MICHAEL POLLAN: So how do these psychedelics work?
迈克尔·波兰:致幻剂是如何产生作用的呢?
Well, the honest answer is: We don’t entirely know.
说实话 我们完全不清楚
But we know a few things.
但我们也并非一无所知
One is, they fit a certain receptor site — the serotonin 52A receptor —
我们知道致幻剂类似于血清素52A受体
and they look a lot like serotonin,
如果你观察致幻剂的分子模型
if you look at the molecular models of them.
会发现它们很像血清素
And in fact, LSD fits that receptor site even better than serotonin does,
事实上 迷幻剂能更好地刺激血清素受体
and it stays there longer,
致幻剂能长时间保持
and that’s why the LSD trip can last 12 hours.
这就是其药效可以持续12个小时的原因
What happens after that, we don’t really know.
而之后发生的事情我们就不得而知了
It’s an agonist to that receptor, so it increases its activity.
致幻剂是血清素受体激动剂 所以能增加其活性
And this, the neuroscientists say, “leads to a cascade of effects,”
神经科学家说 这会“导致一连串的影响”
which is shorthand for “don’t really know what happens next.”
也就是说“不知道接下来会发生什么”
But one thing we do know, or we think we know,
但我们知道(或者我们自以为自己知道)
is that it appears that one particular brain network is deactivated or quieted,
服用致幻剂后 大脑中某个网络会停用或沉寂
and that is the default mode network.
即大脑默认模式网络
This was discovered not very long ago by a researcher in England named Robin Carhart-Harris,
这是不久前一位英国研究员罗宾·卡哈特-哈里斯发现的
who was dosing people with psilocybin and LSD
他给测试者注射了裸头草碱和致幻剂
and then sliding them into an MRI machine to take an FMRI, a Functional Magnetic Resonance Image.
然后把他们放进核磁共振机 进行成像
And the expectation, I think, was that people would see an excitation of many, many different networks in the brain.
想必也会看到大脑网络中的诸多兴奋现象
That’s what the kind of mental firework foretold.
这预示着精神上非常亢奋
But he was very surprised to discover that one particular network was down-regulated,
但他非常惊讶地发现 大脑中有一个特定的网络受到抑制
and that was this default mode network.
这就是大脑默认模式网络
So what is that?
那是什么呢?
Well, it’s a tightly linked set of structures
它是一组紧密相连的结构
connecting the prefrontal cortex to the posterior cingulate cortex to deeper, older centers of emotion and memory.
把前额叶皮层和后扣带叶皮层连接到 更深更久远的情绪和记忆中心
It appears to be involved in things like self reflection, theory of mind (the ability to impute mental states to others),
它涉及自省 心智理论(体察他人心理状态的能力)
mental time travel (the ability to project forward in time and back)
心理时间旅行(时间向前和向后投射的能力)
which is central to creating an identity, right?
这些是创造一个身份的核心要素 不是吗?
You don’t have an identity without a memory.
没有记忆你就没有身份
And the so-called autobiographical memory,
所谓的“自传体记忆” 它有一种功能
the function by which we construct the story of who we are
把发生在自己身上的事情折合成一种叙述
by taking the things that happen to us and folding them into that narrative,
以此来建构一个“我们是谁”的故事
and that appears to take place in the posterior cingulate cortex.
而这个过程似乎发生在后扣带叶皮层
So to the extent the ego can be said to have a location in the brain,
所以某种程度上说 自我在大脑中有一个定位
it appears to be this, the default mode network.
这就是默认模式网络
It’s active when you’re doing nothing,
它在你无所事事
when your mind is wandering.
思绪游荡的时候是活跃的
It can be very self critical.
它具有自我批判性
It’s where self talk takes place.
它会自我对话
And that goes quiet.
然而服用致幻剂后它安静下来
And when that goes quiet, the brain is sort of, as one of the neuroscientists put it,
此时大脑就像一位神经科学家说的那样
let off the leash
放下了束缚
because those ego functions, that self idea, is a regulator of all mental activity.
因为那些自我的部分自我的想法是所有精神活动的调节器
And the brain is a hierarchical system and the default mode network appears to be at the top;
大脑是一个等级系统 默认模式网络似乎位于顶端
it’s kind of the orchestra conductor or corporate executive.
有点像管弦乐队的指挥或公司高管
And you take that out of the picture,
总指挥失去了作用
and suddenly you have this uprising from other parts of the brain,
让大脑的其它部分继续演奏
and you have networks that don’t ordinarily communicate with one another suddenly striking up conversations.
一般情况下 你的大脑网络不会突然开始对话交流
So you might have the visual cortex talking to the auditory system
而服用致幻剂后 视觉皮层和听觉系统进行交流
and suddenly you’re seeing music.
突然你看到了音乐
Or it becomes palpable.
或者音乐变得触手可及
You can feel it or smell it — synesthesia.
你能感觉到或闻到音乐——这就是联觉
So you have this temporary rewiring of the brain in the absence of the control of the regulator.
在缺乏调节器控制的情况下 大脑会出现这种临时性的重组
And this appears to have a beneficial effect in terms of jogging the brain out of bad patterns.
致幻剂有益的影响就是使大脑摆脱坏的模式
Many of the disorders that psychedelics appear to treat well are manifestations of a stuck brain,
有时大脑会被反复灌输毁灭性的概念
a brain that is locked in loops, a mind that’s telling itself destructive stories,
而致幻剂能很好治疗许多大脑紊乱现象
like ‘I can’t get through the day without a cigarette.
比如“没有香烟我无法度过一天
I’m unworthy of love.
我不值得爱
My work is shit.’
我的工作一团糟”
These kinds of evidence of habitual thinking in a really negative loop are relieved.
这些消极循环的习惯性思维在总指挥罢工时得到疗治
And it may be that an overactive ego is what punishes us.
有时候过度活跃的大脑反而是一种自我惩罚
And that relief from that dictator is exactly
想要避免消极情绪的辖制
what some people need to free themselves from habits — mental habits and behavioral habits.
要靠人们将自己从精神习惯和行为习惯中解脱
That, at least, is the theory.
至少 理论上是这样
I think there’s a lot more we need to learn,
关于致幻剂的认知前路漫漫
but it’s a very provocative theory.
但其益处是一个非常具有挑衅性的理论
And then if we have a tool for behavior change, that’s a huge deal.
所以如果有一个行为改变工具就再好不过了
I mean, I know, having worked on food for many years,
从事食品工作多年的我知道
that changing people’s food habits as adults is almost impossible.
改变人们成年后的饮食习惯几乎是不可能的
We are creatures of habit in many, many ways.
我们在很多方面都是惯性生物
And the older we get, the worse it gets.
人越老 这种情况就越严重
So if we have something that can kind of lubricate cognition, that can shake the snow globe,
所以如果真的有东西能改变认知 将产生巨大轰动
as another researcher put it, this might be very helpful in helping people escape these traps.
正如另一位研究人员所说 这可能有助于人们规避弱点

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