If there’s one thing we can rely on,
如果说有一件事情我们能永远相信
it’s that the moon will always be there.
那就是月亮会一直在
Night after night.
夜夜如此
But our long-serving lunar satellite
但作为长期守护地球的卫星
is actually changing,
月球其实一直在变
and in stranger ways than we could have have ever imagined.
并且变化奇异 令人难以想象
This is Unveiled,
欢迎来到《揭秘未知》
and today we’re answering the extraordinary question;
本集视频会解开一个奇异之谜:
why is the moon turning red?
为什么月亮正变红?
Are you a fan for facts?
你痴迷于真相吗
Are you constantly curious?
你一直充满好奇吗
Then why not subscribe to Unveiled
是的话 快来订阅《揭秘未知》
for more clips like this one?
有更多这样的揭秘视频等你
And ring the bell for more fascinating content!
记得设个提醒 获取更多精彩内容!
The Moon Mineralogy Mapper is a device
月球矿物测绘仪
designed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory
由美国宇航局喷气推进实验室设计
to study the composition of the moon.
用以探究月球的组成成分
It’s what’s known as a spectrometer,
它是一种光谱仪
which is a machine that produces spectral maps;
即能够生成光谱图的机器
which are maps that show the exact chemical arrangements
光谱图能显示指定行星或卫星的化学组成
of any given planet or, in this case, satellite.
本视频中指定的是作为卫星的月球
The Moon Mapper works because every element on the moon
月球上每一种元素发出的光波长不同
emits a different wavelength of light on the electromagnetic spectrum,
显示在电磁波谱上自然各异
so it meticulously records these to provide us
月球矿物测绘仪就会仔细记录这些信息
with some of the most detailed images we’ve ever seen.
从而呈现出我们能看到的最为详实的图像
It was this same mapper, in fact,
也正是这台测绘仪
that first detected water on the moon in 2009.
在2009年首次探测出月球上存在水
In 2020, scientists re-examined some past data
2020年 科学家们再次研究
from the Moon Minerology Mapper;
以往通过月球矿物测绘仪获得的数据
data that was originally gathered as part of a survey taken twelve years earlier,
这是12年前 月球矿物测绘仪
back when the mapper had been installed
被安装在印度月球探测器月船1号上时
on Chandrayaan-1, an Indian spacecraft.
在探测过程中最早得到的数据
Upon looking again, the scientists – from the University of Hawaii – discovered something
经过再次研究 夏威夷大学的科学家们
previously thought to be completely impossible.
发现了之前认为绝对不可能的事情
Analysing the lunar poles in particular,
仔细分析月球两极的光谱
they appeared to be going rusty.
会发现月球两极似乎正在生锈
Specifically, the mapper identified hematite, an iron oxide
具体来说就是 测绘仪识别出了一种氧化物:赤铁矿
produced when iron meets water and oxygen, leaving rust.
也就是铁暴露在氧气和水中产生的铁锈
The problem here is that
问题在于
the moon shouldn’t have enough water or oxygen for rust to form,
月球上没有足够的水和氧气能生成铁锈
so how did it get there?
那铁锈从何而来?
Well, it most likely has a lot to do with our planet, Earth.
这就跟我们的地球有很大关系了
The most straightforward theory is that
最直接的推测是
for at least 2.5 billion years,
在过去至少25亿年中
Earth’s plants have been pumping out oxygen,
地球上的植物源源不断产生氧气
and the moon has picked up some of that.
而月球获得了其中一部分
We can find proof of this in certain isotopes of oxygen
在目前发现的月球氧气中
that have now been found on the moon,
某些同位素来源于地球
because they’re isotopes that originate from Earth.
这就为这一推测提供了一些证据
The leading idea is that
目前最好的解释是
when the moon passes through Earth’s magnetotail,
当月亮通过地球磁尾
which is the trail the planet leaves behind as it orbits the sun,
即地球绕日时磁场在地球后侧的延伸
it’s then subjected to at least a little bit of our world’s oxygen.
至少有一小部分地球氧气可能到达月球
This happens only for short periods, but regularly.
这一过程时间不长 但会定期发生
Although it still doesn’t completely solve the mystery.
但这种推测仍未完全揭开谜底
Because, what about the water?
因为水的来源还未知
While we know that the moon does have ice,
虽然我们知道月球上有水冰存在
the rusty hematite found by the mapper
但月球矿物测绘仪发现的赤铁矿
was not close enough to these deposits.
离发现水冰的地方很远
The best theory for where the required water
至于生锈所需水的来源
comes from, then, is space dust,
最可靠的解释是太空尘埃
the idea being that this dust has in some way
也就是说 在数十亿年的时间里
reacted with the lunar surface over billions of years,
太空尘埃以某种方式与月球表面发生反应
to form traces of water.
形成少量水分子
This, combined with the oxygen inherited from Earth,
有了水 再加上来自地球的氧气
is what has created the conditions
就为月球上铁的氧化
necessary for the moon’s iron to oxidize – for the rust to form.
即铁锈的形成创造了条件
We’re still a long way from being able to see
但我们现在还无法用肉眼
the effects of this with the naked eye, however.
观察到月球生锈的效果
If you go out and look up at the moon tonight,
如果你今晚出去看看月亮
you’re not about to notice
你没法看到
big red splodges at the top and bottom of it…
月亮两极大块的红色锈斑
because, without the Minerology Mapper,
因为如果不是月球矿物测绘仪
we’d really have no idea that this was happening.
我们甚至不会知道月球正生锈
In fact, it’s thought that the rust is only able to form
其实 科学家们认为 在一个月内
for a few days each month.
只有几天能发生铁锈反应
it’s just that those days have now added up
正是数十亿年间每月几天的积累
over billions of years to cause this interesting phenomenon.
才让如此有趣的现象得以出现
This is by no means the first time
无疑 这是我们在太阳系中
that we’ve seen this happen in the solar system, though.
第一次发现这样的现象
It’s also iron oxide that gives Mars its distinctive colour,
同样因为氧化铁 火星有了特别的颜色
putting the “Red” into the Red Planet.
名字中的“火”才由此而来
So, if the moon developing hematite is an inevitable process
所以 如果月球生锈不可避免
thanks to Earth’s abundant plant life
地球又有充裕的植物
and the huge amounts of oxygen our planet produces,
还能提供大量氧气
then, one day, the lunar surface could even look a bit like Mars does now.
那么月表有一天可能会变得有点像现在的火星
And, unlike so many other long-term ecological or atmospheric changes,
并且 与很多其他长期生态或大气变化不同
this is something which should happen regardless of what humans do.
人类无法对月球生锈产生丝毫影响
Even if Earth’s environment is severely damaged by human activity,
即便人类活动严重破坏了地球环境
and even if we eventually go extinct…
甚至即便人类最终灭绝
it’s thought that, given enough time, the Earth will recover.
人们认为 有足够的时间 地球还会复原
And it will continue producing oxygen all the while,
也就还会持续产生氧气
so its magnetotail will remain,
地球磁尾也会继续存在
and the Moon will still slowly be fed
月球仍会慢慢获得
all that it needs to gradually rust.
其逐渐生锈所需的条件
Sure, if the current predictions play out,
当然 如果按照现在的预测
it will take a long time (like, billions more years!)
这需要很长时间 比如再有数十亿年
but it’s thought that not even Mars was always red.
但据说火星也并非一直都是红色
Its colour is iconic now,
虽然现在它的红色极具标志性
but it’s believed that our planetary neighbour
但据说这位地球近邻
once had a gray-ish, charcoal look, a long time ago.
在很久以前曾有着浅灰色木炭一般的外表
All of which means that
这些都表明
we shouldn’t be too worried about the moon going rusty,
我们不必太担心月球生锈
even if it does initially sound like
虽然最开始这听起来
it might be a bad thing.
可能是个坏消息
The creation of iron oxide is a natural process,
氧化铁的生成是自然过程
and what we’re discovering now doesn’t mean that
我们目前的发现并不意味着
the moon is in some way being damaged.
月球受到了某种形式的损伤
It isn’t going to fall apart or collapse
月球不会分崩离析
or rust away into nothingness.
也不会生锈而消失殆尽
It’s not like an old bicycle that’s been left out in the rain,
它不像被扔在雨中的老旧自行车
or a rusty hinge that no longer works,
也不像生了锈没法用的铰链
it’s just evidence of the moon
目前的发现只证明了
evolving along with the rest of the solar system.
月球和太阳系其余各物一样正不断变化
And, regardless, the amount of iron oxide present today
且不论目前已生成的氧化铁
is still so negligible that
数量微不足道
we need a spectrometer to see it at all.
我们需要分光仪才能看到
By the time it becomes significant enough to see from Earth,
就算到了我们能从地球上看到的时候
who knows what other changes our planet will’ve also gone through!
也没人知道那时地球已经历了什么变化
But if you think a red moon is more interesting
但如果你不觉得红月亮可怕 也不为之忧心
than it is scary or worrying,
反而觉得很有趣
there’s good news:
也有好消息
because, technically,
因为严格来说
you won’t have to wait hundreds of millions of years to see one.
你不用等上亿万年才能看到红月亮
In fact, red moons are a fairly regular occurrence on the calendar,
其实 红月亮会定期出现
just not in the same way.
只不过并非因为生锈变红
During a lunar eclipse,
在月蚀期间
a phenomenon called Rayleigh scattering –
会出现一种现象:瑞利散射
a type of scattering of light
它是光散射的一种
– means that the moon appears red in the sky,
此时 天上的月亮会呈现红色
in what’s also known as a “blood moon”.
这种月亮也被称为“血月”
Rayleigh scattering and blood moons
但瑞利散射和血月的出现
have zero to do with iron oxide and rust, though,
与氧化铁和铁锈毫无关系
and are all to do with how light reaches our eyes,
而与光进入我们眼睛的方式有关
with Rayleigh scattering also being the reason
瑞利散射也是黎明和黄昏时
why the sky often appears vividly red, especially at dawn and dusk.
天空经常变得艳红无比的原因
Culturally-speaking,
从文化角度看
blood moons are believed by some to be harbingers of doom,
血月在一些文化中是厄运的征兆
but really, physically-speaking,
但从自然规律上看
they’re completely harmless-they only indicate a lunar eclipse.
血月只象征着月蚀发生 完全无害
Blood moons can also coincide with other lunar events, too,
血月也会和其他月球现象一同出现
like supermoons,
比如超级月亮
with a supermoon being when a full moon happens precisely
超级月亮出现时 月亮要是满月
when the moon is at its perigee
而且要恰好位于近地点
(i.e., when it’s the closest it gets to Earth –
即月亮离地球最近的一点
which is roughly 221,500 miles away).
此时地月距离约为221,500英里
When the moon is at its apogee and is further away,
月亮在远地点 离我们非常远时
this can be called a “micro moon”.
“微型月亮”就会出现
So, technically, we could also experience a “blood micro moon”,
所以严格说来 如果所有条件符合
if all those things aligned.
我们也能见到“微型血月”
The harvest moon is another of note,
而收获月出现的原理则不同
described as the full moon closest to the autumnal equinox
收获月是指出现在最接近秋分时的满月
– the date in fall when night and day are the same lengths.
秋分是指秋季昼夜等长的那一天
We call it a harvest moon because, traditionally,
之所以称之为收获月
farmworkers could continue to reap that year’s harvest long into the night
是因为收获月的月光很亮
because the light of this particular moon is so bright.
按照传统 农夫能在晚上借月光继续采收
Lots of full moons have nicknames like this, though,
很多满月也都有这样的绰号
including the hunter’s moon (which is directly after the harvest moon)
比如紧随收获月之后的狩猎月
and the wolf moon (which is the full moon in January).
以及狼月 即出现在1月的满月
In 2019, the world was treated
2019年 我们曾迎来一次
to an incredibly rare “super blood wolf moon”,
极为罕见的“超级血狼月”
a full moon happening in January
也就是一月份的满月
during a total lunar eclipse when the moon was at its perigee.
又赶上月亮位于近地点 出现月全食
Similarly, a blue moon is a lunar phenomenon
同样 蓝月也是月球现象其中的一种
that doesn’t really denote any change in colour,
尽管这种现象被称为蓝月
despite the name.
但并不代表月亮变色了
Most of the time,
大多数时候
a blue moon is simply the second full moon in a month,
蓝月只是指一个月中的第二轮满月
which happens from time to time
但只会偶尔时出现
because the lunar cycle is only around twenty-eight days long,
因为一个月亮周期只有约28天
making it shorter than the length of a calendar month.
比日历上的一个月要短
It’s where the saying “once in a blue moon” comes from,
谚语里会用蓝月表示“千载难逢”
because it’s quite rare.
就是因为它极为罕见
But the moon can also appear physically blue to us here on Earth, as well,
但在地球上也会看到蓝色的月亮
although this is to do with Earth’s own environment rather than the lunar cycle.
虽然这与地球自身环境而非月亮周期有关
Whenever there are large amounts of debris in the atmosphere,
每当大气层中出现大量碎屑
it can tint the sky different colours,
比如火山喷发或森林火灾发生后
like after volcanic eruptions and forest fires.
这些碎屑都会让天空变色
And, that colour can sometimes be blue.
月亮有时候就会变成蓝色
After the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa,
例如 史上最著名的火山喷发之一
one of history’s most famous eruptions, for example,
1883年喀拉喀托火山喷发后
it was reported that the moon looked blue
据报道 因为空中灰烬太多
because there was so much ash in the sky.
月亮看起来就成了蓝色
We also have reports of a blue moon
1980年圣海伦火山爆发后
after the eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980.
也有对蓝色的月亮的报道
And finally, the human eye does sometimes perceive standard moonlight as blue,
最后 人眼有时确实会把正常的月光视为蓝色
even though it definitely isn’t.
虽然月光正常情况下绝不会是蓝色
This is because of the Purkinje effect,
这是薄暮现象造成的
which relates to how human eyes are better at
也就是说 在暗光条件下 比如夜晚
seeing blues and greens in low light conditions – like, at night
相比红色和黄色
– as opposed to reds and yellows.
人眼更擅长识别蓝色和绿色
All to say, however, that it’s no bad thing
这一切都是说 月球慢慢生锈
that the moon is slowly rusting,
并不是什么坏事
even if Earth is ultimately to blame,
虽然最后发现是地球造成的
because it’s happening due to completely ordinary –
但其实背后的原因是再正常不过
if incredibly rare – astronomical circumstances.
但异常罕见的天文学现象
There are also other explanations as to why the moon
目前也有很多其他解释来说明
might appear a different colour to us when we look at it,
为什么我们看月亮时 它会呈现不同的颜色
but that’s why the moon is turning red.
但总之 这就是我们对月亮变红的解释
What do you think?
你有什么想法?
Is there anything we missed?
有什么我们没有涉及的地方吗?
Let us know in the comments,
留下你的评论
check out these other clips from Unveiled,
也欢迎点击《揭秘未知》的其他视频
and make sure you subscribe
一定要订阅我们的频道
and ring the bell for our latest content.
并设置好最新发布提醒哦

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