 而瑞德作为唯一有罪的人the only guilty man 需要救赎的正是他 而不是安迪it’s Red and not Andy who needs to be redeemed 谢谢你thank you 我是肖申克监狱里唯一有罪的人Iam only guilty man in Shawshank 像布鲁克斯一样 瑞德已经被体制化了Red likes Brooks is institutionalized 在电影开头 中间 结尾的三次假释听证会上and three parole hearings at the beginning middle and end 电影描绘了瑞德的改变the film demonstrates Red’s transformation 认真地说 我已经改变了I can honestly say I’m a changed man 不会对社会造成危害Oh tainted to society here 在他的第二次自陈中 他不再会是社会的危害 却并不是因为他变成了好人in his second he admits to no longer being a danger to society not because he’s a better man 而是因为他不再期待外面的世界 就像布鲁克斯一样but because like Brooks he no longer looks forward to the outside world 但是安迪奇迹般的出逃和他在监狱外的生活救赎了瑞德but it’s Andy’s miraculous escape and his life on the outside which redeems Red 现在 让我看看well now let me see 你知道 我对这意味着什么没有头绪you know I don’t have any idea 这意味着你做好了重入社会的准备what that means well that means you’re ready to rejoin society I know 在最后一次听证会中 瑞德获得了自由In his final hearing read at last speaks as a free man 他不再在乎他是走是留 是生是死he no longer cares whether he remains or goes whether he lives or die 外面的世界无法再让他关心the world outside no longer concerns him 因为安迪活着 瑞德可以面对未来because Andy lives Red can face what the future holds 所以当瑞德的假释到来时so when it’s time of release does come 安迪挣脱了与布鲁克斯的命运 给了他对肖申克监狱之外世界的希望it’s hope and Andy which propels and Beyond and Brooks fate to a life in a world beyond Shawshank 这就是为什么瑞德找到了在用木头做渔船的安迪is it obvious now why Red finds Andy working the wood of a fishing boat 在永恒的大海前all before an eternal sea 《肖申克的救赎》是一则寓言 它像是耶稣的寓言the Shawshank Redemption is a parable and like the parables of Jesus 种子会在适合它的土壤里发芽seed which opens in the right soil
  • 2021-08-24《冰与火之歌》和“歌”有什么关系?为什么乔治·马丁将他的系列小说命名为《冰与火之歌》?Why did George R.R. Martin call his series A Song of Ice and Fire? 冰和火这个部分就很好理解The ice and fire part is pretty self-explanatory 但为什么是歌?but why is it a song? 就我个人来看 我觉得答案在于历史与神话的关系中For me the answer lies in the relationship between history and mythology. 乔治·马丁受到许多称赞George R.R. Martin is often praised for 因为他创作权游的时候主要引用的是真实的历史primarily drawing on real history to create the stories of Game of Thrones 而不是像其它许多架空的神话故事as opposed to mythology like many other epic fantasies. 但是马丁不仅仅是引用了历史But Martin doesn’t just use history. 他的小说也成为了我们了解历史的注解His novels are a commentary on how we understand history 甚至让我们看到如何将历史转化为神话故事and how history can transform into mythology. 维斯特洛大陆的人民在历史上就一直对自己的地盘情有独钟The people of Westeros are obsessed with their place in history. “我不会成为别人历史中的一部分”“I won’t become a page in someone else’s history book” “姓氏传承下去了 家族就会永远延续”“The family name that lives on. That’s all that lives on.” 他们会歌唱临冬城之战“They will sing about the Battle of Winterfell 直到铁群岛淹没在浪涛之下until the Iron Islands have slipped beneath the waves!” 问题在于他们在讨论历史上的歌曲之时仿佛觉得那时的历史就如歌中所说The problem is that they talk about songs in history as if there are the same things, 但事实上并不是这样子的but they are not. 歌曲是娱乐为主 其次才是记录历史Songs are entertainment first and historical records second. 它们并不对史实负责They are not beholden to the facts. 而国王劳勃却一直混淆二者King Robert constantly confuses the two 而且时常怀念他曾参加的战争and often waxes on nostalgicly about the wars he once fought. “就是那些日子!””那些日子?”“Those were the days!””Which days exactly? 那些维斯特洛大陆上的国家相互斗争最终酿成上百万人死亡的日子吗?The ones where half of Westeros fought the other half and millions died? 又或是更早的时候疯王因为疯狂or before that when the Mad King slaughtered women and babies 而杀了女人和孩子的日子吗?because the voices in his head told him they deserved it? 还是说在更早的时候那些龙把整个城市都夷为平地的日子?Or way before that when dragons burned whole cities to the ground? 轻松点 小伙子Easy boy 劳勃浪漫化了过去Robert romanticizes the past 但事实上是人们对于歌曲中的骑士世界but there is a huge divide between the chivalrous world of the songs… “熊与少女”“The bear, the bear and the maiden fair.” 以及维斯特洛大陆上残酷而罪恶的世界的理解有很大的分歧…and the cruel random and evil world of Westeros. 歌曲为这个世界带来了慰藉Songs provide relief from this world 但是也会扭曲人们对历史的看法but they can also warp our perception of history 而这也是为什么它们如此具有操纵价值and it is for that reason that they are vulnerable to manipulation. 当史书被他劈成碎片时After slicing a history book in two, 乔弗里就沉浸于五国战争的戏剧表演的虚象中King Joffrey enjoys a cartoonish reenactment of the war of the five kings. 在剧中乔弗里是一位勇敢的英雄In it Joffrey is presented as a courageous hero, 他的敌人都是笨拙的小丑his enemies inept clowns 但是作为观众的我们清楚真象but we the audience know the truth. 我们知道所有的歌曲戏剧雕像以及故事都是假的We know that the songs, the plays, the statues and the stories are all a lie. 事实上 铁王座最大的力量在于能让人改写历史In fact, the greatest power that the iron throne gives is the ability to rewrite history. “有一天你将坐上铁王座 到时候你说什么就是什么 ”“Someday you’ll sit on the throne and the truth will what you make it 这就是为什么统治者畏惧于歌曲和故事的力量This is why rulers rightly fear the power of songs and stories. 歌曲如何描述历史对于统治者来说是一个威胁Songs are a threat to the narrative of the ruling house. 乔弗里登基以后做的第一件事就是One of Joffrey’s first acts as king is to have a 把一个音乐家的舌头给割了 因为他在歌中暗讽瑟曦杀了国王劳勃musician’s tongue ripped out for singing a song that insinuates that Cersei killed Robert. 这的确是事实Which is the truth 但问题在于他揭露了兰尼斯特想要维护的故事but it challenges the narrative that the Lannisters want to maintain. 同时兰尼斯特的非正式族歌《卡斯特梅的雨季》的歌词Meanwhile the lyrics of the Lannisters’ unofficial anthem the”Rains of Castamere” 归结于一句话就是 不要招惹兰尼斯特essentially boils down to: Don’t mess with the Lannisters. 而这也是他们希望你们歌颂的That is the song they want you to sing 而这也是为什么权游系列中每个人的绰号都很有意义This is also why there is such an emphasis on nicknames in the series. 绰号使得个人的形象具体化They reduce people to a single characteristic 同时用来恐吓敌人And are used to intimidate others or to disempower an enemy. 权力何在取决于我们信念何在“Power resides where man believes it resides.” 所有的歌曲故事绰号甚至是族徽都是影响人们观念的工具And songs, stories, nicknames and even the house sigils are all tools that influence those believes 事实上整个国家都对这种伪造的历史有依赖性In fact the entire kingdom relies on these fabricated histories. “你知道王国是什么吗 是一个我们彼此反复讲述的故事“Do you know what the realm is? A story we agreed to tell each other 直到我们忘了它不过是一个谎言”over and over till we forget that it’s a lie.” 而兰尼斯特家族依靠成山的谎言来掌控他们的权力And there is a mountain of lies that the Lannister regime relies on to hold onto power. 比如 为了国家的和平For the country to be a peace, for instance, 关于乔弗里和托曼的继承权被所有人忽略了the truth about Joffrey and Tommen’s heritage has to be ignored by everyone 所以权游向我们展现了一个残忍而沉重的世界So in Game of Thrones we are presented with a cruel and punishing world 在这个世界只有歌曲中讲述的那些故事中的人们才是过的好的where the only comfortable for most people are the stories told in songs. 这些歌曲比许多事实都更有力These songs are more powerful than actual facts 而且对权力阶级和平民阶级都有巨大的影响and have an immense level of influence over both the powerful and the powerless. 然而当我们得知了事实的真相后While we get to see how the actual events of the story play out, 呈现在我们眼前的又是不一样的景象we are also presented with an alternative version 即传说就是真正的历史 而且他们就是为了统治阶级服务的which mythologize is real history into a narrative that serves the ruling class. 所以当我们看书或是看剧时So when we read the books or watch the show, 我们看到的并不是《冰与火之歌》we are not actually witnessing a Song of Ice and Fire. 至少现在不是Not yet anyway. 而在后世的歌曲中我们能看到历史的真相We are seeing the real history on which a song will later be sung. 歌曲对历史记录的准确性取决于谁最终在争夺王座中取得了胜利How accurate the song is will depend entirely on who wins the game of thrones. 这是一个很重要的教训And that’s an important lesson 因为我们历史中一部分都是当时统治者的自我愿景because how much of our own history is really just a wishful narrative created by the powerful. 而且权游一再向我们证明了Because what Game of Thrones has proven to us time and time again 有时候我们所知道的is that what actually happens often doesn’t matter nearly 比当时真正发生了什么要重要的多as much as the story we are given the permission to tell 现在你大概知道了Now as you probably know 权游大部分是基于Game of Thrones is largely based on the War of the Roses, 英国中世纪王朝斗争期间的玫瑰战争a period of dynastic struggle in medieval England. 当我了解了这段历史之后 对权游系列就更满意了I find series more satisfying when I know more about the history it’s based on. 如果你也想知道更多的关于那段历史And if you want to know more about that history 就去好奇之旅上查查关于真正权力的斗争的相关文件then check out the documentary called The Real War of Thrones on Curiosity Stream, 也是我们本期视频的赞助者the sponsor of this episode. 好奇之旅关于历史科学科技等Curiosity stream is a streaming service with over 2000 之类的文件有2000余种documentaries about history, science, technology and more. 在真正的权力之争中In The Real War of Thrones 你会获取许多关于法国中世纪的you’ll get a great primer 百年战争 政治权力斗争以及军事历史的知识on the Hundred Years War and the Game of Thrones political and military history of medieval France. 我最喜欢的章节是My favorite part is when this guy is getting knighted 当那个人被册封为骑士时 国王真的狠狠的用剑敲了他and the king really smacks the sword down hard on him 甚至还打了他几个耳光and give some the splash of the face 你说说 历史上真的发生过这样的事吗tell me if this is historically accurate. 查看完整的资料只需要每月付2.99美元Access to the entire catalogue only costs $2.99 a month 第一个月免费but the first 30 days are free 如果你从以下网站登录的话 可以用我的优惠码: justwriteif you sign up with my link at:curiositystream.com./justwrite and use the promo code: justwrite 谢谢大家的观看以及支持!Thanks for watching and keep writing everyone!
  • 2021-08-24横向位移镜头简析-《狼的孩子雨和雪》[音乐][music] 嗨 我是托尼 这里是《一帧一画》Hi, my name is Tony and this is Every Frame a Painting. 这个视频应该是在母亲节前完成的So this video was supposed to be done in time for Mother’s Day, 但未能如愿but that didn’t happen. 对不起 妈妈Sorry ma! 不管怎样 今天讲的电影是Anyway, today’s film is Wolf Children 细田守的《狼的孩子雨和雪》directed by Mamoru Hosoda. 这是一部温馨的小电影This is a really lovely little film 两年前获得了日本学院奖的最佳动画电影and it won the Japanese Academy Award for Best Animated Film two years ago. 如果你还没看过 请一定去看看If you haven’t seen it, please do. 但这一次 我的视频不会剧透But for once, my video will provide no spoilers. 所以就算你没看过也可以享受这个视频So you can enjoy this without having seen Wolf Children. 我今天的主题是电影中的一个镜头My subject today is a single shot from the film right here. 这是一个持续57秒的横向位移镜头It’s a lateral tracking shot lasting 57 seconds, 镜头跟随两个孩子雨和雪and it follows the two children, Ame and Yuki 从一年级到四年级 中间没有剪切from first grade to fourth grade without any cuts. 我们看到雨一年级时孤身一人We see Ame is a loner in first grade 而他的姐姐雪正在适应学校的生活while his sister Yuki adjusts to life at school. 看到雨被欺负 雪做出反应We see him bullied, we see her reaction. 看到雪融入班级And we see her find a place in the classroom 雨却开始逃课while he starts to ditch class. 就是这样That’s really it. 为什么我觉得这个镜头很厉害呢So why do I think this shot is actually kind of amazing? 听起来很奇怪This might sound like a weird thing to say, 但我一直不知道如何使用横向位移镜头but I’ve never really understood how to use the lateral tracking shot. 我看到其他导演使用它 有时应用得很漂亮Like I’ve seen the other directors use it, sometimes beautifully, 但我从没弄清怎样运用这个表现手法but I’ve never figured out how to pull it off myself. 因为当你把镜头分解出来Because when you break it down, 横向位移镜头有点奇怪the lateral tracking shot is kind of weird. 这是电影中最不主观的一种镜头It’s one of the least subjective shots in cinema. 其实是最客观的一种It’s actually one of most objective. 它不会表现任何角色的观点It doesn’t really suggest any characters point of view. 它让观众处在上帝视角It just suggests you’re an omniscient God 旁观电影里的一切and you’re just watching. 这是非常真实的呈现And it’s very literal. 所见即所得What you see is what you get. 那么用它表现什么呢?So what do you use it for? 很多电影人用它来快速建立场景Most filmmakers use it as a quick establishing move. 当你需要控制一个场景的开始和结束时When you wanna start a scene and end in your master, 这是非常简单的方法it’s a pretty simple way to go. “嘿 伙计 如果我不小心刮掉一个乳头”Hey man, if I accidentally shave off a nipple, -可以拿到工伤补偿吗?-嗯-would it be covered by Workmen’s comp?-Hmm… 遗憾的是 在过去的五年里Sadly in the last five years, 这种类型的镜头完全败给了this type of shot has just been beaten into the ground 单反相机和滑动器by DSLRs and sliders. 即便是用单反拍摄的好镜头Even good movies shot on DSLR 滑动器用得也太多了have the slider overkill going on. 所以我们可以找到更好的用法So yeah, we can find a better way to use it. 比如有哪些?Well, what else is there? 你可以在战争片中看到这种镜头Another place you see the shot is in war movies. 当你想展示军队声势浩大When you want to show the vastness of an army 或围绕一个士兵进行拍摄or the world around some soldiers 就可以使用到横向位移镜头the lateral tracking shot will do the trick. 建立营地场景时绝对是首选It’s really the go-to shot for establishing a camp. -这该死的战争-这就像大海捞针一样-This goddamn war.-Like finding a needle in a stack of needles. 奔跑场景中也很好用It’s also great for running. 不管是那人在奔向命运Whether that be people running towards destiny 或者奔向心爱的女人or they’re towards the woman they love, 甚至只是在慢跑even just running to run. 对了 为什么不用慢动作呢?Hell, why not slow-motion? 或者拍汤姆·克鲁斯时Or Tom Cruise? 让开!让开!让开!让开! 我不知道为什么And I don’t know why 这种镜头在超市场景中也很好用but it also really popular for a supermarkets. 也许因为超市没有生机 有些可怕Maybe because there soulless and terrible 比如我家附近的喜互惠超市like the safeway near my house. 戈达尔就在电影中应用了Bedard seems to have done the definitive 这种“我讨厌超市”镜头“I hate supermarkets” shot in cinema. [一群人的喊叫声][a crowd of people shouting] 某些电影制作人还会一次性地使用这种镜头And there’s a bunch of other like one-off uses by certain filmmakers. 彼得·格林纳威用它使画面像一幅移动的画Peter Greenaway uses it to make the frame feel like a moving painting. 朴赞郁用它拍了一场精彩的打斗戏I’ve seen Park Chan-wook use it for an amazing fight scene. 巴斯特·基顿用它来拍动作喜剧I’ve seen Buster Keaton use it for physical comedy. [无声电影][silent movie] 斯科塞斯用它拍摄大屠杀I’ve seen Scorsese use it for a mass execution. 我也很喜欢《玩具总动员》的这个即兴场景And I also really like this one-off gag from Toy Story. [音乐][music] 一些电影制作人把它作为个人风格Some filmmakers make it a personal statement. 库布里克喜欢使用它Kubrick loved it. 我想是因为它展示了事物的原貌I think because it showed things the way they were 而不是我们想象中的那样and not how we imagine them to be. 他在《光荣之路》中使用了这种镜头He used it brilliantly in Paths of Glory to show 充分展示出战壕的长度just the extent of the war and the trenches. 《闪灵》中这种镜头随处可见And in The Shining, it’s everywhere. 用镜头的持续建立出恐惧感It’s one of the ongoing ways that’s he builds a sense of dread. 这样的场景使人感觉很压抑The environment just feels oppressive when you look at it like this. 另一个经常使用它的人是维斯·安德森Another person who uses it a lot is Wes Anderson, I think. 因为它表现出了他喜欢的那种Because it conveys that kind of dollhouse 玩具屋和平面故事书的感觉flat storybook look that he loves. 色调鲜明的场景中 角色像这样直线移动It’s also kind of inherently funny when you have 这种镜头一看就非常搞笑bright colors and people moving in straight lines like this. 我不知道 有点奇怪I don’t know, it’s kind of weird. #这是违法的#“哈哈哈……”# It’s against the law…”Hahaha…” 横向位移镜头很少用于展现亲密关系But the one thing I rarely see the lateral tracking shot used for is Intimacy. 就算你把镜头从角色身上拉得再远It’s not really an intimate shot. 也无法表现出亲密感Like no matter what you always seem to end up at a distance from the characters 甚至最伟大的电影制作人都知道这一点and even the greatest filmmakers know this. 那么怎样才能拍出不是很亲密的镜头呢So how can you make this shot which isn’t really intimate? 完全不亲密Intimate! “你收到我的花了吗……”“Did you get my flowers in the…” 这是马丁·斯科塞斯的处理方式Here’s one way by Martin Scorsese. “你没有收到……我送的……一些花……”“You didn’t get them… I sent them… some flowers… “ 镜头从角色身上拉开Track away from the character. “我可以……再打给你吗?还有”“Can…can I call you again? And…” 这很奇怪 因为它没有感染力It’s weird because it’s unmotivated 这和你所学到的正好相反and it’s the opposite of what you’re taught to do. 但它确实起作用了But it really works. 这个场景令人感到空虚 悲伤和孤独It feels empty and sad and lonely. 当镜头从他身上移开时And it makes you feel bad for Travis Bickle 你会为特拉维斯·比克感到难过by removing him from your field of view. “我给她打了好几次电话”“I tried several times to call her. “但是她只接了第一通”But after the first call, “就再也不接电话了”she wouldn’t come to the phone any longer.” 这是另一个镜头Or here’s another. 大家普遍认为这个镜头是This is widely considered 电影史上最伟大的镜头之一one of the greatest shots in the history of cinema. 这个镜头的迷人之处在于它的长度The fascinating thing about this shot is just sheer length. 足有九分钟长It’s NINE minutes long! 镜头中角色用手护着蜡烛And it’s the main character trying to take this candle 从一端走到另一端from one end to the other. 但是这个镜头只有一个视觉焦点But since the shot has only one visual focus 一个戏剧目标and one dramatic goal, 塔科夫斯基让这一时刻展开Tarkovsky can let the moment unfold. 我们看到角色的每一步行动We see every step the character takes, 每一次失败 每一次重新尝试every failure, every retry. 镜头的长度会让你陷入奇怪的沉思恍惚中The shot’s length puts you in a weird meditative trance. 场景太过简单And because it’s so simple 你可以把它解读为一个符号或隐喻you can read it as a symbol or metaphor “为你想要的付出的斗争和挣扎”for any struggle you could possibly want. 这是典型的“简单 纯粹”It’s a real model of simplicity and purity. 然后还有这样的And then there’s this: [音乐][music] 我认为这是近五年或十年内I actually think this is the most emotional use 最令人感动的移镜运用of this camera move in the last five or ten years. 为了印证这点And just to prove it, 来看看用不同的方式下这一幕是怎样的效果watch how the exact same moment plays 把画面单独拿出来 做一个直接剪切if I take out the track and do a straight cut. 或溶解转场Or a dissolve. 或推进处理Or a push in. 这个例子很好的说明横向位移是完全正确的This is a perfect example of where the lateral move is exactly right. 镜头远离角色让这个镜头更伤感Being further away from the characters makes this moment sadder, 因为我们帮不了他们because we can’t help them. 从左向右移动意味着时间已经过去Moving left to right implies that time has passed 我们再也回不去了and we can never go back. 带着这些我们回到《狼的孩子雨和雪》So all that brings us back to Wolf Children. 像这里的几个镜头Like a few shots on this list, 实际上是非常亲密的小片段it’s actually a really intimate little piece. 它展示了孩子们就在你眼前长大It shows kids growing up right before your eyes. 但不像以上这些镜头But unlike every other shot on this list 生活中拍不出这些镜头it’s actually physically impossible. 这不是写实镜头 而是种象征This isn’t a literal shot, it’s figurative. 只有通过电影的魔力才能实现It’s really only possible through the magic of movies 特别是在这个动画中and specifically in this case animation. “啊!”“Ahh!” 它在时间和空间中来回移动It moves back and forth through time and space 讲述了这些孩子成长的故事and all it does is tell the story these kids growing up. 所以即使你像我一样So even if you’re like me 不知道如何使用横向位移镜头and you don’t really understand how to use a lateral tracking shot, 看到别人恰如其分的运用也会觉得很棒it’s great to see that someone out there clearly does get it. 并且用一点实际行动And is pushing forward the visual grammar 推动了视觉语法的发展in some small concrete way. 顺便说一下By the way, 这部电影其他部分也很温馨很漂亮the rest of this film is really lovely and beautiful 最后结局可能会让你落泪and will probably make you cry at the end, 而且会看完后马上给妈妈打电话and call your mom right afterwards. 所以去看看吧So go watch it! 母亲节快乐!Happy Mother’s Day.
  • 2021-08-24《恶汉甜梦(1960)》镜头几何学嗨!我是托尼Hi! My name is Tony, 这是《一帧一画》节目and this is a quick Every Frame a Painting. 也许你能明白Maybe you get this. 有时候我看一个场景 会感觉莫名的无聊Sometimes I’m watching a scene, and I just get so bored. 这样的场景没有突出表现什么Instead of being staged uniquely, 而是“雨露均沾”the scene is just this — standard coverage. 每个人都不动 每个人都给到特写Nobody moves, everybody gets a close-up. 然后我们就被卡住了 因为接下来的五分钟只是镜头来回的切换And we are stuck here for 5 minutes cutting back and forth. 就像我们现在看到的很多电影一样It’s like a lot of films one sees today 它们就是我称之为“人物对话照片”的电影They are what I call photographs of people talking. 并且跟“电影艺术”豪无关系And bears no relation to the art of the cinema. 对此 黑泽明就有另一套办法So here’s one alternative from Akira Kurosawa. 他不去均匀的分配每个镜头Instead of going to standard coverage, 而是将整个场景塑造成简单的几何图形stage the scene in simple geometric shapes. 这是《懒夫睡汗》中的一幕This scene comes from the Bad Sleep Well, 它主要运用了两个图形——长方形和三角形and it focuses on two things — squares and triangles. 看这儿 西把包拿给了白井Here, Nishi hands the case to Shirai. 当他再次坐下时And as he sits down again. 就出现了一个简单的三角形:We get a very simple triangle: 两双眼睛和装着赃款的皮包two sets of eyes, and a bag with the stolen money. 注意黑泽明在人物出现各种反应时并没有剪辑镜头Notice that Kurosawa doesn’t cut between reactions. 而是让我们的眼睛自然的看着一个人的脸Instead our eyes naturally look at one person’s face, 然后再看向另一个人and then the other. 当白井开始害怕了 三角形也在拉长As Shirai grows afraid, the triangle stretches out. 即使我们没有注意到这点Even though we are not thinking about it, 注意这扇门 它一直在画面背景里notice that the door is always in frame in the background 默默准备着 为了这一刻……to prepare us for when… 当守山走进来时 As Moriyama approaches, 摄像机重构了画面并让白井陷入到一个长方形中the camera reframes to trap Shitai inside a square. 你刚刚在做什么?Just what are you doing? 随着白井的后退And as the shorter man backs up, 我们得到一个非常棒的构图:we get this great composition: 三个人 三双眼睛three man, three sets of eyes. 你为什不打开包?Why won’t you open it? 即使是两个人站着的人开始了对话Even though the verbal drama happens between the two standing men. 最接近画面中心的还是西的脸It’s Nishi’s face closest to center frame. 因为我们需要看到他的反应Because we need to see his reaction 并且确认他的伪装没有暴露and make sure his cover isn’t blown. 黑泽明用一只手打破了三角形 旋即又恢复了Kurosawa breaks the triangle with a hand and then a reveal. 注意西是如何只利用目光的移动Notice how just by moving his eyes. 就吸引我们注意的We pay attention to Nishi. 这时三角形也被巧妙地改变了And the triangle has suddenly changed. 当右边的人转而去关注地上的钱时The two men on the left have been brought closer together. 左边两个人被拉得更近了While the man on the right breaks away to focus on the money. 我真的不知道是怎么回事I don’t have my idea 你跟我走!Just follow me! 我们看到白井最后一次请求原谅 但没有成功We get one last attempt at forgiveness, but it doesn’t work. 白井犹豫了半秒钟后Shirai hesitates for half a second, 场景就结束了 就像刚开始一样and the scene ends much as it began 形单影只的西计划着他的下一步行动with one person alone, planning his next move. 即使他连一句话都没说过Even though he never says a word. 仅靠他的动作和眼神 三船敏郎就成了这一幕的主角Toshiro Mifune owns this scene with just his posture and his eyes. 而黑泽明依靠三角形和长方形的构图And Kurosawa, by staging it in triangles and squares, 给了我们很多视觉焦点gives our eyes multiple points to focus on, 在两分半的时间里展现了一个完整的故事and a complete story in two and half minutes. 甚至还有一些几何之美There’s even a geometric beauty about it. 先是一个人 再是两个 然后三个 两个 一个One person, then two, then three, two, one. 真是个视觉叙事的杰作It is a masterpiece of visual storytelling. 如果你喜欢这一招的话If you like this exercise, 试着研究一下黑泽明其他的作品吧try studying any other Kurosawa. 对于每部电影In each film 他都找到了大胆 简洁 视觉化的方法去讲述故事he found old simple visual ways to tell the story. 《七武士》中有包围圈和七人组Seven Samurai has circles and groups of seven. 《大保镖》有水平线和对角线Yojimbo has horizontal rows and diagonal lines. 而在《武士勤王记》中则有更多的三角形And the Hidden Fortress has triangles and more triangles. 所以如果下次你在一个场景里面安排了多个角色So the next time you have multiple characters in a scene. 别再只拍普通的特写了Don’t just shoot generic close-ups. 去创造!Be creative! 看你能弄出什么样的形状And see what kind of shapes you can make.
  • 2021-08-24《闪灵》的背后大家好 欢迎来到凡人影院Greetings, and welcome to Earthling Cinema. 我是主持人Garyx WormuloidI am your host, Garyx Wormuloid. 本期的工艺品是《闪灵》This week’s artifact is The Shining, 该影片由名导斯坦利·库布里克执导directed by visionary auteur Stan Lee Kubrick 主演可不是著名高尔夫运动员杰克·尼克劳斯and starring visionary golfer Jack Nicklaus. 电影讲的是男子杰克·托伦斯的故事The film tells the story of a human male named 他搬进了一家旅馆 就是一座“大房子”Jack Torrance who moves into a hotel, or “large house,” 因为凛冬将至 他需要找个清静的地方写作because winter is coming and he needs somewhere 而不是像星巴克那样吵闹的地方to write that isn’t another goddamn Starbucks. 杰克带了妻子温蒂 儿子丹尼Jack brings his wife, Wendy, his son, Danny, 儿子的手指朋友托尼and his son’s friend, Tony. 很多男孩都会把某个附属器官当成好朋友Most Earth males considered themselves best friends with one of their appendages, 而这个附属器官不限于手指although usually not their finger. 一个友好的老厨师向丹尼透露A kindly old scatman reveals to Danny that 他们都有一种异能they share the same mutant powers, 也就是他能感知到丹尼想摄入乳糖namely their ability to process lactose. “要不要来点冰淇淋 医生?”“How’d you like some Icecream doctor?” 老厨师将这种心灵感应称为“闪灵” 因为……The scatman refers to their telepathy as “shining,” because 因为电影就叫《闪灵》Hey, that’s the name of the movie! 他还告诉丹尼别进237号房间He also tells Danny to stay out of Room 237, 因为他知道人类小孩都很听话since he knows human children are all about doing what they’re told. 接下来发生的事你知道 丹尼骑车到237号房间Next thing you know, Danny motors over to Room 237 然后这个熊孩子就被扼住了脖子and gets himself strangled like an idiot. “你脖子怎么了?”“What happened to your neck?” 杰克从繁忙的日程中抽时间独自进了237号房间Jack takes some time away from his busy schedule to check it out for himself, 但他发现的却是淫荡而腐朽的尸体but all he finds is some horny old corpse. 简直让人崩溃!Talk about a dead end! 他去了酒吧 喝下一些烈酒He retires to the bar, where he downs some spirits 心情也愈加不爽while getting down with some spirits. 温蒂发现了杰克的小说Wendy discovers Jack’s memoirs, 里面有很多扰乱人心的拼写和语法错误which contain some alarming spelling and syntax errors. 杰克请温蒂提出有建设性的批评Jack begs her for more constructive criticism, 而温蒂认为这些都得重写but she pushes for a page one rewrite. 现在作为一个破碎家庭的孩子Now a child of a broken home, 丹尼转向了街头艺术的地下世界Danny turns to the underground world of street art. 此时 杰克拿着一把斧子回来了Meanwhile, Jack returns with an axe, 他显然忘记了自己姓甚名谁apparently having forgotten his first name. 不知何故 杰克把丹尼追进了旅馆前的树林迷宫Jack chases Danny into the hedge maze that is right in front of the hotel for some reason, 但是丹尼沿着自己来时的脚印逃回去了but Danny escapes by doing the moonwalk. 温蒂紧紧抱住了丹尼 然后带他逃跑Wendy grabs him and bolts, 杰克被冷冻成冰 不再躁动的他也没能逃过一劫proving that sometimes cooler heads don’t prevail. 最后一张几十年前的照片揭示了凶兆伏线:Finally, a photograph from decades earlier reveals a sinister twist: 照片上杰克的发型和现在不一样Jack used to have a different haircut. 《闪灵》是世界上数一数二的恐怖电影The Shining is one of Earth’s most famous horror films, 但它有意识地反转经典恐怖电影的手法and yet it consciously inverts classic horror tropes 似乎瞧不上这些like it don’t even care. 在大多数恐怖电影中In most horror films, “怪物”在跳出来吓死你之前the “monster” is shrouded in mystery 一直笼罩着一层神秘的面纱until it jumps out and spooks ya, 而且影片中没有怪物的视角and nothing is seen from its perspective. 但在《闪灵》这部影片里 我们对杰克知之甚详But here, Jack Torrance is the character we know best, 我们眼睁睁地看他变成了怪物and he becomes the “monster” before our very eye sockets. 电影对恐怖原型的蔑视体现在In its defiance of horror archetypes, the film shows 对传统媒体的不屑上its contempt for traditional media. “她是个实打实的鬼故事迷 恐怖电影迷”“She’s a, uh, confirmed ghost story and horror film addict.” 杰克言谈间常常透露出对电影和电视的轻蔑Jack often speaks dismissively of film and television 好像这些真的很荒唐一样as if it is something absurd. “没关系的 他不是在电视上看到过嘛”“It’s ok – he saw it on the television.” 接招吧 传统媒体!Take that, traditional media! 此外 杰克逐渐发疯时Moreover, as Jack loses his mind, he talks more and 其言谈举止越来越像电视里的角色more performatively, like a TV character. “温蒂 我回家了”“Wendy, I’m home.” 电影中的这个预见很惊悚Eerily prescient, as television 因为电视确实对世人造成了大脑损害eventually gave Earth’s entire population brain damage. IMDB网上一些很有人气的潜水者曾猜想:Some of Earth’s most renowned IMDB lurkers have posited that, 影片中“眺望旅馆”建在印第安人的墓地上because the Overlook Hotel is built on a Native American burial ground, “这里本来是印第安人的坟场”“The site is supposed to be located on an Indian burial ground.” 而且影片中还存在有关印第安人的意象and features Native American imagery, 所以电影控诉美国历史it represents America’s history of “忽视”了曾对印第安人犯下的滔天罪行“overlooking” the atrocities done to Native Americans. 他们还认为Furthermore, 旅馆萦绕着被压抑的暴力hotel’s haunting is the supposed manifestation of that suppressed violence. 但是 后来经证实However, it was later revealed that 影片中之所以有印第安人意象this imagery was due to the fact that director 是因为导演是“克里夫兰印第安人”棒球队的巨粉Stan Kubrick was a huge Cleveland Indians fan. 该影片的推进主要靠视角The film hinges on perspective, which is kept 即故意模棱两可 使逻辑无法识别即将发生的事deliberately ambiguous to make the “logic” of what is happening impossible to discern. 影片一开始采用全知的幽灵视角The beginning is marked by an omniscient, ghostly perspective 掠过水面的镜头给人的感觉像弗拉门戈舞者在舞动that dances across the water like some sort of Flamenco Jesus. 这个具有开拓性的斯坦尼康镜头These pioneering Steadicam shots of Danny 一直跟踪着丹尼的塑料小车burning plastic on his chopper 表明有什么在看着他suggest that someone is watching him – 难道是旅馆里的邪恶力量吗?perhaps the evil forces within the hotel? “它不是真的”“It isn’t real.” 接下来就是主观现实和客观现实之间的战争What follows is a battle between subjective and objective reality, 就算用上中子鱼雷也不能一决胜负and this is one battle that can’t be won with a neutron torpedo. 有时我们通过某个特定角色的眼睛看影像Sometimes we see images through the eyes of a certain character. 比如丹尼的视角Like Danny, for instance. 丹尼是一个视角He’s a character. 其它时候 我们看影像时是以纯客观视角Other times, we see images in a purely objective way, 也就是正常呈现aka regular style. 劳埃德在吧台后出现When Lloyd appears behind the bar, 我们看到他时不是以杰克的视角we see him not from Jack’s point of view 电影用了一个简单的反切镜头but as a simple reverse shot, 就像劳埃德本来就在那里一样as if he’s actually there. 我们认为丹尼看到的只是幻觉Are we to believe Danny’s visions are merely visions, 但是那些事情到底在杰克身上发生过吗?but the things happening to Jack are really happening? 还有你怎么看温蒂和那只熊呢?What about Wendy and that bear guy? 他们全身都在叫嚣着“会发生还是不会发生”They’ve got “will they or won’t they” written all over them. 尽管有时台词很模糊Occasionally, though, the lines are hazier. 杰克看着迷宫的微观模型Jack looks at a miniature model of the maze and 看到温蒂和丹尼在里面跑来跑去sees Wendy and Danny running around inside, 这于理是不可能的which would be impossible. 我是说 他俩虽然个子不高I mean, they’re short, 但也没矮到那种程度but not that short. 随后 杰克的一个幽灵朋友让他走出落锁的库房Later, one of Jack’s apparition buddies lets Jack out of the locked pantry, 尽管杰克没有钥匙之类的东西despite his lack of a key or any corporeal form. “塔伦斯先生 恐怕你不能温和地处理这件事了”“I fear you will have to deal with this matter in the harshest possible way, Mr. Torrance.” 所以电影这次玩儿得不是视角So now it’s not just perspective being manipulated, 它居然挑战了物理现实?but physical reality? 对呀!Yikes! 今晚我要蒙着头睡觉了!I’m sleeping with my head under the covers tonight! 旅馆里的超自然因素有意含糊不清The supernatural element at the hotel is purposefully vague, 但一些迹象表明 其中有恶魔的介入but some signs point to the involvement of Earth’s Devil, 据说恶魔们住在佐治亚州who by all accounts resided in Georgia. 杰克援引了浮士德的传说Jack invokes the Faust legend, “给我一杯啤酒 我就出卖我该死的灵魂”“I’d sell my goddamn soul for just a glass of beer.” 这句话一说完劳埃德就出现了immediately prompting Lloyd to appear with 脸上还带着商标式的假笑that trademark smirk on his face. 当温蒂提议离开旅馆时 杰克崩溃了Jack freaks out when Wendy says they should leave, 他指出自己作为旅馆工作人员已经“签了合同”citing the fact that he “signed a contract” with the hotel staff. “我签了一纸协议 一份合同”“I have signed a letter of agreement – a contract!” 这份合同类似于浮士德和魔鬼签下的契约similar to the contract Faust signed with the Devil’s hotel staff. 杰克说:我想知道谁给我付的酒水钱Jack says “I’m the kind of man who likes to know who’s buying his drinks,” 但是劳埃德回答:你不用管这个but Lloyd responds, “That doesn’t concern you.” 买单的是恶魔?旅馆?Is it the devil? The hotel? 还是导演斯坦利·库布里克?Director Stanny Kubes? 也许有些问题最好不要回答Perhaps some questions are better left unanswered? 这里是凡人影院 我是主持人Garyx WormuloidFor Earthling Cinema, I’m Garyx Wormuloid.
  • 2021-08-24特权问题|8-bit哲学第一季如果你愿意的话 想象一下 有一个名叫Firion的勇士正想方设法为Imagine, if you will, that a warrior named Firion is seeking vengeance for losses suffered 在一个邪恶君主手中受到的损失而复仇 但他的朋友Leon来自一个比较富有的家庭at the hands of an evil Emperor. But his friend Leon comes from a much wealthier family, can 能够买得起更好的武器 能够雇佣一支强大的军队来支持他的计划afford nicer weapons, and can hire out a large army to support his mission. Firion可能会试着对Leon说“小伙子 注意你的特权”Firion might be tempted to tell Leon, ‘Dude, check your privilege.’ 但是 Leon并不是自己选择出生在富有的家庭 他为什么要为此道歉呢But, Leon didn’t choose to be born into wealth, why then should he apologize for it? 据存在主义者让•保罗•萨特所言 我们生来According to existentialist Jean Paul Sartre, we’re thrown into the world 作为某一特定文化 宗教 语言和社会经济地位的组成部分as part of a particular culture, religion, language, and socio-economic status 没有任何发言权 这些特征被萨特称为人的现实性without any say in the matter. These are the features of what Sartre calls our facticity—the 是我们生来就有的独立部分individual parts of ourselves that we’re born with. 虽然我们对人的现实性没有控制权 但是我们总是And although we have no control over our facticity—we are always free to choose our relation to 可以自由选择我们和我们所处世界的关系 这种自由是我们生而为人的一部分the world that we live in. This freedom is just part of the human condition. We define 我们通过确定我们生活的目标来定义我们的存在 我们让自己的生活变成our existence by determining our purpose in life—we make our life our own particular 我们的特别计划 事物只有在这个由我们自由创作的计划框架内才有价值project—things have value only in the frame of the project that we freely create. 在他的巨作存在和虚无中萨特举了几个例子来证明In his colossal work Being and Nothingness Sartre uses several examples to illustrate 人的绝对自由humanity’s radical freedom. 对于萨特来说 就算是一个囚犯也是绝对自由的 他可以选择尝试越狱 他可以To Sartre, even a prisoner is radically free. He can choose to attempt an escape, he can 选择重塑导致他入狱的生活目标 又或者他可以选择choose to restructure his purpose in life given his incarceration, or he can choose 去结束自己的生命 他被限制人身自由的事实并不是真正约束他自由的东西to end his life—the fact that he’s locked up isn’t what restricts his freedom, rather 他选择相信是不自由导致了他现在的状况it’s his choice to believe, given his situation, that he is un-free. 因为这个囚犯的目标是想在监狱外生活Because the prisoner’s own created goal in life resides outside the prison 并不是物理意义上的锁链使他烦恼 而是他不愿意承认他的目标和他目前的处境相一致It’s not the physical bars that cause him anguish. It’s in his unwillingness to conform his goal in life to his current situation 你看 每个特定的人体验自由You see, freedom is only ever experienced by each particular person in the context of 只根据他们自己的计划 他们的结局 和他们对世界的自我理解的背景下their own project, their own ends, and their own understanding of the world. Firion可以把他破旧的盔甲和杂乱的队伍与Leon训练有素的军队Firion could compare his ragged armor and motley crew to Leon’s disciplined battalion 和华丽的盔甲比较 但是这对Firion来说和他的目标没有任何关系and shining plate mail but it has nothing to do with Firion’s goal for himself. Each 每个人对自己的处境处理有计划的自由-他们有自己的目标person is their own free project with their own situation—their own personal quest. 因为Leon比Firion有更多支配权并不意味着Leon更自由Because Leon has more at his disposal than Firion doesn’t mean that Leon is freer—both 两个人在选择自己的结局上都是自由的 同样地没有所谓的优越的生命are free to construct their own ends. As such there is no superior life situation because 因为没有标准来评判哪一种方式能够创造有意义的生活there is no metric to decide who has the best way to make meaning in their lives. There 没有一种标准来决定谁拥有最好的人生计划isn’t a way to determine who has the best life plan. 对于萨特来说 这意味着现实性或者一个人的物质环境并不能组成特权For Sartre, it means that facticity, or a person’s material situation doesn’t constitute 我们在创造意义上都是绝对自由的 这就是关键所在privilege—we are all radically free to create meaning. And that is what matters. 话说回来 我们应该把富有的白人看成特权的权威吗But then again, should we really look to a rich white man to be an authority on privilege?
  • 2021-08-24资本主义是否对你有害?|8-bit哲学第一季资本主义对你有害吗?Is Capitalism bad for you? 想像自己是个正在地里拔萝卜的劳动者Picture yourself as a laborer in a field picking turnips. 你被迫要求增加产量You are compelled to increase production. 也许你担心能否保住你的工作Perhaps you are worried about keeping your job. 以及其他人是否比你更用功Perhaps you are worried that other people are working harder than you. 重要的是 你必须拔更多的萝卜The important thing is this: you have to pick more turnips. 不论如何也不能停下来休息You can’t stop now… no matter what. 这种焦虑源自何处呢?Where might this anxiety come from? 对于社会学家马克思·韦伯来说For sociologist Karl Emil Maximilian “Max” Weber, 现代资本主义与马克思的理论不同modern Capitalism differs from Marx’s theory 工人们不仅仅被简单地边缘化Workers are not simply alienated. 他们还受制于人性被剥夺的过程They are subject to a process that strips them of their very humanity. 对韦伯来说 资本主义就像个铁笼子For Weber Capitalism is an iron cage 把工人们暴露在无法适应的紧张状态之中that exposes workers to incapacitating anxiety. 一切都是为了积累利润All for the accumulation of profit. 著于1904 新教伦理与资本主义精神Written in 1904, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism 是韦伯试对 美式资本主义是从一套is Weber’s attempt to explicate the ways that 特定的信仰中 也就是卡尔文教派中American style Capitalism grew from a specific set of beliefs, 发展起来的解释namely Calvinism. 新教伦理是一种对工作的号召You see, the protestant ethic is a calling to work 是向上帝展现荣耀一种方式a way of showing glory to god. 卡尔文主义者不是被要求工作The Calvinist is not just called to work 而是处于害怕死后永堕地狱的压力之下they are pressured via the fear of eternal damnation. 这必定引起一些严重的焦虑And this has to cause some serious angst. 因受到老板的期待 工人们努力在Beset by the expectations of a boss, 截止期前完成工作working to finish a deadline, 苦于精打细算的生活aching to make ends meet, 在每天奴役生活中挣扎struggling for everyday salvation, 资本主义本身就会产生焦虑Capitalism creates anxiety in its own right. 卡尔文教徒相信宿命论Calvinists believed in predestination, 或是说相信 只有很少的人被上帝选中or the idea that very few people are selected by God 有资格进入天堂的金色大门to gain admittance to the golden gates of heaven, 然而剩下的大部分人注定要永堕地狱while the majority of the world is condemned to hell. Forever. 为了确保救赎In order to ensure salvation 卡尔文教徒不知疲倦地不停工作the Calvinist worked tirelessly, endlessly, 而不为拥有财产without lavish possessions, 因为他们的救赎就关乎于此for their very salvation was at stake. 他们向周围的人展示They showed their neighbors 他们凭纪律性的工作和实践而被选中they were chosen through disciplined work and practice. 在资本主义社会的卡尔文主义压力下生活Living with the pressures of Calvanism in a Capitalist society 使得每早起床都变得困难makes it difficult to get up each morning 更不用说通勤and make the morning commute. 现代的资本主义有类似的说法:With modern Capitalism there is a similar parallel: 努力工作 你会得到回报Work hard and you will be rewarded. 这其实是“自力更生”的准则It is the mantra of “picking yourself up by your bootstraps.” 资本主义在卡尔文教派找到了完美的工人With Calvinism, Capitalism found the perfect worker. 新教徒为使上帝荣耀而对职业Protestantism’s dedication to a calling, 对需求 对工作的奉献to the need to work for the glory of God, 创造了一个为渴望created an environment 永恒奖励的劳动者们铺平了道路的环境that paved the way for a work force eager for eternal reward. 随时间的推移 卡尔文主义的宗教实践:Over time the sacred practices of Calvinsim: 努力工作 自制 具体的日常实践hard work, self-restraint, specific routine practices, 有效率 不懒惰efficiency, lack of idleness— 这一切都变为西方职业伦理的特征all became the defining traits of a western work ethic. 这就是为什么美国人It’s the reason why Americans 倾向于常工作而少休假tend to work long hours, take fewer vacations, 午休更短且将周日留作休息时间的原因have short lunch breaks, and reserve Sunday for rest. 这是建立在劳动者宗教原则上的It is the secular expectations of a work force 世俗期望founded on religious principles. 如果说过去实体的残余是幽灵的话If ghosts are the remnants of past entities, 新教则常萦绕于现代资本主义的周围Protestantism haunts modern Capitalism 我们生活在恐惧天罚的We are left with the echoes of religious anxiety 宗教焦虑的阴影下over the fear of damnation. 亲爱的观众Well beloved viewer, 如果“自助者天助之”if “God helps those that help themselves” 那谁来助资本主义呢?who does modern Capitalism help?
  • 2021-08-24动物应当拥有人类的权利吗?(神奇宝贝+物种歧视)|8-bit哲学第二季伊布 喵喵 杰尼龟和小拳石Fluffy McFlufferson, Pussy Meowsalot, Turtle Turtleson, and Muffin head. 2014年 美国人为爱宠花费了In 2014, Americans spent over $56 billion dollars 560多亿美元on their beloved pets. 但是有些动物却经常受到虐待But how can we reconcile this affinity 我们如何才能调和这种矛盾呢?with the horrific ways in which animals are often treated? 思想家笛卡尔认为Thinkers like Rene Descartes have argued that 动物缺乏思想since animal lack consciousness, 它们本质上是机器they’re essentially machines, 所以它们没有道德地位and thus do not have moral status. 稍温和的观点认为A less extreme view is that 动物有意识 但这种意识如此短暂animals are conscious, but their consentience is so fleeting that 因此他们不像人类一样那么在意外物things don’t matter to them like they do to us. 但在澳洲哲学家彼得·辛格看来But to Australian philosopher Peter Singer, 根据物种特性来划定道德边界非常武断drawing moral boundaries based on species 他在《动物解放》中提出characteristics is utterly arbitrary. In his book Animal Liberation, Singer argues that 我们怀有“物种偏见” 就是说 我们认为we suffer from a form of “speciesism.” In other words, since there is a belief that 动物不具备人类所拥有的意识水平animals don’t share the level of consciousness that humans exhibit, they don’t deserve 因而它们不应该得到相同的道德关怀to be given similar moral consideration. 当然 我们有理由认为动物不应该享有和人类同样的权利Granted, it’s reasonable to suggest that animals and humans should not share the same rights — 比如投票权 皮卡丘将会浪费这一权利the right to vote, for instance, would be wasted on a Pikachu. But is it not 但是交给那些没有能力做出理性选择的人 不也是一种浪费吗also wasted on people who are incapable of making rational choices? Yet, we don’t consider 事实上我们并不会认为 他们和我们不同those individuals as altogether different from the rest of us. 显然 在物种偏见这件事上我们前后矛盾Clearly, we are inconsistent with our application of speciesism. 辛格说 平等不应该仅仅基于意识或智力水平To Singer, the principle of equality shouldn’t be based solely on consciousness or intelligence. 生物承受苦难的能力是最重要的What’s most important is the capacity for a being to experience pain and suffering. 认识到动物会承受痛苦 也是人类自我发现的一种道德特征Recognizing animals’ capacity to suffer is as much a moral characteristic as recognizing our own. 不止一种哲学理论认为According to at least one philosophical theory, 道德行为能够减少痛苦 带来欢乐moral actions are those that increase pleasures and decrease pains. 它最初被称为享乐主义Initially known as hedonism, 后来边沁通俗地称之为功利主义and later popularized by Jeremy Bentham as utilitarianism, 这种哲学观认为this philosophy holds that 快乐是唯一一件本质上的好事the only intrinsically good thing is pleasure, 而痛苦则是唯一一件本质上的坏事and the only intrinsically bad thing is pain. 因此 予以痛苦就是不好的 无论对方是人或动物Hence, inflicting pain — whether it be against humans OR animals — is wrong. For Singer, 辛格认为 应根据具备痛苦承受能力这一特征 来衡量生物能否享有道德关怀the capacity to suffer is the characteristic that qualifies any living thing to moral consideration, 因为痛苦是人与动物都尽量避开的东西because pain is something that both animals and humans alike try to avoid. 这样想想:石头没有兴趣躲避被踢 但一只狗会Think about it like this: a stone has no interest in avoiding being kicked, but a dog does — 因此 它理应受到道德礼遇and therefore, deserves moral treatment. 那么亲爱的观众 请扪心自问:So dearest viewer, ask yourself: 如果培根是用皮卡丘的肉做的 你还吃吗?would you still eat bacon if it came from Pikachus? 亲爱的观众们 大家好 这里是Disembodied British VoiceHello, dears viewer, Disembodied British Voice here. 下一集播出时如果你希望得到通知If you want to be notified when my next episode comes out, 请一定点击这个巨大并且厚脸皮的订阅按钮be sure to click this giant, shameless subscribe button, 是的 就是它 你值得拥有yes, the one right here, you can’t miss it. 同时如果你喜欢看这个节目Also, it’s the time for another vote 并且希望能更多看到社会学话题if you’d like to see the show broaden its horizons to sociological tissues 就点击这里唤醒雪脚怪then wake up snow legs by clicking here 如果不喜欢的话 点击这向妖怪发射精灵球if not then throw a mastoball on youtube by clicking here 亲爱的观众朋友们 谢谢观看thanks for watching beloved viewer
  • 2021-08-24《赝品(1973)》如何拍摄视频简介你好 我是Tony 欢迎来到逐桢画面Hi my name is Tony and this is Every Frame a Painting. 因为这个频道进展的顺利 似乎意味着So this channel’s been going well, which means it’s about time 到了该忏悔的时候?-Time for a confession? 是的 忏悔的时候Yeah, time for a confession. 我已经从这部电影里偷取了比其他电影更多的想法I have stolen more ideas from this film than from any other -赝品-赝品-F for Fake -F for Fake -女士们 先生们通过介绍的方式-Ladies and gentlemen, by way of introduction -这是一部关于欺骗的电影-this is a film about trickery -以及诡计-and fraud -关于谎言-about lies. 抱歉 这不是正确的打开方式 我们重来一遍好吗Wait sorry I’m doing this wrong. Can we start over? 这是Orson Welles的一部散文电影 它叫赝品This is an essay film by Orson Welles. It’s called F for Fake. 它也是我的个人的圣经之一And it’s one of my personal bibles. 我所知道的一切关于编辑事都是习自这部电影Everything I know about editing, I learned from this film. 但是今天 我想讨论一个基础的事情But today, I want to talk about one basic thing: 结构 我们发现了一个非常简单的规则 你们可能都已经听说过-We found out this really simple rule that maybe you have all heard before -但是我们花费了大量时间去了解它-but it took us a long time to learn it. 当你在组织一部视频散文时When you’re structuring a video essay 有一件事你肯定想要避免there’s one thing you really want to avoid. -我认为就是这样-然后呢?-I think that’s about it. -And then? -不 就是它 -然后呢-No, that’s it. -And then? -没有然后了因为我已经点完单了-然后呢-Then nothing else cuz I’m done ordering -And then? 如果你讲述一个故事-If you tell a story that’s 不停地然后然后 -那么你就陷入了大麻烦-you’re in big trouble. 这是我在我自己的工作中的第一个错误This is the #1 mistake I make in my own work. 像这 看看它有多重复Like here. Watch how repetitive this is. 选择拿着这些钱-Choosing to take the money. 选择不抵抗-Choosing not to fight back. 选择隐藏他们的情绪-Choosing to hide their emotions. 选择不相信某人-Choosing not to trust someone. 选择等到不安结束-Choosing to wait out the discomfort. 选择去达到-Choosing to get– 这是一个可以任意排列的列表 这是它无聊的原因This is a list you could put in any order. That’s why it’s so boring. 你所写下的每一点该发生的-What should happen between every beat that you’ve written down 要么是“所以”要么是“但是”-is either the word THEREFORE or BUT. 我想说的是你有这么一个想法 它碰巧是-So what i’m saying is you come up with an idea that’s like, this happens – 那些是什么 – 我的阴毛 我从Scott Tenorman那得到的-What are those? -My pubes. I got em from Scott Tenorman. – 因此这就发生了-and THEREFORE this happens. – Cartman 你不需要买阴毛 你自己身上也有-Cartman, you don’t buy pubes. You grow them yourself. – 你是说阴毛没有任何价值- 是的-You’re saying pubes are worth nothing? -Yeah. – 但是发生了这样一件事-BUT this happens. – 我将把阴毛给你- 酷毙了-And I’ll give you the pubes. -Sweet. – 因此它发生了-THEREFORE this happens. – 噢 该死的-Aw goddamn it! 贯穿这部电影 Orson Welles做了完全相同的事So throughout this movie, Orson Welles does the exact same thing. 除了他没有连接场景 而是连接了想法Except he doesn’t connect scenes, he connects thoughts. – 你是个画家 你为什么会希望人们制造赝品-You’re a painter. Why do you want people to do fakes? – 因为赝品和真实的一样好并且也存在市场需求-Because fakes are as good as the real ones and there’s a market and a demand – 如果没有艺术市场 赝品也会不复存在-If you didn’t have an art market, then fakers could not exist. 尽管这部电影是个散文电影Even though this movie is an essay 每一刻都有着南方公园的连接逻辑each moment has the connective logic of a South Park episode. 在这部电影里的第二个规则是多个故事平行叙述The second rule in this movie is to have more than one story, moving in parallel – 我会再次引用Hitchcock 他说制造电影的名字是回归牧野-I’ll quote Hitchcock again. He said the name of making movies is – 他完全正确-He’s absolutely right. -你想进行两件事-You want to have two things going. -你抵达其中一件的高潮 再转向另一件-You reach the peak of one, you go to the other. -我希望你知道自己在做什么-I hope you know what you’re doing. -你自主选择事件 当它不再有趣就丢弃它-You pick the other up where you want it When it loses interest, drop it. 这在散文电影中是如何实现的呢How does this work in an essay film? -好的 假设有两个故事 首先构建其中的一个-Well, let’s say you have two stories. Let one of them build up. -当它达到最高兴趣时 切换到另一个 并开始构建另一个-When it reaches peak interest, switch to the other. Let this one build. -当这个也达到顶峰时 回归到第一个 简单明了 对不对-And when this gets to the top, go back to the first. Simple, right? -然而赝品不仅仅有两件事-Except F for Fake doesn’t just have two things. 还有关于Orson Welles ,Howard HughesThere’s also stories about Orson Welles, Howard Hughes 一个名叫Oja的女士 甚至如何制作这部电影的故事a woman named Oja, and even the making of this movie. 通过仔细构建每一个故事 使得Welles能够在六个故事中来回穿插And by building each story carefully, Welles can jump between all six of these 而不会丢失观众without ever losing the audience. 因为当我制作视频散文时 这就是我大脑中所想的So when I’m making a video essay, this is what’s going through my head. -然后呢-没有然后了-And then? -No “and then!” 我都是通过观看这部电影所学到的And I got all of that from watching this film. 让我收获最大的是:不是关于你所得到的Which more than anything has taught me: it’s not about what you get. 而是你如何切入并从另一端出来It’s how you cut it and what comes out the other end. 记住 视频散文不是散文 而是电影Remember, video essays aren’t essays. They’re films. 因此你想要像一个电影制作者去构建和调整他们So you want to structure and pace them like a filmmaker would. 因此和但是 与此同时 回归牧野Therefore and But. Meanwhile, back at the ranch. 如果你不相信我 你至少也该相信Orson WellesAnd if you don’t believe me, you should at least trust Orson Welles 他在40多年前就试图指出这一点who somehow figured this out over 40 years ago. -为什么不呢 我是个江湖骗子-Why not? I’m a charlatan. 无论如何 我们来整理这个散文But whatever. Let’s wrap up this essay. -现在是介绍时间-Now it’s time for an introduction. 你好 我叫Tony 这总结了逐桢画面的第一年Hi, my name is Tony and this concludes Year One of Every Frame a Painting. 感谢你们的观看I’d like to thank you for watching. -祝你们有一个愉快的-and wish you all a very pleasant 晚上-good evening. 字幕由Amara.org.community提供Subtitles by the Amara.org community
  • 2021-08-24冒充者 (2012)您好 我是托尼 帧影帧画将带您赏析影片Hi, my name is Tony and this is Every Frame a Painting, where I analyze film form. 今天的电影是《冒充者》 由巴特·莱顿导演于2012年Today’s movie is The Imposter, from 2012, directed by Bart Layton. 如果你没看过它 请不要看这段视频了If you haven’t seen it, please read nothing more. 也别去查这是什么类型的电影Don’t even look up what genre this thing is. 立刻关掉视频 去网飞搜索看片 因为我会毁掉影片为你营造的感觉Just close this video, browse over to Netflix and watch it, because I am gonna spoil everything. 你有5秒时间终止这段录像You have 5 seconds to terminate this tape. 准备好了?Ready? 5 4 3 25, 4, 3, 2 让我们深入挖掘吧Let’s dig in. 我认为巴特·莱顿做了个最明智最简单的决定I think Bart Layton made one of the smartest, simplest decisions I’ve ever seen for a doc and it’s this: 这故事中的每个主题都是基于标准采访风格拍摄 演员并没有注视镜头Every subject in this story is shot in a normal interview style, looking off frame at someone else. 除了坏人……Except for our bad guy… [片段]从我记事起 我就想成为别人[clip] From as long as I remember, I wanted to be someone else. 他是直视我们的… who looks right at us. 那真是易如反掌That’s it. Dead simple. 看 电影总喜欢安排反派角色See, the movies have always had a fascination with bad guys, 我们总是这样看着他们的眼睛and we’ve always had this way of looking them right in the eye, 无论他们是黑帮 食人族 反动派 精神病人 日本女子还是莱昂纳多·迪卡普里奥whether they be gangsters, cannibals, sociopaths, psychos, japanese girls or Leonardo DiCaprio. 我喜欢侦探电影或恐怖片直视镜头的情节And I love it when a detective story or a thriller plays moments into the lens. 乔纳森·德姆在《沉默的羔羊》里经常这样表演 他可以令你……Jonathan Demme does this a lot in Silence of the Lambs, which is all about getting you… [片段]慢慢地靠近……[clip] Closer… ……进入她的顶空…into her headspace. 像这样 在狭小的空间里扮成孩子和女人 只是小事一桩Just the little things, like the experience of being shorter and female in a room like this. [片段]现在继续[clip] Go on now. 这是来自《黄道十二宫》的一个场景Or here’s a scene from Zodiac. 这是第一次采访我们的主要嫌疑犯This is the first interview with our prime suspect. 三个侦探都想查明:这家伙是凶手吗?All three of the detectives are trying to figure out: is this guy the killer? 当他的说法值得怀疑 看向镜头的时候 芬奇就会剪下画面And when he says something suspicious, look at the shots Fincher cuts to. [片段]我们会查的[clip] Well, we’ll be checking in on that. 你曾住在南加利福尼亚?Were you ever in Southern California? 这场戏的高潮是:And the climax of the scene is this: 我不是黄道十二宫I’m not the Zodiac. 而且如果我是 肯定不会告诉你And if I was, I certainly wouldn’t tell you. 所以电影要观众作出判断:So the movie’s asking you to judge: 你怎么看这家伙?what do you think about this guy? 但剧情片中 真的很难在整个影片里 让演员全部时间都直视镜头But in fiction films, it’s really hard to sustain a whole movie with someone looking into the lens the entire time. 真的太难了It’s just too much. [片段]是的[clip] Yeah. 但如果你去看纪录片……But if you go to documentaries… [片段]引用这句话 因为我清楚地知道我想说什么[clip] Introduce the sentence, because I know exactly what I wanted to say. —继续说!—好的– Go ahead! – Ok. ……你会遇到埃罗尔·莫里斯 他一直这么做…you’ll run into Errol Morris, who does it all the time. 他的目标是成为第一人For him, the goal is to achieve the first-person, 那像是 你感觉自己真的在房间里和这些角色谈话the sense that you’re really in the room with these people talking to them. 当他们为自己辩解的时候 眼神并没有接触到你And when they explain themselves, they don’t break eye contact with you, 所以你更容易同情他们so it makes it easier for you to empathize with them. 这就是《冒充者》中相机的设置So that’s the camera setup for The Imposter. 这种角度使我们仿佛和坏人处于同一房间 审判他This angle puts us in the same room as the bad guy, judging him. 却也使我们很容易被他十分具有说服力的语言影响判断But the same angle also makes us really susceptible to have persuasive he is. 我们知道他是坏人 但那无济于事In other words,we know he’s the bad guy, but that doesn’t protect us. 如果你仔细观察 会发现电影中其他一系列决定皆由此而来If you watch closely, you’ll see a bunch of other decisions in the film that stem from this. 大多数镜头的再现是拍摄自冒充者的视角 他甚至口型同步……Most of the reconstructions are shot from the imposter’s point-of-view. He even lip-syncs… [片段]我没有主动告诉他们受到了性虐待 而是诱导他们来问我[clip] I wasn’t the one who was telling them I’ve been sexually abused. I made them ask me that. ……从过去到现在…across past and present. 我们看到其他人的目光来自镜头上方或下方 但我们的目光是水平的Other people we see from above or from below, but we’re eye level here. 加上拍摄这些主题使用了全景 所以你能看到他们所处的地点和环境Plus, these subjects are framed in depth, so you can see their environments and where they come from. 但拍摄冒充者时用的背景是模糊的 甚至没有一个开头告诉我们他是谁But the imposter’s background is literally a blur. He doesn’t even have a title card telling us who he is. 所有这些都清楚地表现了导演的意图 但为什么?Ok, so all of these are clearly directorial choices. But why? 为什么电影的处理方式能够让坏人控制故事节奏 还有它是如何拍摄的?Why set up the movie so that the bad guy controls the story and how it’s framed? 因为电影想和你耍花招Because the movie wants to trick you. 不能一下子让你“明白了”Not in a “gotcha!” kind of way. 只是导演想让你被这个家伙说服Just that the director wants you to experience this guy’s persuasiveness. 看 这家伙通过很多事件告诉观众他如何对别人说谎 如何骗过每个人See, he spends most of the story telling us how he lied to other people and how he tricked everyone. 由此我们知道不该相信他说的话So we know we shouldn’t trust what he says. 然而电影三分之二的情节中 他都对此加以利用:But then two-thirds of the way through the film, he plays on that: 为什么那个家庭这么容易接受他?难道他们过于相信他了吗?Why did the family accept him so easily? Aren’t they too trusting of him? [片段]我不需要科伦波把所有的事情拼在一起[clip] I didn’t need to be Columbo to put all the pieces together. 我是说 他们为什么会接纳这个家伙 对吗?I mean, why else would they accept this guy, right? [片段]他们杀了他[clip] They killed him. 该死!Oh, shit! [片段]他们当中有凶手 有知情人 还有人置若罔闻[clip] Some of them did it, some of them knew of it and some of them choose to ignore it. 等等 什么?Wait, what? 去他妈的!Fuck him! 看 对于这个故事 大多数人自然的反应是鄙视巴克利一家人See, the natural reaction of a lot of people to this case is to look down on the Barclay family. 觉得他们装聋作哑或轻易地被人玩弄To see them as being dumb or easily manipulated. 我想说 电影其实有一些火药味I mean, the movie even gives some ammunition. 西班牙?那不像跨国案吗?You know, Spain? Isn’t that like across the country? 还有 谁认不出自己的孩子?Plus, who doesn’t recognize their own kid? 电影让你相信了这些So the movie lets you believe that. 它并没有不让你提出异议 只是让你相信先入为主的事情It’s not shoving it down your throat, it just lets you believe what you’re already predisposed to believe. 然后你掉进了上述的陷阱And then you fall for the same trap. 因为你的大脑已经思考过 这家伙所做的事都是一目了然的 可以确信无疑Because your brain was already thinking it, all this guy has to do was look at you and confirm it. 这部电影是否对你产生了效果 我不敢说Whether this movie works for you or not, I can’t say. 我能肯定 自己确实落进了它的圈套I can say that I definitely fell for it. 我认为这个电影引起了很多家庭的共鸣And I think this film actually has a lot of empathy for the family. 对于90分钟的电影 它让你以他们的方式经历了故事:For 90 minutes, it lets you experience the story the way they would have: 看着一个接一个疯狂扭曲的场面 直到你的思想和感觉变得麻木with one crazy twist after another, until you don’t know what to think or feel. 也许在影片末尾 你会更明白他们怎么那么容易And maybe at the end of it, you understand a little better how they could have been tricked 被显而易见的事情欺骗的by something that seems so obvious to you or me. 或者你还不明白 只是骂他们有精神病Or maybe you don’t, and you’re a fucking psycho. 字幕由Amara.org工作室制作Subtitles by the Amara.org community
  • 2021-08-24《拯救大兵瑞恩》看斯皮尔伯格怎样构建战争场景The NerdwriterThe Nerdwriter 《拯救大兵瑞恩》的前28分钟The first 28 minutes of Saving Private Ryan 是献给1944年6月6日在奥马哈沙滩are devoted to the bloody allied envision of 血腥的联合入侵Omaha Beach on June 6,1944. 这个场景被广泛地认为The scene is widely regarded as 是电影史上最好的战争场景之一one of the best battle scenes in film history 这多亏了斯蒂芬斯皮尔伯格thanks to a brutal and unflinching recreation by 野蛮却勇往直前的再创造Steven Spielberg. 通过在电影一开始就放入这种加时的场景By placing this extended scene right at the start of the film, 可以清晰看出斯皮尔伯格的目标it’s clear that Spielberg’s goal 就是在观众在毫无准备的情况下 立刻使之身临其境was to drop the viewer right into the action without warning, 一种让观众极度紧张a traumatic experience that 到电影结束的痛苦体会leaves the viewer on edge for the rest of the movie. 斯皮尔伯格用这种方式来模拟In this way, Spielberg mimics the exhaustion that 盟军战士不得不在整场战役中战斗the allied soldiers had to fight through for 的那种精疲力竭the entirety of their time at war. 但是为了营造这一场景But to create and realize the scene, 斯皮尔伯格必须调解基本的矛盾冲突Spielberg had to reconcile a fundamental contradiction. 在同一时间相继发生的事The sequents had to be chaotic 是混乱的and coherent 也是连贯的at the same time. 换句话说In other words, 这场战争的重要印象应该是the critical impression of the battle should be one 一种随机性of randomness, 一种发生得迅速而又任意的暴力与死亡of violence and death occurring so rapidly and indiscriminately 使大脑不知所措that the mind is bewilder 也没有时间去考虑and has no time to process. 但是这种随机性But that randomness 需要通过某种架构has to be communicated cinematically, 和一种能给人以某种via some sort of structure, 混乱感觉的连贯性 用电影的方式a coherence that somehow leaves you 来传达出来with the feeling of chaos. 斯皮尔伯格 试图要做的是What Spielberg is trying to do is filling 在我们关于这一段历史时刻two different kinds of gaps 的知识方面填补两种不同的空缺in our knowledge about this historical moment. 首先 他想在好莱坞电影对二战First he wants to close the gap between 史诗性的描述 与亲身经历了二战的人Hollywood’s heroic depiction of World War Ⅱ 深深的痛苦经历 这二者之间and the vicious deeply harrowing experiences of those 缩小它们的距离who were actually there. 我的意思是 即使描述诺曼底登陆很震撼I mean, even in strong depictions of the Normandy Landings 就像1962年的经典电影like the great 1962 movie 《最长的一天》The Longest Stay 整部电影都用三脚架来拍摄的filmed entirely on tripods. 观众们觉得离真实的主观性The viewer’s experience is still some distance 还是有一定距离from the subjectivity of the moment. 在《拯救大兵瑞恩》中In Saving Private Ryan, Spielberg 斯皮尔伯格想要尽可能地减少距离感wants to shrink that distance as much as possible. 斯皮尔伯格另外想要填补就是The other gap Spielberg wants to close is the one between 我们对于这一事件所知道的what we know about this event 和我们真实所见之间的空缺and what we’ve actually seen of it. 在1994年6月6日 诺曼底登陆只有极少的There is extremely little footage of the Normandy Invasion 视频资料 几乎没有on June 6, 1944 and almost none 奥马哈海滩登录的镜头from the Landing at Omaha Beach. 这里有很多原因There are a lot of reasons for this. 很大比例的 为盟军拍摄The significant percentage of the cameramen who 这场战争的摄影师filmed the war for the allied powers, 被杀了were killed. 其余的尽最大努力The remaining did their best to avoid that same fate 通过发现他们能够远距离拍摄的覆盖地by finding places of cover where they could film 来避免同样的时间再次发生at a distance. 所以因为这个原因 你会看到好多For this reason, you’ll get a lot of footage from 联合军抵达诺曼底之前 在船上的连续镜头before the land they got Normandy on the boats which 斯皮尔伯格在拯救大兵瑞恩中再创造出的这一连续镜头Spielberg recreates in Saving Private Ryan and a lot of footage 以及在战争结束后的大量镜头after the battle was over. 在嘈杂混乱中During the chaos, 摄影师尽可能地cameramen were doing their best to keep themselves 保护自己以及摄像机的安全and their cameras out of danger. 纪录片表明斯皮尔伯格Documentary said Spielberg relied more on what shot 不依赖于诺曼底沙滩被伏击的镜头特别是far from the Normandy Beaches, specifically 在塔拉瓦的海军陆战队With The Marines at Tarawa, 被日本射击which was shot in Japan and 以及圣彼得罗战役The Battle For San Pietro 被著名电影制作人which was made by the famous filmmaker 约翰休斯顿在意大利所拍摄John Huston in Italy. 看了第二部电影 斯皮尔伯格被Watching that second film, Spielberg was struck by 摄影师在炸弹爆破时how cameramen always stayed low to the ground 总是在地面匍匐拍摄and how the camera shook 以及镜头的震颤 深深震撼when an explosion went off near by. 正如piAs critic Toby Hagef knows 斯皮尔伯格发现Spielberg discovered that 如果他运用战地摄影师的风格if he adopted the style of battlefield cameramen, 他会收获战争主观性的成功he could have achieved more subjective experience of the war 他也是这么做的and that’s exactly what he did. 但是我认为连续镜头But the footage that I think 对奥马哈海滩场景有重要作用has the most impact on the Omaha Beach scene 的战争电影是1942年约翰佛瑞德的天才之作is John Ford’s master for war film 中途岛战役The Battle of Midway from 1942. 在这部影片中 弗瑞德In that film, Ford brilliantly 在摄像机给予的爆炸波效应或者来回推进镜头来keeps in moments when blasts effect the camera gave 出色地把握住机会or knock his handheld cameras back and forth. 这种创意的场景编辑From this scene of creative editing, 你会获得战场上的视觉盛宴you’ll get much more visual impression of the battle. 所以对于拯救大兵瑞恩这一想法的本质So the essence of the idea 就是这样的for Saving Private Ryan is here 这种战地拍摄方法显而易见and it’s obvious in the battlefield camera approach. 但是不太明显的是斯皮尔伯格But what’s not so obvious is how Spielberg 运用这一本质并且注射了takes this essence and injects it 类固醇with steroids. 举个例子 斯皮尔伯格做的其中一件事是For example, one of the things that Spielberg does 切换视角that no actual war-time cameraman could do 没有战争摄像师可以做到的is switch perspectives. 奥马哈沙滩场景运用三个不同的视角:The Omaha Beach scene functions from three different perspectives: 不可见的战地摄像师的优势the vantage of the invisible battlefield cameramen, 汤姆汉克斯的优势the vantage of Tom Hanks 以及德国士兵在悬崖上的优势and the vantage of the German soldiers on the top of the cliffs. 斯皮尔伯格在这三种视角下来回变换Spielberg alternates between these to give 在战场上超过360°的视角a more 360-degree perspective on the battle 但是没有失去的即时性是without losing any of the immediacy that is 他的最初的担忧his primary concern. 甚至疯子也会一下意识到Even crazier that actually took me a few watches to realize that 这里的拍摄this shot right here 真正地意味着在汤姆汉克斯的脑袋里is actually meant to be a moment 就像最紧张的第一人称inside Tom Hanks’ head like 射击游戏the most intense first-person shooter game ever. 一种埋伏基本上This kind of thing couched almost hidden 在连续镜头中被隐藏起来in the middle of the rest of the footage 使感情增长到intensifies that feeling 极致of being there to its most extreme. 或许这就是为什么Maybe this is why 观看电影的the sequence triggered actual PTSD 一些二战老兵in a few World War Ⅱ veterans 会激起创伤后应激障碍who watched the film. 但是理解斯皮尔伯格But the key to understanding how Spielberg 规整嘈杂混乱的联系的关键squares chaos with coherence 是在一大堆信息中is in the amount of information 他填满每一个镜头that he crams into each shot. 奥马哈沙滩场景可能看起来在所有电影中像The Omaha Beach scene might seem like 最疯狂的 最快速的the craziest, fastest and the most intense sequence 最紧张的顺序in all film. 但是我数了一下中弹的情况But I counted the shots. 在一个场景中In a scene that lasts 持续了整整24分钟exactly 24 minutes, 这里有整整there are exactly 200个中弹场景200 shots, 这就意味着每个中弹场景which means that every shot averages 平均要7.2s7.2 seconds. 我的意思是 对于一个像这种场景来说I mean, that is an incredibly high average 真的是平均值特别高for a scene like this. 我还没有意识到直到And it didn’t seem like right to me until 我看完这一场景后I actually went back and 在脑中回想watched the scene with this in mind. 你被要求理解奥马哈沙滩场景You’re asked to comprehend so much 所以斯皮尔伯格in this Omaha Beach scene, so Spielberg 平息了你脑中的压力eases the pressure on your brain 通过批评抨击by panning, tilting 或者移动摄像机or moving the camera 当其他人的镜头被切了when others would just cut. 这种方法你不会费太多的脑子This way you don’t have to waste too much mental energy 来适应你自己on orienting yourself. 当场景来临You can absorb the relevant information 你可以观察到相关信息as it comes. 同时 斯皮尔伯格善于And Spielberg is great at 给予你相关信息feeding you relevant information. 当我朋友托尼在一次评论道:As my friend Tony once remarked: “这就是一个喜欢用动机“This is a guy who loves to move the camera 来移动相机with motivation.” 所以就像这个So in a 12-second shot 一个12s的镜头里like this one. 你得到一个广角镜头You get a wide shot, 2个特写镜头2 closeups, 3个插入镜头3 inserts 以及一个中景and a medium shot. 8段信息碎片8 pieces of information. 这部电影的过渡也很棒And the transitions here are really great too. 他喜欢从前一个场景中He loves to start a long shot 带着动作with the action 开始一个长镜头from the previous moment. 这就是他把迷你晕映照串联在一起This is how he strings together all these mini vignettes. 他给予它们全动量He gives them full momentum that 来使观众在正轨上keeps the viewer on track. 检查 吗啡Inspected. Morphine. 当然这里有更多关于Of course there are so much more to say about 场景 声音混响the scene about the sound mixing 在镜头中 减饱和状态 在插入电影中in the lenses in the desaturation in the film stuck 关于服装设计以及场景设计 还有很多要说的about the custume design and the set design. 在之前都谈到了That’s all been well covered before. 电影中使我印象很深的场景是What inspires me about the scene 从头到尾is how such a maelstrom of action 动作的混乱仍能保持retains its focus 它的中心关注点from end to end. 你不仅仅停留在混乱中You can’t just stage some insanity 从不同角度来拍摄它们film a bunch of it from different angles 同时也希望在编辑中找到一根主线and hope to find a through line in the editing. 一个场景就像这样有影响的A scene with an impact like this, 你可以一遍又一遍的回顾something that you can revisit again and again 之后还会发现一些新的东西and then find new things 带来电影集中感takes real cinematic concentration. 换句话说In other words, 任何人都能够控制混乱anyone can capture chaos. 但是只有最好的人But only the best 才能清晰地can capture chaos 控制混乱with clarity. 每周三Nerdwriter都会更新There is a new Nerdwriter video every Wednesday. 所以你点击这里So if you go right there 我放在这里的这个方格to that box that I’ve set up 点击它and click that, 你会订阅我并且获得全部视频you’ll subscribe and get all the videos 这会促使我努力加油哦and that is what helps me up the most. 真的是这个样子的There really is. 说说别的事情A couple of other things. 我现在正在回归 顺便说一下I’m way to back here right now, by the way. 我仅仅想I just want thenerdwriter.netthenerdwriter.net 我的网页which is my website, 你可以在这里找到视频you could find the videos there, 问我些问题ask me questions and 经常在这里问问题哦frequently asked questions there. 所以看看吧So check that out. 同时 我也回归ins了Also I’m back on Instagram. 我真不知道为什么I don’t really know why. @thenerdwriter@thenerdwriter 关注我Follow me there. 有很多很酷的东西Some cool stuff. I’ll try not to 我会尽量不放一些垃圾图片post garbage pictures. 然而 我可能会放些垃圾图片I might post some pictures of garbage 不过仅仅是有艺术价值的图片but only if it’s like artistic worthwhile. 总之Anyway 下周三再见喽I’ll see you guys next Wednesday.
  • 2021-08-24影响了《请以你的名字呼唤我》的电影怪咖作家The Nerdwriter 快过来Come on! 试想如果他们发现我们Imagine if they found us. 这是我们的秘密之湖This is the secret lake. 这是我的秘密基地 只属于我It’s my spot, it’s all mine. 我来这看书I come here to read. 数不清在这儿读过多少书了Can’t tell you number of books I’ve read here. 我的天 好凉啊Oh, my god, it’s freezing! 我们一定会彼此相融I absolutely will come each other. 怎么了What’s wrong? 我觉得我们会弄糟一切I think we’d spoil everything. 我了解我自己 懂吗I know myself, okay? 我们一直相安无事 没做什么出格的事We’ve been good, we haven’t done anything to be ashamed of. 这是一件好事And that’s a good thing. 保持这样就行了I wanna be good. 好吗Okay. 《请以你的名字呼唤我》 电影研究134 春季学期CALL ME BY YOUR NAMEFS 134, SPRING SEMESTER 为《请以你的名字呼唤我》开一门电影学习课It would be pretty cool to design a film study’s course 会是一件很酷的事情around Call Me by Your Name. 该片在电影史上开辟了自己独特的方式The movie opens up its own interesting way in film history. 体现在作者试图从他们的作品中消失Populated by authors trying to disappear from their work 这是值得一个探讨的悖论which is a paradox worthy exploring. 你现在看到的经典电影The movies that this class would feature 以及你刚在视频开头看到的电影a handful of what you just saw in opening sequence, 与导演卢卡·圭达尼诺镜头下的have similarities that are focused by Call Me by You Name. 《请以你的名字呼唤我》有着相似的特点And by director Luca Guadagnino’s vision. 并不是说圭达尼诺引用或受到了多少影响It’s not that Guadagnino quotes or pays how much to his influences. 他做的是件更难的事He does something that’s much harder. 实际上他学习了经典电影中的优点He actually learns the lessons that these influences teach 并应用到电影中来增加自己的风格and applies them in a way that adds his personal sytle. 《看得见风景的房间》导演 詹姆斯·伊沃里 1985年A ROOM WITH A VIEWDIR.JAMES IVORY, 1985 我认为最显著的影响是詹姆斯·伊沃里的电影The most obvious influence I think are the films of James Ivory. 尤其是 改编于爱·摩·福斯特小说的那两部Specifically, two of these E.M. Forster adaptations. 《看得见风景的房间》和《莫里斯》A Room with The View and Maurice. 我用“显著”是因为《请以你的名字呼唤我》的编剧I say obvious because Ivory was in his late 80s or less. 正是年近90岁的伊沃里The screen writer for Call Me by You Name. 他在莫昌特·伊沃里影业长期从业的特征The marker whoes long career at A Merchant Ivory production company 在这部电影中体现的淋漓尽致is all over this movie. 你可能不了解莫昌特·伊沃里制片公司And you might not know A Merchant Ivory- 它是伊沃里和他一生的合作伙伴伊斯梅尔·莫昌特组成的导演制片团队the director producer team of Ivory and his life partner Ismil Merchant. 两人和编剧鲁丝·贾布瓦拉一起But along with their screen writer Ruth Jhabvala, 共创作了44部电影they created 44 films together. 这些电影通常由高雅文学改编Often highbrow, literary adaptations, 有着古式家具 华丽的服饰和布景period pieces with lavish costumes and sets. 这听起来或许像古板又浮夸的电影摄制手法And this may sound like stuffy, pompous filmmaking, 但莫昌特·伊沃里的电影却不是这样 而是生机勃勃but the Merchant Ivory films are anything but they grieve with life. 美景 美……“Beauty, joy…” 举个例子 在《看得见风景的房间》中In A Room with The View, for example, 自然风光象征自由nature is a symbol of freedom 它是对爱德华时期英国社会束缚的反抗against the social restrictions of Edwardian England. 和圭达尼诺一样Ivory like, Guadagnino 伊沃里也捕捉了户外温暖的触觉质感captures the warm tactile qualities of being outdoors, 并用这些图像和声音唤起的感官记忆and uses the sense memory that these images and sounds evoke. 作为一种引发对角色的共情的方式As a way to trigger empathy, for the characters. 在这些电影中 角色们对夏日午后的渴望In those films, their desire for summer afternoons 和对爱或欲的渴望一致is parallel with the desire for love or sex. 《莫里斯》改编于福斯特的一部同性恋小说In Maurice, an adaptation of Forster’s noval of homosexual love, 与此片中 相似之处更加明显the similarities are more apparent. 莫里斯和艾力奥都试探性地意识到The important ways that both Maurice and Elio tentatively realize 并依他们的感觉行事的重要方式是肢体动作而非口头表达and act upon their feelings are physical, not verbal. 那才是好的制片和演员处理改编作品的方法This is what a good film maker and good actors bring to an adaptation- 把对话转化为姿态和动作the translation of dialogue into gesture and action. 你在干什么“What are you doing?” 没干什么“Have nothing.” 第二个关键的影响是埃里克·罗麦尔的电影A second key influence are the films of Eric Rohmer, 他是最后一位“法国新浪潮”导演the last of the French New Wave directors, 他的风格相比于戈达尔和特吕弗whose style was less like a kind of 少了一些经典元素classic tick than Godard and Truffaut, 但是他创作的作品质量也不错Yet to his career, sustained in quality 创作生涯也比同时代所有人都持久much longer than many of these contemporaries. 罗麦尔以一个絮叨的导演著称Rohmer is known as a very wordy film maker, 他电影片中的主演都会就爱和欲展开哲学探讨his movies feature characters having extended philosophical conversations on love and desire. 但圭达尼诺从他那里借鉴的 却是简洁Yet what Guadagnino draws from him is it’s simplicity, 他不动声色地呈现空间人物his unsentimental presentation of characters and space 以及摄影技巧and his camera work. 和在他之前伟大的让·雷诺阿导演一样Like the great Jean Renoir who come before him, 罗麦尔关注的是现实主义Rohmer is interested in realism, 但他并不以牺牲美丽为代价but not the expense of the beauty. 和罗麦尔以及雷诺阿的电影一样Like Rohmer’s and Renoir’s, 圭达尼诺在《请以你的名字呼唤我》中的镜头并不炫丽Guadagnino’s camera in Call Me by Your Name isn’t showy, 他的剪辑也不带操纵性and his editing isn’t manipulative. 圭达尼诺和摄像师仅用了一个35毫米的镜头Guadagnino and semitographer only used one lens of 35 millimeter 来粗略模拟人眼的感觉to mimic roughly the feel of human eye sight. 相机跟随着人物动作And the camera follows the action 但以一种旁观的视角but in the way in observe of him. 在以上这些导演的作品中In all of these film makers, 长镜头并不会让你感到过于风格化和分散注意力long takes don’t feel stylized or distracting. 它们只是作为一个观察环境的窗口They function as a window into the environment, 重要的是我们能看到那些环境and it’s important that we see that environment. 角色所处的空间The spaces, these characters in habit. 所以画面通常景深感强 极少用特写So depth of field is usually deep and the use of closeups is rare. 正如罗麦尔曾经说过As Rohmer once said, “我不喜欢用特写镜头的原因是它会排除其他环境”“The reason I don’t like a closeup is because it excludes. “不能增添表现力 只会减少表现力”It doesn’t add. It takes away. “会抑制住人物和布景之间的联系”It suppresses the relationship of the character to the set.” 对圭达尼诺来说重要的是What’s important for Guadagnino is that 他会给演员足够多的空间和时间he gives the actors enough room and time, 来让彼此间的氛围酝酿出情感for the space between them to become charged with emotion. 最后《请以你的名字呼唤我》在结构上受到最重大的影响Finally they need most important influence on the structure of Call Me by Your Name 来自于法国导演莫里斯·皮亚拉的作品is the French director Maurice Pialat, 尤其是他的那部《关于我们的爱情》especially his film, ANos Amours. 皮亚拉是法国新浪潮的外围人物Pialat is another figure on the outer wing of the French New Wave, 他在美国没什么名气who barely has any recognition in the America. 他的电影很粗犷 极端的克制His films are rough and unsentimental to the extreme, 即使有时显得草率 但它们带来一股狂热的力量even sloppy at times. But they bring with a wild energy. 这种力量受由冲动控制的那些人所驱动They’re driven by people who are slaves to impulse. 圭达尼诺欣赏皮亚拉的是And what Guadagnino admires about Pialat is 这股冲动的力量推动着叙事结构发展how these impulses drive the construction of the narrative. 几乎令人眼花缭乱 举个例子 《关于我们的爱情》It’s almost dizzying in ANos Amours for example, 是一部充满着性放纵的成长电影are coming-of-age filmed about sexually charged at a lesson. 场景之间的转换不考虑传统的故事思路Trips from seen to seeing without consideration for a traditional story arc. 两镜头间的跳转可代表两秒或两个月The cut between two shots could represent a jump of two seconds or two months. 观众对这两种时间跨度都毫无准备And the audience isn’t prepared for either. 《请以你的名字呼唤我》并不像那样极端And Call Me by Your Name isn’t as extreme as these. 但圭达尼诺的叙事结构也遵循着类似的节奏But Guadagnino’s narrative follows a similar rhythm 全片线索并非是三段式发展结构with the through line isn’t the developments of a three episode, 而是艾力奥欲望的力量和表现but rather the energy of Elio’s desire and how that manifests. 圭达尼诺与众不同的结构很重要His unusual structures are so important, 因为叙事思路是我们参照自己生活方式的because narrative arc is one of the ways in which 一个重要的方式we model our own lives. 有时所谓的好莱坞电影可能存在谬误And there can be falseness in what sometimes called Hollywood films, 会影响我们对于生活经历的期待that influences are expectations of experience. 例如 我看《请以你的名字呼唤我》时For instance, the whole time I was watching Call Me by Your Name, 总会担心会不会有第三人或第三方不可避免地出现I was anxious for the person or the institution 来挑战艾力奥和奥利弗之间的恋情that would inevitably challenge Elio and Oliver’s affair. 这是我在看这类电影时首先就会想到的一种预期It’s something I come to expect in films or stories of this kind. 不过 当那种预期并未发生But when that didn’t happen, 我松了口气and I release that pant a bandage. 涌起了一种启发性的感觉It was a revelatory feeling 仿佛这部电影展示了生活的一个新角落like the film was opening up a new corner of life, 提供了一种看待生活不同的方式a different way to see things. #闭上双眼 回忆彼时##Oh to see without by eyes# #你最初亲吻我的时刻##The first time that you kissed me# 你没必要去理解这些电影或导演之后You don’t have to understand these films or these directors 才能欣赏《请以你的名字呼唤我》to enjoy Call Me by Your Name. 实际上我列出这些想说的是In fact, this lineage is built around the notion that 导演不必用激进的方式就能对观众产生强烈的冲击you can have a radical affect on viewers without a radical style. 我认为圭达尼诺对电影的热爱I think Guadagnino send in the field, 是最好的那一类yet his lover films is the very best kind. 人们即使不熟悉电影风格 也不会看不懂电影It doesn’t exclude people for not being in the know. 他将这些优点聚集起来It brings influences together 提供了一种全新的电影风格以供欣赏and the service of a brand new style to appreciate. #悲伤如我 沉湎于你第一次触摸我的瞬间##It’s me. The first time that you touched me# 各位 谢谢观看Everybody, thank you so much for watching. 本视频由Squarespace赞助播出This episode was brought to you by Squarespace. 如果你想建一个网站If you wanna make a website 并且你希望过程简单一些and you want it to be a really easy process, Squarespace有很多设计模板供你挑选Squarespace has some beautiful a word-waiting designer templates to choose from. 能让你建立网站的过程变的很简单That makes that process of building your website, really simple. 它提供24小时客户服务It’s got 24 hours customer service, 不用再升级 不用再修复 不用再安装补丁no upgrade, nothing to restore, no patches, ever. 选一个网站域名非常简单And picking your domain name is really easy. 你可以在Squarespace.com上免费试用You can start to free trail at Squarespace.com. 如果你用本频道提供的优惠码 “nerdwriter”And if you use the offered code, nerdwriter, 初次购买可以打9折you can get 10 percent off your first purchase. 再次感谢大家 我们在下周新视频再见Thank you guys again and I’ll see you next week for a new video.
  • 2021-08-24我最爱的青春电影《大逃杀》Fujiyoshi, I said no whisper!藤吉 不准说悄悄话! BATTLE ROYALE: The Best Teen Movie [music]《大逃杀》:最棒的青春电影 Well, well. Here we are.好 大家都到了 Everybody loves a good teen movie.好看的青春电影大家都喜欢 And the genre has a lot of competition.其中不同风格争奇斗艳 You’ve got John Hughes classics,有约翰·休斯的经典作品 like the Breakfast Club and Ferris Bueller’s Day Off,比如《早餐俱乐部》《春天不是读书天》 90s’ teen rom-coms90年代青春浪漫喜剧有 like 10 Things I Hate About You and She’s All That,《我恨你的十件事》和《窈窕美眉》 A Richard Linklater’s coming-of-age comedy Dazed and Confused理查·林克莱特的成长喜剧片《年少轻狂》 or recent hits like The Fault in Our Stars and Love, Simon.或最近的大热片《星云里的错》和《爱你 西蒙》 You could even throw all eight Harry Potter movies into the mix, why not?《哈利波特》系列八部电影甚至也可以归到这类片里 有何不可? But when I searched ranker.com,但当我在ranker.com上搜索时 which everybody knows is the authority on ranking staff,众所周知 这是个涵盖各类排行榜的权威网站 I’m disappointed to find that my favorite teen movie却失望地发现 我最爱的青春电影 doesn’t even crack the top one hundred.竟然连前100名都没进 Of course, I’m talking about Kinji Fukasaku’s没错 我说的是深作欣二 turn-of-the-millenium masterpiece Battle Royale.在2000年执导的电影杰作《大逃杀》 [music][音乐] The premise of Battle Royale is really simple.《大逃杀》的设定非常简单 In a dystopian Japan,在反乌托邦式的日本 a classroom of teenagers is chosen every year and shipped to an island每年抽选一个班级的学生 把他们遣送到一座小岛 where they have to fight to the death让他们互相残杀 until only one is left standing.直至最后一名幸存者 You might recognize this premise from the Hunger Games books,你可能认出这也是《饥饿游戏》系列丛书的设定 the first of which came out eight years after Battle Royale and该系列出版于《大逃杀》拍摄八年后 nine years after the book by Koushun Takami on which it’s based.及高见广春的原著小说九年之后 This concept is also the basis for the hugely大热电子游戏《堡垒之夜》 popular video game Fortnite Battle Royale以及先于其发布的《绝地求生》 and its predecessor Playerunknown’s Battlegrounds都是以这个概念为基础的 which was at least in part inspired by Fukasaku’s movie.《绝地求生》至少有部分灵感来源于深作欣二的电影 Unlike the Hunger Games, Battle Royale is remarkably contained.和《饥饿游戏》不同 《大逃杀》十分封闭 There is no larger world, no political intrigue plotline.影片中没有宏大的世界架构 没有政治阴谋情节 The audience is just dumped into this horrific situation with the characters观众和影片中的人物一起落入恐怖情境中 and we experience its shocks as they do.我们不仅和人物一样经历它带来的冲击 And they are shocks.人物本身也带给我们冲击 [sound][声音] It’s definitely a violent movie.《大逃杀》无疑是一部充满暴力的电影 But it’s the execution of violence但正是其中的施暴行为 that makes Battle Royale so great.使其成为一部伟大的电影 And this should come as no surprise,这点无需惊讶 though I didn’t know this when I first虽然我16岁在夏令营第一次看这部电影时 saw the movie at a summer camp, age 16.并不知道这一点 Battle Royale is the final film of Japanese auteur Kinji Fukasaku.《大逃杀》是日本导演深作欣二执导的最后一部电影 He made this incredibly vigorous film about teenagers令人惊叹的是 这部异常激烈残酷的电影 at age of 70, which is amazing.是在他70岁时制作的 By then Fukasaku was a master,那时深作欣二就已经是一位大师了 a criminally underappreciated master of Japanese in world cinema.一个在世界影坛上被低估的未被赏识的日本大师 He made his mark on the industry in the 1970s他成名于1970年代 with a breathtaking series of films about Japanese gangsters, the Yakuza制作了一系列扣人心弦的“日本黑帮”电影 in the chaos after World War Ⅱ.描述二战后混乱的日本黑帮 Unlike the more traditional Yakuza films,和其他传统的日本黑帮电影不同的是 Fukasaku’s movies have a wild, manic energy to them.深作欣二赋予电影以野蛮 躁狂的能量 The camerawork is designed to throw you into the action.精心设计的摄影技巧带你置身于惊险动作中 It’s a thrilling, disorienting experience to watch them.观影体验是毛骨悚然的 让人失去方向感的 And Fukasaku’s message in those films comes through loud and clear:深作欣二清晰地传达了影片信息: In a society decimated by war,在一个被战争摧毁的世界里 friendship, camaraderie, even the famous codes of honor友情 基情 甚至著名的黑帮荣誉准则 of the Yakuza only stretched so far.都遭遇了挑战 It was truly every-man-for-himself.真的是人不为己天诛地灭 And if someone could get an advantage by betraying his friend,如果一个人可以通过背叛他的朋友得到好处 he was more likely to do it than not.那他往往会去背叛 In Fukasaku’s films, the honorable ones在深作欣二的电影中 are often the first to be killed.可敬的人经常被首先杀害 The violence I depict我所描述的暴力 is closely related to this longing和后市场时代 for the back market era以及那时我们感受到的暴力情绪 and the violent emotions we felt during that period.密切相关 We can’t separate the idea of violence from the way we see things.我们不能将暴力概念和我们看待问题的方式区别开来 In Battle Royale, the same philosophy holds.《大逃杀》持的也是这种哲学理念 In the chaos of the game,在游戏的混乱中 the speed at which friends turned to enemies can give you whiplash.友谊的小船说翻就翻 让你目瞪口呆 And the violence, like the violence of the Yakuza films,而暴力 就像黑帮电影里的暴力一样 is sudden and devastating.则是突然的 具有毁灭性的 As a viewer, it’s like you’re one of the students.作为观众 好像你能与其中一个学生感同身受 It all comes so fast at the beginning that一切刚开始就来得那么迅猛 you just want to pause and get a grip on things.以至于你想按暂停键理一下头绪 But there’s no time for that.但是时间很紧迫 The ones who trust too liberally最深信不疑的人 are the ones who get killed first.最早被杀害 It may seem like Battle Royale is a fable of《大逃杀》给人的感觉就是 nihilism with mindless, brutal killing一个涉及所有人的关于愚蠢和滥杀的 doled out to anyone and everyone.虚无主义的寓言 But the violence in Fukasaku’s vision has a purpose.但深作欣二眼中的暴力是有目的的 Like all great teen movies,就像所有伟大的青春电影一样 Battle Royale is really about friendship.《大逃杀》的实质是友谊 [sound][声音] That may be a little hard to see.其中的场景可能让人不容易看出来 But Fukasaku is interested in what friendship really means但深作欣二关心的是 友谊的面纱撕去后 when the gloves are off.其实质是什么 In the most barbaric circumstances,在最野蛮的环境中 what does human connection mean in the context of在人类的能力建立在难以言说的暴力这一语境下 humanity’s capacity for unspeakable violence?人类之间的联系意味着什么 At that time, unspeakable violence was very much alive在日本老一辈人的记忆中 in the memory of the older generation in Japan.当时那难以言说的暴力是赤裸裸的 It tested them in ways that电影以多种方式证明 the younger generation couldn’t begin to understand年轻一代不能开始理解 and this is what life was like这就是生活的本真 for Fukasaku himself when he was 15,深作欣二15岁时就是这么想的 the same age as the students in the film.影片里的学生也是这个年纪 A month before the end of the war,战争结束前一个月 the American task force opened fire on us.美国特遣部队向我们开火 As the dead started piling up,尸体摞着尸体 it become our job to dispose of the bodies.我们的工作就是处理这些尸体 After we finished clearing the corpses,当我们清理完成时 the gunshots started again.射击又开始了 We all tried to hide under our friends’s bodies.我们都试图躲在朋友身后 And when the flirting stopped,战火终止后 we didn’t criticize one another.我们没有互相批评 Everyone was doing the same thing因为所有人都不约而同地这样做了 and we were all in shock.我们被自己的行为震惊了 In the movie, it’s almost as if the older generation,在电影中 以老师为代表的老一辈 represented by a teacher, devises the game as a way to设计了这个游戏 communicate their experiences with the youth,用来与年轻一辈沟通经验 and it’s almost as if Fukasaku made the film for the same reason.也是出于这个目的 深作欣二制作了这部电影 Battle Royale is interested in the kind of friendship that《大逃杀》乐于探讨的是一种 can’t be explored at a high school.不可能在高中阶段被探寻到的友谊 It’s friendship tainted by a deeply cruel world.一种被残暴的世界深度污染的游戏 But it’s all the more poignant尽管这是事实 when it persists in spite of that fact.但这个事实着实让人辛酸 You look really cool, Hiroki.弘树 你看起来真酷 You too.你也是 You’re the coolest girl in the world.你是世界上最酷的女孩 [music][音乐] Thank you.谢谢你 Fukasaku’s last movie is a lot of things.深作欣二的最后一部电影内涵丰富 It’s blackly comical. It’s scary.颇具黑色幽默和惊悚风格 It’s a naked look at humanity and这部电影赤裸裸地呈现了人类 it’s a gripping piece of balls-to-the-wall entertainment这部达摩克利斯之剑性质的扣人心弦的杰作 directed by a man with a lifetime of skill and experience.出自一个用一生技巧和经验说话的导演之手 It’s a teen movie这是一部青春电影 and it deserves to be considered with说它是青春电影中的佼佼者 the very best of that genre.一点也不夸张 [music][音乐] Hey, Everybody. Thank you so much for watching.大家好 非常感谢你的观看 This episode was brought to you by Skillshare本视频由Skillshare赞助播出 which is an online learning community for creators这是一个以创作者为受众的在线学习社区 with more than 21,000 classes and上面有21000节课 everything from graphic design and film editing从平面设计 电影剪辑到财政 网络安全 to finance and IT security.无所不包 You know where I learned Photoshop?你知道我从哪学的PS吗? I learned it through a weird mishmash of disconnected YouTube videos我是通过看一系列杂乱的YouTube视频学习的 and I think the process would have gone a lot faster and better我觉得如果有系统教授一切技巧的课程 if there was a class dedicated to teaching me everything那学习过程就会更快更好 that program could do in a more systematic way.而该网站的项目能够以更系统的方式做到这一点 That’s what Skillshare offers.Skillshare就是这么全能 Learning new skills is really valuable to me.学习新技巧非常必要 Because whenever I learn a new skill,因为每当我学会一个新技能 it’s like a bunch of new ideas are unlocked in my head.我的大脑就会解锁一大堆新想法 and I think what can I do with this and我认为我可以好好利用一下该网站 that always, always helps me with writer’s block.在我灵感枯竭的时候总能有所帮助 A premium membership begins around ten dollars a month高级会员的月费是10美元 for unlimited access to all courses.能够无限制观看所有课程 But the first 500 people to sign up但是使用简介中的链接注册的 using the link in the description前500人 get their first two months for free.能享受两个月的免费 In those two months, you can easily learn the skills两个月的时间 you need to start a new hobby or business.足够你学习一门技能来开始新爱好或新事业了 More importantly, the skills you learn will help give you ideas更重要的是 你学到的技巧会给你灵感 for what that business or art project could be.使你的事业或艺术项目初具雏形 Definitely try it out.请一定要试试 Thanks guys. I’ll see you next time.谢谢大家 下次见
  • 2021-08-24为什么《炎夏之夜》不怎么样几天前 我做了一个视频So, a few days ago I made a video called 叫做《如何制作一部A24电影》“How to Make An A24 Movie?” 你们有些人就从中推测Some of you may have worked away from that, 我喜欢A24的所有电影thinking that I love every single A24 movie, 才不是呢which isn’t true. 你说巧不巧 那个视频做到一半的时候Coincidently, half way through editting that video, 我就发现了一部我很不喜欢的I came across one A24 movie in particular A24的电影that I didn’t really enjoy. 叫做《炎夏之夜》And it’s called Hot Summer Nights. 给没看过的人解释一下Hot Summer Nights for those unaware 这是个很俗的成长故事is a very generic coming-of-age story, 然后就没有然后了 开个玩笑end of story. Just, just kidding. 这部电影讲的是一个窘迫少年的故事It’s a movie about a very awkward teenager 由广受美国人喜欢的忧郁男孩提莫西·查拉梅出演played by America’s favorite sad boy Timothée Chalamet, 讲述了他涉足毒品买卖and how he starts selling drugs, 然后爱上生意伙伴的妹妹的来龙去脉and starts falling for his business partner’s sister. 世界上有那么多烂片There’re a lot of movies to not like out there. 那么多我不喜欢的电影A lot of movies that I watched and I don’t really care for, 但我一般都不会觉得有必要做个相关的视频but I don’t really feel like I need to make a video about them 除非它们是真的太烂了unless they are particularly bad. 其实我没有那么讨厌这部电影And I didn’t really hate this one, 它不是无可救药 只是不出彩this was the thing wasn’t horrible, it’s no tag, 但有些地方我还是很想吐槽一下but something about it really frustrated me. 在我们现在这个时代You see, we’re kind of living in a time 七十 八十和九十年代的怀旧风很流行where 70s and 80s and 90s nostalgia is the new hot thing. 像《怪奇物语》Yeah, shows like Strange Things, 《去他妈的世界》这样的电视剧and, End of The Fucking World, 还有《小丑回魂》《银河护卫队》这样的电影and, and movies like It and Guardians of the Galaxy 都采用了这种风格 年轻人也很喜欢that play on all of these styles and, and all the kids seem to really like them. 通过使用流行元素 环境布置还有背景音乐By using either the fashion, or the setting, or the soundtrack, 让人感觉身处80年代 人们很吃这一套and make something that feels like we are in the 80s and people get really excited about it. 说回这部电影 它只有悲伤的感觉And this movie, it’s, it’s just sad, 它可能是我能想到的怀旧风格最浓重的电影了it’s, it’s maybe the most nostalgia movie I can think of. 同时还有提莫西·查拉梅出演It also is Timothée Chalamet, 正如我之前说的 他现在是个很红的演员who as I mentioned before, is kind of hot stuff right now. 当然也是个好演员And also, kind of a pretty good actor, 所以他们找了他来主演so, you know, they got that going for him. 电影配乐也都是用的70年代的热门歌曲And then they have a stellar soundtrack, full of 70s hits 以确保大部分观众沉浸其中that’s just guaranteed to make a good percentage of viewers pretty invested in it. 但是尽管他们做了这一切努力But through all of this, through all of this stuff that it has going for it, 看这部电影的时候我还是觉得它很无聊I ended being bored out of my mind while watching this. 言归正传 下面我简单分析下《炎夏之夜》为什么不好看So without any further ado, I’m gonna quickly gloss over why Hot Summer Nights doesn’t work. 1.剪辑1.Editing 这可能是我个人感觉Now this could just be a, a personal taste, 我觉得这部电影的剪辑简直就是灾难but the editing in this thing was a freaking disaster. 第一 剪辑不是特别连续For one, it’s not very consistent. 实际上是一点也不连续In fact, it’s not consistent at all. 某些片段里像炸弹爆炸那样的快速剪辑还有场景切换的镜头Off the bat, the film makes it’s editing out to be a pretty unique aspect of the film 实际上还是很有特色的with quick cuts and swipes and boom, boom, boom, 但是剩下的都很一般 而且节奏很慢but then other moments it just feels very generic, and very slow. 感觉就像在看两个电影It’s, it feels like a completely different film. 这种剪辑的后果就是给人一种不连续不愉快的观影体验What this does is it creates a really unsteady and unpleasant viewing experience. 它没有做到巧妙地引导观众看完电影It doesn’t neatly guide the viewer through the story. 我的意思不是说Now I’m not about to sit here and say that 所有电影都应该一顺到底all films should neatly hold the hand of the viewer 引导观众看完电影and guide them through the film. 相反我觉得这样做很蠢I, I think that’s stupid. 为了电影本身着想A lot of films shouldn’t do that because 大多数电影制作者最好别这么做for the sake of the film that it might just be a better choice. 但如果这是一个特别俗套的成长故事But when we’re talking a very generic, coming-of-age story, 就另当别论了 还是简单些比较好you know, it should be pretty simple, 不能因为剪辑而让观众感到糟心it shouldn’t be an unplesant experience through its editing. 像这样在不同的剪辑风格中来回切换Going back and forth between editing styles like this 不仅不能添彩 还给人一种这部电影企图does nothing but makes it seem like this film is desperately 用快速剪辑和奇怪的场景切换营造怪诞氛围的感觉trying to be quirky with quick cuts and weird transitions. 2.主人公2.The protagonist 我看这部电影时总要查一下主角的名字The fact that I had to look up the main character’s name before getting into the section is 这是个问题 相信我 相信我is an issue in itself. Now trust me, trust me. 别发火 这真的不是针对我们亲爱的“小甜茶”Before you freak out at me, this really isn’t anything against our beloved Timmy. 好吗? 他在里面演得很棒Ok, he did a actually pretty great job in this. 实际上他可能是这部电影最让我喜欢的地方了In fact, he was maybe one of my favorite aspects of the film. 我认为他拿到了一个很一般的角色I thought that he took a very generic character, 但他把这个角色演出了酷酷的感觉made him kind of, kind of cool to look at. 但就这个角色本身 人物塑造非常失败But as for the character, the writing for this, for this dude 甚至可以说根本没有进行人物塑造is, is about is non-existent as it gets. 人物形象像纸一样单薄It feels like a walking piece of paper, 一张没有灵魂的白纸a piece of paper that has nothing on it. 这部电影太过注重把有趣的故事情节This film focuses so much on having a fun story, 有魅力的演员 讨人喜欢的爱情故事这些因素拼凑在一起on having attractive actors, on having a likable romance 但它忘了要塑造人物性格that it forgets about the personality. 它忘了这个角色要有更鲜明的性格特征It forgets that maybe this character should have a personality besides just 而不只是像“嘿 大伙看看我 我就是这么囧 哈哈哈……”“Woo, guys, woo, look at me, I’m kind of awkward, ha ha…” 电影也为人物塑造设定了一些相当笼统的背景故事There is some pretty basic backstory glossed over a few times in this thing, 但这种描述过于敷衍 没什么作用but, it’s never to a point where I feel like I should care. 还有当坏事发生的时候When it comes to time when something bad happens 这个场景的结束and the end of the scene is supposed to 本应让我有想看下个场景的欲望make me want to watch the next scene, 但我实在提不起兴趣I could not be more uninterested. 我觉得这是因为这个角色不完整I owe this through the fact that there is a lack of establishing in this character, 这样我们当然不会关心without that we don’t really have a reason to care 这个青年身上将会发生什么事about what’s going to happen next to this kid, 因为我们觉得自己和他没有联系because who are we to know what this means to him, 尽管如此 我还是觉得你演得很不错but hey, despite all that, good job to me. 不过还可以演得更好I just, I think you can do better. 3.俗套3.The Clichés 我的老天爷 这部电影还能再老套吗?Oh, oh my god, this movie could not be more generic. 它就是个活生生的老古董It is a walking cliché. 这一点不仅体现在电影中Not only is it admitted in the movie, 预告片开头的第一句话就自己承认了it’s admitted in the first line of the trailer. “一个夏天都要把我送到别的地方 老把戏了”“Sending me away for a summer, what a cliché.” 烟花下的亲吻 有人笨手笨脚打翻了饮料The kiss with the fireworks, the awkward kids spiling the drink. 这类事简直不胜枚举I mean, the list goes on. 我承认有些地方是有一些新鲜套路I’ll admit there are some interesting choices here and there. 但大部分都是一个接一个的老掉牙的情节But for the most part, this thing is just cliché after cliché. 不落窠臼的好电影是存在的There are films out there that managed to get away with this, 我最先想到的就是《伯德小姐》Lady Bird being the first one that comes to mind. 它之所以出彩就是因为有有趣的导演风格But these films get away with it because they have an interesting directing style, 有饱满的人物形象they have interesting characters, they have, 总之就是有自己独特的地方they have, just weird ways of doing it. 《炎夏之夜》没有 它很无聊This one doesn’t, this one feels so uninteresting 它的人物形象很模糊because it likes any sort of personality which, 噢 正好牵扯到了我要说的下一点 也是最后一点which, oh, leads me into my next and final point. 4.没有特色4. No Personality 我得说抱歉 伊利亚·拜纳姆 是这么叫对吧I’m sorry. Elijah, uh, Bynum, I, I think that’s how I pronounce your name, 但这部电影完全证明了他表达能力的不足but this film is about his voiceless as it gets, 最难受的是它太过用力the saddest part is that it is begging, 极力追求一种独特的风格 想要自成一派it is, it is on its knees begging to have a unique style to be its own thing, 但就是在这个过程中 它反而成了最俗的电影uh, but in the process, it becomes the most generic movie possible. 我觉得特色对这部电影来说是非常重要的I think this issue is particularly important in this film, 因为它讲的是个关于成长的故事because we’re talking about a coming-of-age story, 这是很私人的事情something that is very personal. 观众本应能够建立联系The viewer is supposed to connect to it 在角色身上或故事里看到自己的影子or see themselves in this character or this story, 但他们没有and you get none of that. 它给人的感觉就像有人拿着一个搅拌机This movie feels like someone got a blender, 扔进去一些乱七八糟的东西and throw in a couple of strange things, 一茶匙A24的电影艺术a tea spoon of artsy A24 cinematography, 一勺埃德加·赖特的剪辑手法a scoop of Edgar Wright editing, 一段70年代的配乐a 70s soundtrack, 一个“甜茶” 还有所有的夏日青春电影one Timmy, and every summer teen movie possible, 然后把它们混合在一起and mix it all up, and as a result, 最后 你得到了一堆破烂you got a big pile of nothing. 这种迷失在影响力里的风格A style so lost in its influence 给人的感觉就像这部电影没有导演that it feels as if nobody directed this thing at all. 这个角色背后似乎也不存在情感和动力Leaving the emotion and drive behind the character to be pretty much non-existent. 好了 虽然看起来我好像很讨厌这部电影So yeah, as much as it seemed like I hated this thing, 就像我之前说的 它也不是一点优点没有like I said earlier, it’s not a total flop. 我喜欢“甜茶”的表演 也喜欢部分摄制手法I enjoy Timothée’s performance, I like some of the cinematography, 说实话 偶然也有几个很亮眼的场景and to be honest, a few scenes here and there kind of caught my eye. 我只是觉得有趣 像这样从一开始I just think it’s interesting how something like this film, 似乎就是为了成为经典而生的电影something that feels though it was built to succeed and become a classic, 如何最终沦为了平淡无奇的片子ended up being so bland and so forgettable. 总之 我们本可以拥有一部夏日经典So yeah, we could’ve had a summer classic on our hands, 一部被人铭记的电影something that we could remember forever, 只要它能有更棒的剪辑和人物塑造if only this thing had better editing, a better character, 少一点俗套 多一点特色less clichés, more personality, 嗯……最后一点是什么来着?and um, what’s that, what’s that last thing? 对了 再多一点Ke ke eh, ahem, oh that’s right, a little bit more “机器人 宝贝 你懂的“robots baby, you already know what it is, “包揽每一个奥斯卡奖项winner of every single Academy Award, “我要把这个笑话讲烂了 宝贝and we’re beating this joke until it’s completely dead, baby, “你懂的”you already know.” 【音乐】[music]
  • 2021-08-24《敦刻尔克》——恐惧的艺术I think the reason why Dunkirk was for some people a controversial film我认为《敦刻尔克》之所以备受争议 was because it was incredibly alien in its execution.是因为其特立独行的处理方式 The vast majority of movies have a focus on character as events happen to that character,大多数电影重点表现事件中的人物 while Dunkirk does the exact opposite where the focus is on the event as characters experience this.而《敦刻尔克》正好相反 它关注人物经历的事件 The difference between the two sounds quite subtle,二者的差别听起来似乎很微妙 but when actually executed,但拍摄出来的效果 it makes all the difference in the world.可谓天差地别 In almost every film,几乎每部电影的导演 the director tries to add character moments.都会尽量安排能突出人物的剧情 They actively try to make the audience care for their characters,他们努力让观众注意人物 while with Dunkirk, Nolan intentionally does not.而诺兰在《敦刻尔克》中刻意避免这么做 I think that right there the intended flaws我认为这个刻意为之的瑕疵 are not only the most damaging part of this movie,既是影片最为人诟病的缺点 but also the most redeeming parts as well.但同时也是最值得称道的妙笔 Hacksaw Ridge was an incredible film,《血战钢锯岭》是部出色的电影 and it’s great to see Mel Gibson has still got it in him to make great films,很高兴看到梅尔·吉布森依旧投身创作优秀的影片 but there is an inherent flaw in Hacksaw Ridge:但《血战钢锯岭》有一个内在的弱点: The entire film is told from the perspective of one American soldier.全程围绕一个美国士兵的视角展开 The movie does a fantastic job at telling us that person’s story,电影在人物故事叙述方面讲述得很精彩 and giving insight into the mind of a conscientious objector,也让观众了解到善良的反抗者的心理 but it fails in one aspect:唯有一处做得不好: Scope.视角 The approach Nolan took of intentionally insufficient characterization诺兰有意不刻画人物 allows him to provide a greater number of perspectives of the event,因此事件拥有更多不同的视角 whether it be from a British soldier to the commander in charge,无论是从英国士兵还是司令官 to an RAF pilot or a civilian on his boat.英国皇家空军或应援船中百姓的角度 The evacuation of Dunkirk《敦刻尔克》的处理特征是 was a massive event with hundreds of perspectives that could have been told,一个重大事件由多种不同的视角讲述 and take the traditional approach of having a single protagonist若自始至终采用单一主角视角 who we follow throughout could have been a bad one,可能无法尽如人意 because while it allows the audience to feel invested in that character,因为即使这样做能使观众聚焦于主角 it also limits the scope of the film to that one character’s perspective.但也把电影限制在一个人物身上 Nolan’s approach while making the characters weaker does justice to the event诺兰的方法虽削弱了人物表现 却突出了事件本身 where it allows a more total understanding for the viewer of what transpired让观众对事件的变化有更全面的认识 far better than any film from one perspective ever could.这是任何单一视角的电影无法匹敌的 I think a good way of summarizing this film’s flair我认为可以这么总结这部电影的天才之处: is that this film could only be told as a film.它只能以电影的形式呈现 If you were to take Hacksaw Ridge or Saving Private Ryan and turn them into a novel,若是将《血战钢锯岭》或《拯救大兵瑞恩》写成小说 they could have been an interesting read,阅读的趣味性可能很强 but Dunkirk, as Nolan told it,但正如诺兰所言 would fail if it were to be converted into any other medium.《敦刻尔克》无法以其它表现形式存在 That is not so much a bad thing but rather a statement about the nature of this work,这并非是坏事 只是道出了这个作品的本质 because despite the fact this film is incredibly non-traditional in its approach,因为即便它采用了非传统的处理方式 Dunkirk is visual storytelling at its very best.《敦刻尔克》仍是故事视觉呈现的典范 And in order to prove that,为了证明这一点 we need only look at how Nolan expertly creates a constant tension我们只需了解诺兰如何巧妙地不断制造紧张 that perpetuates almost entirely throughout the movie.并将其贯穿几乎整部影片 This is not only created by Hans Zimmer’s fantastic score,这不仅得益于汉斯·季默的精彩配乐 but also in the way Nolan constructs a scene.也离不开诺兰构建场景的方法 In Dunkirk, Nolan displays an expert level understanding of how tension is created,诺兰在《敦刻尔克》中展示了他对制造紧张 and understanding of the art of fear.和恐惧艺术的深刻理解 And before we take a closer look at Dunkirk’s craft,在对《敦刻尔克》的艺术一探究竟前 we need to first understand the key to creating tension.我们需要先明白制造紧张的关键 And quite simply when it comes to creating tension,对此简而言之: it is all to do with expectation.这都与期待有关 Now how does Nolan use this key?那么诺兰如何运用它呢? Well a great example is this clip.以这个画面为例: [Roaring of fighter][战机轰鸣] [Panting][喘气] [Bombing][爆炸声] Using the rule,这样一来 it’s quite easy to realize why the tension in the shot is so palpable.不难理解为什么该镜头的紧张氛围如此真切 The bombs start faraway and as part of a pattern因为炸弹从远处引爆 come closer and closer.一次次向主角逼近 The viewer after the first few seconds不久后观众就会发现 realizes that the protagonist is in the way of the bombing,主角正在炸弹摧毁的目标道路上 and this is further reinforced as the bombs come closer.这个想法随着爆炸的步步迫近得以强化 And this culminates in the relief when the bombs stop was just one shot of hitting the character.就在千钧一发之际爆炸戛然而止 给主角造成了不小的惊吓 Now this is a good example of a moment with high tension,这是个高度紧张的片段 but to find a more complex example,还有一个略微复杂的画面 we need only look at the evacuation scene once the characters are on board the boats.主角们在船上等待撤离的场景中 An interesting method Nolan uses in this scene is that every single shot诺兰运用了一个有趣的手法 is from the perspective of where a soldier could be standing.每个镜头都像其中一个士兵的视角 When we see the characters walk down the stairs,当我们看到人物走下楼梯 the camera tracks them as if we the viewer摄影机就进行俯拍 are standing on top of the stairs looking down on them.观众就像站在楼梯上俯视他们 When they are walking through the crowd,当他们穿过人群 the camera follows them as if we the viewer are walking behind them摄影机跟在其身后 as they make their way through.观众似乎也紧跟其后 Each shot from the inside the boat in this scene is taken from a place这场戏中船里的每个镜头 where a soldier could to be standing.都是从一个士兵的角度拍的 You’ll notice this because most of the the shots are at eye height这点显而易见 因为大多数镜头在人眼的高度 as if we are a part of the crowd looking on at the main characters.观众就好似人群中观察主角的一员 If there were to have been a shot from below or above such as this shot,仰拍或俯拍的镜头 比如这个 it would give a certain detachment from the scene.提供了局外人的视角 When shots like that are used,这种镜头的运用 it can make the viewer feel like they are a spectator looking in.使观众感觉自己像旁观者 But when all the shots are taken in this way当所有镜头都如此拍摄 from eye height as the camera moves just like a person would,在人眼高度像人一般移动 it instant makes us subconsciously feel like we are physically there,则立刻使人潜意识感到身临其境 which only helps to add to the uneasy tension.加剧紧张效果 In this scene, Nolan simply by choosing carefully where the cameras pointed,在这场戏中 诺兰仅仅通过对摄影机的角度的谨慎选择 tells us a thought process of the protagonist.就让我们对主角的所思所感一目了然 We see him look up,当主角朝上看 it is followed by a shot from his perspective镜头模拟他的视角 as the door he came through is locked shut.看到他来时的门上锁了 He turns to the right,他把头转到右边 we see a number of soldiers relaxing.看到士兵们泰然自若 It would’ve been easy to have this scene be one of respite to have had no tension in it at all,这场戏很容易会拍不出紧张的效果 but due to this specific choice and shots,多亏了诺兰运用的手法和镜头调度 it tells us what is going through the character’s head:使角色内心的想法显而易见: “The door has been locked shut, so I can’t get out.“门锁了 我无法出去 “I’m trapped in a tight space with a hundred strangers.”我和上百位士兵被关在这个拥挤的地方” Simply by telling the audience the fact that character is worrying,只消向观众展示主角的忧虑 that worries us as the audience too.观众也开始不安了起来 It also serves as foreshadowing where later on his worries are validated为后文忧虑的应验埋下伏笔: as the boat is torpedoed and he nearly drowns because he can’t escape.船被鱼雷击中 他差点溺水丧命 And this idea of the uneasy fear being directly linked to expectation恐惧与期待的必然联系 is present in many examples throughout this movie,在这部影片中俯拾皆是 whether it be the pilots fuel gauge that is disabled,比如空军战机油表坏了 so we has no clue how long he can remain in the air,他不知道还能飞多久 or the boat scene where the Germans start using the grounded boat the characters are in德军用搁浅的船做射击练习导致船进水 as target practice and as a result the boat starts to flood.而船里躲着等待逃生的士兵 Another example of a threat that we know is not at the moment a problem另一个威胁在蓄势待发 that will be a huge one in the immediate future,凶兆不久就会应验 is in the climax where the soldiers are drenched in the oil在士兵落入溢油海域并竭力逃生时 as they desperately try to escape.威胁达到极点 As a result of this threat that is not immediately a danger but we know it soon will be,正因为我们知道威胁蓄势待发 it leaves the viewer at the edge of their seat观众才挺直腰板全神贯注 as they expect that threat to become a reality at any second.预测威胁可能随时到来 This again creates a strong palpable tension.这再次制造了高度的紧张氛围 A number of months ago,几个月前 I made a video called Alien–The Art of Horror.我做了一个视频叫《异形——惊悚的艺术》 In that essay I asked what makes for a truly great moment of horror,其中 我问是什么成就了经典的惊悚瞬间 and my conclusion was that great horror comes from the fear of the unknown.我自己的答案是惊悚源于对未知的恐惧 In Dunkirk when you look or rather don’t look at the German soldiers,《敦刻尔克》中 当你看到德军或与其说看不到德军的时候 you can see this philosophy being echoed.你就会明白这个道理 When it came to the German soldiers,每当提及德军 in only one scene are they actually referred to as the Germans.只有一个场面真正拍到了德军 For the rest of the film they are only referred to by:其它场面都从他人口中出现: “The enemy has something to say about it.”“敌人对此有话要说” “Enemy could be right there.”“敌军可能就在那边” “But it’s us or the enemy.”“要么选择我们 要么投靠敌方” “And the enemy tanks have stopped.”“敌人已经停用坦克了” Now the reason Noland approaches the Germans in this way is twofold.诺兰如此处理德军的原因有二 Firstly the film is not about the Germans.一为影片主题并非德军 It’s about the Allies and their struggle to survive.而是死里逃生的英法盟军 Spending any amount of time on the enemy浪费大量时间拍摄敌方 would have only distracted from the overall purpose of the film,只会使剧情偏离影片主旨 but primarily I think the reason why Noland did this但我认为诺兰这么做的根本原因是 was to play with that idea of the fear of the unknown.利用人们对未知的恐惧 Quite often the scariest things are the things that we don’t fully understand.通常最恐怖的莫过于我们不了解的事 And when we never see the enemy up close,因此当我们从未近距离看见敌人 when their individual human parts do not exist,和他们的人形实体 and instead they are addressed as if they are an ambiguous collective,而是他人口中模糊的一群人时 they are less tangible and thusly more frightening.难以捉摸的敌方让恐惧由此而生 I wonder if you notice不知你是否发现 that in the only close-up shot in the whole film where we actually see German soldiers,影片对德军使用的唯一近景 they are in the background, not the main subject of the shots,都将其安排在背景中 而非镜头的主角 and they are out of focus.并且背景使用了虚化效果 Even in the end,即便到最后 we are not allowed to see the face of an individual soldier,我们都没能看清任何一个德军的真面目 because the moment you see that,因为一旦你看到了 the moment the enemy stops being an ambiguous unpredictable threat,敌军就不再是模糊不定 无法预测的威胁了 and instead just a group of humans,而仅仅是一群普通人 in that moment, the enemy becomes tangible and thusly less frightening.看得见敌人的时候 恐惧会随之削弱 Now I expect the majority of you will disagree with me on what I’m about to say,大多数人可能会不同意我接下来所说的 but many people have been praising this movie as a truly great war film.很多人夸赞《敦刻尔克》是一部伟大的战争片 But I want to disagree,但我不同意 because while this film is great and artistically unique,虽然这部电影艺术造诣高深独特 Dunkirk is not a war film.但它并非战争片 When you look at the very best war films,回顾那些经典的战争片 not the ones that are just action films that just to happen to take place in the middle of a war,并不是指那些恰巧在战争背景中的动作电影 they always make commentary on the nature of war.而是对战争的本质有所表态 The truly great war films always address an aspect of what war is like,真正伟大的战争片揭露战争真实的一面 and to an extent,并在一定程度上 try to educate the viewer about its reality.警示观众它带来的现实灾难 And I think a great example of the war scene that embodies this philosophy在我心目中 包含这一哲理的范例就是 is the scene in Saving Private Ryan where the main characters have在《拯救大兵瑞恩》里 captured a German soldier who just killed one of their friends,主角俘虏了一位刚杀死他们战友的德军 and then he begs for his life这个德军一边挖着墓穴 by reciting American culture as he digs a grave.一边背诵美国道义来求生 For 60 seconds, we see a German prisoner整整60秒 我们看着这位德国俘虏 digging a grave, trying to plead for his life自掘坟墓 屈尊求饶 while the American soldiers just look down at him in silence.而美军只是默默的看着他 [Panting][喘气] “I say can you see?”“我说你看到了吗?” “I say can you see?”“我说你看到了吗?” “I…I say…”“我……我说……” [Panting][喘气] This scene is powerful.这个场面很有震撼力 There are thousands of action films that are just brainless action flicks相比只是肤浅的 where there is no real commentary made,毫无立场的泛滥的打斗场面 but it is scene like this这样的情节 scene that portray the true nature of war,才能展现战争的实质 and how when it comes to deciding who is good and who is bad.才能体现如何抉择善恶 In real life, it can be extremely trying,现实中 这个抉择很让人纠结 because sometimes both sides are equally as evil.因为有时敌我双方都同等罪恶 This scene is a great war scene这个情景之所以受到认可 because it makes commentary on that fact.是因为它对这一事实做出了自己的评判 In Hacksaw Ridge, Gibson tackles conscientious objection吉布森在《血战钢锯岭》运用良知的反抗 and how sometimes those who refuse to kill are in fact more brave than those who do.展示了有时拒绝杀戮比杀戮更需要勇气 Sicario deals with the idea that when it comes to war,《边境杀手》则表现出面对战争 the American government can be just as evil as the foes it fights.美国政府与敌人同样残暴无异 Saving Private Ryan tackles a number of aspects of war《拯救大兵瑞恩》触及战争的方方面面: such as how war brings out the very best but also the worst in people比如当瑞恩骁勇无私 where someone displays selfless bravery such as Private Ryan does拒绝独善其身 宁死也不丢下战友时 when he refuses to go back home because he would rather risk likely death我们看到战争如何激发 than abandon his friends,人性中最美和最丑的一面 or the very worst又如这个残忍的场景: when the translator lets his friend die,翻译任由自己的朋友死去 because he is too terrified to intervene.因为他丝毫不敢阻止敌人 No matter the director,无论导演是谁 no matter the critical response,无论评价如何 in order for a war film to truly be a war film,战争片之所以成为战争片 it needs to make some kind of commentary on the nature of war.是因为它对战争本质有所表态 Now that is not a hard and fast rule but rather just my own opinion,这并不是铁律 仅仅是我的个人想法 but what commentary does Dunkirk make on the nature of war?《敦刻尔克》没有对战争的实质表态吗? Yes there are a number of smaller ideas that play a role in the background的确有很多细节能体现影片的立场 such as Cillian Murphy’s character who has PTSD,譬如斯里安·墨菲的角色患有创后精神障碍 but really the fact the film is set in a war is secondary to the true focus of the movie,但战争本身在《敦刻尔克》处于次要地位 because while it has elements of a war movie,即便《敦刻尔克》有战争片的元素 it is not a film about fighting,它的焦点不在打斗 it is not a film about war,不在战争 it is a film about survival.而关乎生存 Dunkirk shares more in common with The Day After Tomorrow《末日浩劫》比《拯救大兵瑞恩》 than it does Saving Private Ryan:更像《敦刻尔克》: the fact we never actually see the enemy,看不见的敌人 the fact the question is never addressed.没有答案的疑问 As to which side has the moral high ground至于敌我哪方站在道德制高点 was entirely intentional from Noland,完全取决于诺兰 because that is ultimately irrelevant因为对于历史上真正的敦刻尔克大撤退 when it came to the factual event of Dunkirk.这都无足轻重了 If Noland were making a movie about the holocaust or the use of atomic weapons in Japan,如果诺兰在做一部关于大屠杀或在日本投放原子弹的电影 there is no doubt that the morality of those events would have been front and center,毫无疑问这些事件的道德会成为影片焦点 because the morality of what those people did at those moments in the war因为人们在战争中的道德动机 is an integral part of understanding those events.有助于我们了解历史全貌 But when it came to the evacuation of Dunkirk,但对于敦刻尔克大撤退 morality did not matter,道德已经不重要了 because in that moment,因为在当时 nobody was pondering whether the British were in the right or the wrong,无人会想英国是否在正义的一方 but rather the only thing going through the heads of the soldiers on that beach在那危险的孤岛上 was the pure and total fear of an unseen enemy,他们只有对未知的敌军的惊恐 the pure and total fear of never seeing home again,对返乡无望的恐惧 the pure and total desire to survive.对生存极度的渴望 So saying Dunkirk is a survival film is not a negative connotation at all,所以称《敦刻尔克》为关乎生存的电影并无贬义 because when you look back at history,因为当我们回顾历史 at the evacuation of Dunkirk,在敦刻尔克大撤退中 survival is what it was all about.生存就是一切 And before we go,在节目结束前 I want to tell you that I’m an aspiring writer,我想告诉你我是一个有抱负的作者 and I’m always looking to learn a little more about my craft,总会从自己的艺术品中积累经验 so when I heard that the people at Skillshare were fans of this channel,所以当我听闻Skillshare里有我节目的粉丝 and were interested in sponsoring my content,并且想资助我的节目 I decided to check them out.我决定去Skillshare看看 When I went in,进去以后 I expected there to be only half a dozen courses on my passion我以为我感兴趣的内容不多 which is creative writing.即创意写作 However, my expectations were utterly shattered by the结果让我很意外 abundance of hundreds of courses they have just for writing alone,单是关于写作的内容就数不胜数 which I myself have found invaluable.我觉得那些内容都弥足珍贵 I’ve spent the past two weeks binging out on their courses,我花了两周浏览里面的课程 and I’ve barely even scratched the surface of what they have to offer,看到的不过是冰山一角 and that is just for writing.光是写作课就这么多 Skillshare has thousands of hours worth of content from all sorts of fieldsSkillshare有不同领域的课程 from drawing to website creation,有画画和网站创建课 and they have a wealth of content on filmmaking,还有一系列电影制作课 which I know is something a lot of you would be interested in.相信你们会喜欢的 The two most recent courses I watched are one on creative writing habits by Simon Van Boy,最近我学了两门课 西蒙的《写作习惯》 and one on writing comedy by Mike Locker,和迈克的《喜剧写作》 so I would recommend those two to be a great place to get started.我推荐大家从这两门课起步 Skillshare usually costs ten dollars a month,Skillshare一般每月只要10刀 however I am nothing short of ecstatic to announce that但我欣喜地宣布 for only this month of January,今年1月 if you click that link in the description,如果你登录相关链接 you will have complete access for all of this content只消0.99刀 你可以连续3个月 for $0.99 for a total of three months.学习里头的所有课程 That’s three months of unlimited access for less than a dollar,只消不到1刀 连续3个月无限制学习 which trust me is an absolute bargain.相信我 绝对划算 But let me stress that after the 31st of January,1月31日后活动就会结束 that link will expire and you won’t see this offer again,链接就会失效 仅这一次机会 so please be sure to click that link in the description请登录相关链接 while the offer still stands.机不可失 Anyway, thanks for watching,感谢收看 and I will see you guys next time on the Closer Look.下期节目再见
  • 2021-08-24《僵尸肖恩》的叙事之道《僵尸肖恩》对电影类型的探索[Music playing] 埃德加·赖特的电影最让我喜爱的一点One of my favorite aspects about Edgar Wright’s films is 对电影类型的结合玩转how he likes to combine and play with genre. 《极盗车神》是一部掺入音乐元素的动作片Baby Driver is an action movie mixed with musical. 《歪小子斯科特》则兼备动作片Scott Pilgrim is an action movie, 爱情喜剧和游戏电影三种风格a rom-com and a video game movie all in one. 这种结合大有用处And this achieves a lot. 不仅能颠覆观众的想象It subverts expectations. 还能让他传达更丰富的主题It allows him to say a lot more, 因为他跳脱于传统的叙事手法because he works out of bounds of a lot of traditional narratives. 他不受类型片刻板印象的限制He isn’t confined by genre stereotype thing, 可以随心所欲地讲述他想讲的故事can tell whatever kind of a story he wants. 而这其中我最喜欢的无疑是《僵尸肖恩》My favorite example of this has to be Shaun of the Dead. 它将灾难片和爱情喜剧相结合It combines the genre of disaster flick and rom-com. 表面上看 这两种类型毫不相干Now on the surface, these two genres have nothing in common. 一种轻松有趣 又情感强烈One is light-hearted, fun and emotional. 一种则紧张刺激 充满戏剧性 且规模宏大The other is intense, dramatic and enormous scale. 上一次看《僵尸肖恩》的时候The last time that I watched Shaun of the Dead, 我问自己:“为什么这样的结合效果如此之好?”I asked myself, “Why does this work so well?” 它们本应在基调 角色 故事结构等 只要你说的出来的方面 都存在冲突There should be conflicts with tone, characters, story structure, you name it. 但电影中却毫无显露But there isn’t. 实际上 我认为这些元素In fact, I would say that all these elements work 在《僵尸肖恩》中完美交融perfectly together in Shaun of the Dead. 在过去几周Over the past few weeks, 我一直在思考这个问题:I’ve been giving this a lot of thought, 为什么这两个相互冲突的类型配合得如此之好?“Why do these two conflicting genres work so well together?” 于是我退了一步来看这个问题So then I took a step back. 我找出能体现两种类型的重要叙事情节点I mapped out the overarching narrative plot points of the two genres, 发现它们是一一对应的and they were just about a one-to-one match. 让我先来讲解一下灾难片部分Let me explain starting off with the disaster film. 电影开场向我们展现了一个平凡的世界When the story first begins, we are introduced to our ordinary world. 而这个世界时常会有些混乱And it is oftentimes in disarray. 科学家发现了一些迹象 但没人愿意听The scientist sees the signs nobody’s willing to listen. “当没有一个官方说法的时候“While no one official is prepared to comment, “宗教团体就会称之为审判日”religious groups are calling it Judgment Day.” 【电视音乐】[Music playing] 混乱就在一件煽动事件后爆发了Chaos ensues at the inciting incident. 自此 主人公就需要From there, the protagonist needs to 寻找一个继续在这个世界生存的办法find a way to survive in the world. 首先 他们通常会为此进行一番抗争First, they usually try to fight against it. 接着就是失败After that is unsuccessful, 主角这才意识到世界的生存法则the hero learns the rules of the world, 并能够继续在混乱的世界里生存成长and is able to thrive in a world of chaos. 在电影的结尾By the end of the movie, 在某种程度上 主角通常会把世界扭回到正轨the protagonist will oftentimes return the world to normalcy, to an extent. 通过治愈这个世界 或仅仅只是学会Be it through a cure or just to learn to live in 在一个能够让他们继续繁衍的新环境里生存a new environment where they can thrive. 并且通常情况下And oftentimes live a life better 要过着 比故事开头还要好的生活than the one they did at the beginning of the story. 现在让我们来和爱情喜剧比较一下Now let’s compare that with a rom-com. 爱的火花往往是在磨难中产生的The love interest will oftentimes start off rocky. 他们或许是在一起的They may be together, 但显然这不是一段健康的关系but it’s clearly not a very healthy relationship. “亲爱的 你说过你会戒烟!”“You promised you’d stop smoking, my dear! “你还保证你会重回健身房的”You promised you go back to the gym!” 由一时心血来潮煽动起的爱情往往会一拍两散Happy inciting incident the relationship will usually fall apart. 爱的火花会让人想黏在一起The love interest will be forced to be together. 起初 他们会互相斗气At first they fight with one another, “我不能这样做 我还有一个计划要实现”“But I couldn’t get through. I had to come up with a plan.” “哦 你还有个计划呢!”“Oh yeah, you had a plan!” 但之后他们就会意识到 当他们一起解决问题时 情况会变得更好But then come to realize that they are better off working together. 到故事的结尾 他们的感情已得到了修复By the end of the story they have patched up their relationship, 而且两人在一起的感觉and are now happier together 比故事开头所叙述的更幸福了than they were at the beginning of the narrative. 这些故事的结构框架几乎是完全一致的Now these story structures are almost identical beat for beat. 这样的结合使得它的结尾变得很有趣And the combination of them allows for a really interesting result. 《僵尸肖恩》胜过了这两种类型片Shaun of the Dead transcends both of these genres, 莱特巧妙的结合使得其自有独特的地方Wright’s clever combination allows for something unique, 即使在讲述一个老套的故事even though it follows traditional stories beat for beat, 它的核心风格绝对是独一无二的it’s also something wholly original in its heart. 它具有悬疑特色It’s suspenseful, 它是故事叙述的极佳范例and it’s a perfect example of great storytelling. “团队(team)中并没有我(I)“There’s no I in team. “但馅饼(pie)中却有我(I)”“But there is an I in pie, “肉饼(meat pie)里也有我(I)的存在”“there’s an I in meat pie, “而肉是团队的变位词”“The anagram of meat is team, “我不知道他在谈论些什么 就这样”“I don’t know what he is talking about, look, that’s it.” 嘿 希望你们喜欢这个视频Hey, everyone. I hope you enjoyed. 如果你错过了上周的更新If you missed last week’s update, 那么我们要告诉你videos are going to be a bit shorter 下个月左右 视频还会缩短一些for the next month or so. 我们很快就会恢复以往的内容风格We’ll soon be returning to our usual style of content. 但我真心希望But I’m really hoping that 这短期变化的暂时中断the short break in short change up 能让我讲述will allow me to cover topics 平时八到十分钟的视频不适合讲的话题that wouldn’t fit into a normal eight-to-ten-minute video, 但能在三到五分钟里很好地讲述他们but would be perfect for a three-to-five-minute one. 如果你更多地了解埃德加•莱特If you want more Edgar Wright, 我会放一个我制作的关于《极盗车神》的视频链接I put a link to my video on Baby Driver. 如果你感兴趣的话 别忘了点击查看So be sure to check that out if you’re interested. 感谢观看Thanks for watching! 我们下周再见And I will see you next week. [音乐][Music playing]
  • 2021-08-24如何恰当地运用手持抖动拍摄Hey, guys! Henry here大家好!我是亨利 and welcome to a short video essay on欢迎观看这个关于 how to use shaky cam.如何使用手持抖动拍摄的短视频 Right.好的 The majority of filmgoers大多数影迷 as well as filmmakers in general和制片人 have a very firm opinion对于手持抖动拍摄 when it comes to shaky cam.都有共识 And the opinion对于手持抖动拍摄 it is a plague人们的固有观点是它是一场灾难 that shakey cam is a technique它总被认为是 used exclusively by filmmakers只有那些不懂行的电影制作人 who do not know what they are doing and才会使用的技巧 if a scene uses a shaky cam and you remove it,若某场景中使用了手持抖动拍摄技术 去掉这种效果后 that scene without exception这一场景将毫无意外地 becomes better by default.会拍的更好 In this video essay,在这个短片里 I want to explain why that mindset is wrong.我将解释那种观念为什么是错误的 Now firstly,首先 it is true that shaky cam has been utilized手持抖动拍摄 by a great many directors to如今被许多导演 a very poor standard.以非常低的门槛滥用的现象很普遍 Take this example, for instance.以此为例 As you can see,正如你所看见的 that example of shaky cam那个手持抖动拍摄的例子 is exceptionally poor.拍的很糟糕 It is nearly impossible to因为几乎不可能搞清楚 to decipher what’s going on发生了什么 or even who is winning the fight.甚至是谁打赢了都一概不知 Now, there are a thousand and one examples如今 手持抖动拍摄 of poorly done shaky cam.很糟糕的例子数不胜数 But in this quick essay,但在这个短片里 I want to address just one example我会举一个 where it is used它如何正确使用 and it works.以及达到拍摄效果的例子 And that example is in the film而那个例子 28 weeks later.是在电影《惊变28周》里 Let’s watch that again.一起再看一次吧 So, as the protagonist is running down the hallway,当主角在走廊奔跑时 the camera is stable.镜头是平稳的 As it smoothly tracks his movements,平稳地记录着他的运动 and then a few seconds later,而数秒之后 as a zombie charges down the very same hallway,一个丧尸也在那个走廊上面猛冲 the camera is shaking and sporadic镜头在摇晃 并且断断续续 in a total contrast to the prior shot.与之前的镜头截然相反 And this contrast between steady and shaky cam而平稳和抖动拍摄的差别 is used throughout this entire scene.贯穿了整部片子 We get a steady shot of the protagonist主角的镜头很平稳 and his wife not moving.他妻子也没有移动 It is immediately followed by a quick shot紧接着就是丧尸的快镜头 of a zombie where the camera is shaking这时候镜头就开始抖动 and he snaps his head around.然后他摆过头来 We get a steady shot of the retacless主角在田野里奔跑时 running in a field.镜头十分平稳 It is immediately followed by a shaking shot紧接着就是从丧尸后面 from behind the zombie.拍过来的抖动镜头 I think part of the reason why我认为这些场景 this scene is nowhere near as nauseating as之所以不像其他手持抖动拍摄的例子一样 other examples of shaky cam is.让人恶心 部分原因 Because the technique is used sparingly.是因为它没有被滥用 Most of the shots are not shaking at all大多数镜头都十分平稳 and are quite easy to decipher.也很容易看清 But that reason right there但这个原因 doesn’t quite explain why this is a particularly effective并不足以说明它是这一技巧使用的好例子 use of the technique, but rather why it isn’t a bad one.但足以见得它还不错 So, to explain why this is a great example of因此 要解释为什么 how to use shaky cam.这是一个手持抖动拍摄的好例子 We need to first understand the effects of the technique.我们首先需要理解这一技巧的作用 Every cinematic technique任何电影技巧 has an effect.都有它的作用 The long shot helps to establish a strong sense of place.长镜头可以帮助建立强烈的空间感 A moving camera that doesn’t ever stay still始终不停的移动镜头 helps to create a sense of momentum,营造了一种动态感 but also instability.以及不确定感 As we can never quite find a stable footing,因为我们永远无法找到一个绝对稳固的立足之地 I’d like to argue that我倾向认为 the number one effect shaky cam has on an audience.手持抖动拍摄带给观众的第一感觉 Aside from the nausea,除了恶心以外 is essentially a more condensed effect of the moving shot.本身就能营造出一种比移动镜头更加强烈的效果 It creates a sense of instability.它会给人一种不安的感觉 So bringing this back to 28 weeks later,因此我们回到电影《28周以后》上来 we can see why this use of shaky cam.可以看到为什么运用手持抖动拍摄 is just so provocative.如此令人身临其境 In contrast to the steady shots,相较于平稳镜头而言 the shaking shots where the infected are the subjects拍摄对象为丧尸的晃动镜头 gives them a strong sense of instability赋予了丧尸一种不平衡感 and helps to reinforce their feral nature.同时有助于塑造他们凶猛的本性 So what can you take away所以从这个短片当中 from this for this video essay?你有哪些收获呢? Well, shaky-cam is just like嗯 手持抖动拍摄 any other cinematic technique.跟其他的电影技巧一样 It has its place in film and when used correctly,它在电影里面有一席之地 如果使用得当 it can be quite provocative.会富有强烈的感染力 The real reason the technique has developed而这一电影技巧 such a poor reputation之所以拥有如今的坏名声 is because the vast majority of people who use it真正的原因是 do not understand its effect大多数使用者都不理解它的作用 and as a result,因此 we see it constantly used in scenes我们看见这一技巧总是大量出现在 where it is detrimental to the overall experience,不适合它的场景中 rather than adding to it.而不是在正常拍摄的基础上添加几处 So if you have a friend因此 如果你有朋友 who thinks that shakey cam is a plague that坚定不移的认为 without exception手持抖动拍摄应该 needs to be eradicated from被杜绝 all future films.出现在今后的电影当中 Feel free to show them this video.您可以给他们看看这个视频 Please do like and subscribe请点赞并点击订阅 and I will see you guys next time下一次 on the Closer Look.Closer Look见

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