Here is the Thought Experiment.
这里是《思想实验》
A good life isn’t just about having a good time.
美好生活不只是过得愉快
It’s about having a true time.
更要活得真实
《电视点子》
In this episode, we’re going to talk about
本期节目 我们要讨论的是
a philosophical thought experiment concerning simulated experiences.
一场关于仿真经历的哲学思维实验
But before we do that, I have a question for you.
在此之前 我先问大家一个问题
How ya doing? Really, tell me. I want to know.
你过得好吗?说真的 告诉我 我想知道
I know politeness dictates that you’ve got to be like, Good. And you?
你也许会礼貌地回答:“很好 你呢?”
But really, dig deep.
但 你要深思熟虑
I don’t care about your day.
我问的不是你今天过得怎样
I want to know if you’re having a good life.
我想知道的是 你是否拥有美好生活
What even makes a good life?
怎么才算美好生活?
It’s a tough question, so here’s a little bit of guidance.
这个问题比较棘手 我稍微给点提示
Is a good life having lots of pleasurable experiences?
有很多快乐的经历就算拥有美好生活吗?
Is that the best situation?
那就是生活最美的样子吗?
Here, I’ll give you a second to think.
给你时间思考一下
有快乐的经历就算拥有美好生活吗?
If you said yes,
如果你回答“是”
Are you sure?
你确定吗?
Hedonism is a philosophy that argues
享乐主义哲学认为
a good life is one that is filled with pleasure.
“美好生活是快乐至上”
Historically, hedonism has gotten kind of a bad rap.
古往今来 享乐主义一直备受诋毁
People confuse that with indulgence,
人们把它和放纵 堕落
vice,bacchanalian revelry, and outright sin.
纵酒狂欢和彻头彻尾的罪恶混为一谈
But a hedonistic life isn’t necessarily extravagant or debaucherous.
但享乐主义并不一定就是奢侈或放荡
In fact, ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus —
实际上 古希腊哲学家伊壁鸠鲁
one of the first and most famous hedonists–
作为最早也是最著名的享乐主义者之一
encouraged a life of detachment and temperance.
他提倡过一种超然而适度的生活
Those were his pleasures.
这才是他所谓的“快乐”
Life of the bacchanal, that’s not Epicurus.
每天沉溺饮酒作乐 并非伊壁鸠鲁主义
What this means is that how you do hedonism
就是说 你定义快乐的方式
is determined by what you consider pleasure.
决定了你奉行享乐主义的方式
There are lots of ways to determine what counts as pleasure.
定义快乐的方式有千千万万种
But for our purposes,
但为满足实验需求
we’re going to focus on one– preference hedonism,
我们只聚焦其中一种——偏好享乐主义
where pleasure is any mental state that is desired.
即 快乐是任何让人渴望的心理状态
This is just one interpretation of hedonism
这只是享乐主义的其中一种解释
and to simplify it at that.
如果你想简要了解它
Link Doobly-Doo for more.
打开Doobly-Doo链接了解更多
Preference hedonism says,
偏好享乐主义认为
if you desire the experience of spending all day in the ball pit
如果你想在查尔斯娱乐城的
at a Charles Entertainment Cheese fine diversion establishment,
海洋球里玩上一整天
then doing so is pleasurable for you.
那这种行为对你来说就是愉悦的
And that means your life is good.
这意味着你的生活很好
Counting blades of grass, playing the tuba,
数草叶 吹大号
building a castle of junk– all great.
用垃圾造城堡 这些都是可以的
Hedonism ain’t going to judge,
享乐主义不会歧视任何一种偏好
which gets a little bleak if what’s good for you is bad for others.
如果对你有利的事对其他人不利 那就不太妙
But basically, if you’re having the experiences you want,
但大多数情况下 享乐主义认为
hedonism says, you good.
如果你做了想做的事 就会快乐
But are you?
但你真的快乐吗?
This brings us– drum roll please– to today’s thought experiment,
这就可以——音乐起——引出我们今天的思想实验
philosopher Robert Nozick’s Experience Machine,
哲学家罗伯特·诺齐克的体验机
an attempt to dismantle or at least examine hedonism
出自他的《无政府 国家和乌托邦》一书
from his book “Anarchy, State, and Utopia.”
旨在试图消除或至少审视享乐主义
The Experience Machine is sort of like the ultimate virtual reality headset.
体验机有点像终极的虚拟现实头盔
Its simulations are lifelike and indistinguishable from reality.
它的模拟栩栩如生 无法与现实区分开
Even on the neural level,
即使在神经层面
no difference between you in the Experience Machine and, well, the experiences.
体验机与现实体验之间也没有区别
Nozick writes that super-duper neuropsychologists
诺齐克写道 这台“超级神经心理学家”
could stimulate your brain so that you would think and feel
可以刺激你的大脑 使你思考并感觉到
you were writing a great novel or making a friend
自己正在写一本伟大的小说或结交朋友
or reading an interesting book.
或读一本有趣的书
All the time, you would be floating in a tank
整个过程 你都漂浮在一个
with electrodes attached to your brain.
通过电极连接到你大脑的水箱
He then poses the big question.
然后他提出了一个大问题
Should you plug in to this machine for life,
你是否应该终生接入这台机器
preprogramming your life’s experiences?
对你的生活经历预先编程?
You can program the Experience Machine
你可以对体验机进行编程
to give you any experience
让它给你任何体验
even a whole lifetime of pleasures,
甚至是一生的愉悦感
even temperate and detached pleasures.
甚至是适度 超然的愉悦感
Pick your poison– the point being living in the machine
选择你的毒药——生活在机器中
you’d have more net pleasure in it than IRL.
你会获得比现实生活更多的净乐趣
The only practical difference is
唯一的实际区别是
what your physical body is up to.
你的身体在做什么
It’s up to nothing.
什么都没做
Do you do it? Do you plug in?
你想这样做吗?你想插入吗?
Is that a good life?
那是美好的生活吗?
I’ll give you some time to think.
给你点时间思考一下
你愿意进入体验机吗?
[MUSIC PLAYING] Time’s up.
时间到
Nozick says
诺齐克说
the true hedonist who thinks the good life is pleasurable experiences
认为“美好生活是愉快经历”的真正享乐主义者
must do it.
必须做到这一点
Hedonism says more pleasure equals a better life.
享乐主义认为 更多的快乐等于更好的生活
And pleasure is any desired mental state,
而快乐是任何让人渴望的心理状态
which is exactly what the machine produces.
这些正是由机器创造
So plug them in!
因此 插入吧!
Nozick wagers, however, that most people
然而 诺齐克打赌说 大多数人
would regard the Experience Machine with extreme skepticism
会对体验机产生极大的怀疑
and shouldn’t plug in.
因此不会插入
Now, if you’re like me you may agree.
如果你跟我一样 你可能会认同
And one of the first places your mind goes is “The Matrix”–
你首先能想到的就是《黑客帝国》
fake experiences, people batteries, ignorance is bliss.
虚假经历 人类电池 无知是福
But a closer analog I think is “Total Recall”– the original on Mars–
但我认为更接近的是《全面回忆》(原版中火星上的情节)
or even Philip K. Dick’s short story
甚至是菲利普·K·迪克的短篇小说
“We Can Remember It For You Wholesale”
《我们可以为你全部记住》
where Douglas Quail– Quaid in the movies–
书中的道格拉斯·奎尔(电影中的奎德)
elects to undergo a procedure developed by Recall,
选择接受“回忆”公司开发的程序
Incorporated whereby he sits in a machine
他坐在机器中
and is given false memories of a trip to Mars as a secret agent.
被赋予了前往火星的秘密特工的虚假记忆
Central to the tension of the story is the question of, wait,
故事张力的核心在于…… 等等
did this really happen?
这真的发生了吗?
Whether Quail’s experiences are true or not
奎尔的经历是否真实
determines how important they are to the story.
决定了这对故事有多重要
Nozick’s take on the Experience Machine is similar.
诺齐克对体验机的看法与此类似
His wager is that, even as card-carrying hedonists,
他打赌 即使作为名副其实的享乐主义者
we wouldn’t just care about
我们也不会只在乎
experiences being fun or challenging, exciting or pleasurable.
有趣的 充满挑战的 令人兴奋或愉悦的经历
We’d also care if they’re true.
我们也会关心它们是否真实
And that is what makes them important.
这就是它们的重要所在
And broadly speaking, if that’s the case then
从广义上讲 如果是这种情况
hedonism is false, isn’t it?
享乐主义就是错误的 不是吗?
The best life then isn’t simply one
因此 最好的生活不仅仅是
with the most pleasurable experiences
拥有最愉快经历
but rather one with true experiences.
而是拥有真实经历
According to Nozick, there’s an appreciable difference
根据诺齐克的说法 在经历和实践之间
between what one experiences and what one does
存在着明显的区别
and that people value doing more than mental states that resemble doing.
还有 相比于模仿实践的心理感受 人们更看重实践
If you or I were to get into the Experience Machine,
如果你或我要进入体验机
he may wager, upon exiting we’d say,
他可能会打赌 我们在退出时会说
huh! That was fun.
“呵呵!蛮好玩的!
Shame it wasn’t real, though.
可惜这不是真的”
Another way to think about this abandons one type of machine for another.
对此 另一种方法是将体验机换成另一种机器
Consider Truman Burbank of “The Truman Show”
想想《楚门的世界》的楚门·伯班克
and the well-oiled machine
和运转良好的“社会机器”
that is the cast and crew that works tirelessly to make his real to him
其中的演员和工作人员孜孜不倦地为他创造真实感
but fictional to his audience life what it is.
但这对观众来说却是虚构的
Up until things start to unravel,
直到一切瓦解之前
the hedonist has to say Truman has a great life.
享乐主义者都可以说楚门过着美好的生活
Maybe he’s being lied to, but he has no idea.
也许他被骗了 但他不知道
He’s an on-top-of-the-world lucky son of a gun.
他是举世无双的幸运之子
But if what we care about is truth,
但是如果我们关心的是事实
then we may have to say
那么我们可能不得不说
Truman’s life is garbage even before he gets wise.
甚至在楚门认清一切之前 他的生活就是垃圾
Those people are lying to him,
那些人向他撒了谎
perpetrating what you could call an unexperienced harm that
你可以称之为“未经历的伤害”
makes his life worse even if he never directly experiences it.
即使他从未直接经历 这也使他的生活变得更糟
On the flip, though, there must also be unexperienced benefits.
但另一方面 肯定也有未经历的好处
His life could be going great
即使这感觉像一场丑陋的表演
even if it feels like a total poop show.
他也可以过得很好
People love him and respect him.
人们爱他并尊重他
They support him, though he never directly experiences it.
他们支持他 尽管他从未直接经历过这些
“The Truman Show” charts this whole territory
《楚门的世界》将整个图景
from unexperienced harms to unexperienced benefits
从“未经历的伤害”描绘成“未经历的好处”
and shows how a good life is not a straightforward thing.
并证明 美好生活不是一件简单的事情
Like Nozick’s Experience Machine,
就像诺齐克的体验机一样
“The Truman Show” illustrates
《楚门的世界》表明
how pleasurable experiences sort of pale in comparison to what is truly the case,
与常常超出经历之外的真实情况相比
a thing that is often beyond experience,
令人愉悦的经历是多么苍白的东西
which is all Nozick’s mental pod offers–
而这正是诺齐克的体验机能提供的全部
experience, nothing else except for maybe, like, nutrient goop,
除了经历别无其他 至多还有营养液——
everything the body needs.
提供身体所需的各种营养
which brings us actually to some interesting complications
这实际上给我们带来了一些
with the Experience Machine thought experiment not having to do with nutrient goop–
关于“体验机思想实验与营养液无关”的有趣意外
well, sort of not having to do with nutrient goop.
好吧 与营养液或多或少有点关系
In “Welfare, Happiness, and Ethics,”
加拿大哲学家伦纳德·萨姆纳在
Canadian philosopher Leonard Sumner says
《福利 幸福与道德》一书中说
it’s hard to imagine anyone would abandon
很难想象有人会放弃
their body, family, friends for permanent feel-good pod residence,
他们的身体 家人和朋友来获得永久舒适的休眠舱
that even a keen hedonist would be skeptical of Experience Machine Corps’s promises,
即使热衷享乐主义的人也会怀疑体验机公司的承诺
the fidelity of the output, or the robustness of the tech in the case of a technological malfunction–
输出的保真度 或遇到技术故障时的稳定性
function– function– function. [STATIC]
性…… [静电噪音]
Basically, if someone has family or friends;
基本上 如果一个人有家人或朋友
has seen a movie in 4K and thought,
看了一部4K电影 然后想
oh, it doesn’t look all that great;
哦 看起来也不怎么样
or if the movie was, in fact, “Total Recall”– or “The Matrix”–
或如果电影实际上是《全面回忆》或《黑客帝国》
they’d see the EM and go (PROLONGED) uh, no thanks.
他们会看着体验机说(拖长音)“嗯 不用了 谢谢”
A world without relations or responsibility
一个没有亲缘关系 不需要负责任
and with perfectly trustworthy technology
拥有完全可信赖技术的世界
is totally unlike our own–
完全和我们自己的世界不同
“alien,” Sumner writes, concluding
“迥异” 萨姆纳总结中写道:
“who knows what we would choose in a world like that?”
“谁知道在那样的世界中我们会选择什么?”
Sumner says that EM becomes more fruitful
萨姆纳说:“如果我们想象‘不那么宏大的幻想’
if we imagine “less-grand illusions.”
体验机将变得更加富有成效”
He suggests imagining highly-realistic movies and video games
他建议想象高逼真的电影和视频游戏
as opposed to simulated life experiences,
而不是模拟生活经历
which, I mean, might not be too much of a stretch
我的意思是把我们的娱乐技术
imagining that our entertainment technology’s a kind of temporary residence Experience Machine.
想象成一种临时居住的体验机可能并不算太离谱
And after spending some time with your VIVE
当花了一些时间在VIVE上
or getting sucked into a particularly good book,
或沉迷于一本特别好的书之后
do you stop and say, well, that was great–
你会停下来说 “太棒了!
shame it wasn’t real, though?
可惜那不是真的”么?
Stories and video games are not our lives.
故事和视频游戏不是我们的生活
But for the moments that we’re engaged with them,
但是 在与它们建立联系的那一刻
we may reasonably say
我们可以合理地说
they’re experienced as part of our lives– often meaningfully
它们作为我们生活经历的一部分 通常是有意义的
and as a mental state more so than a direct experience,
它们是一种心理状态 而不是直接的经历
by which I mean, as engrossing as “Game of Thrones” is,
我的意思是 它们像《权力的游戏》一样引人入胜
you haven’t had the experience of being crushed by a phalanx,
尽管你没有被方阵击溃的经历
though you may feel like you have.
但你可能会觉得你有过
Insofar as immersive entertainment experiences contribute to them,
就沉浸式娱乐对此的贡献而言
would we say our lives are
我们是否会说 我们的生活
“not circumstantially but intrinsically worse”– as Sumner puts it–
“并非视情况而定 而是本质上就更糟糕”(引自萨姆纳)
because those experiences aren’t real?
因为这些经历不是真实的?
I don’t think so.
我不这么认为
For one, the experience of media is just as real as unmediated experience.
一方面 有媒介体验与无媒介体验一样真实
They’re just different types of real experience.
它们只是不同类型的真实体验
Put more grandly,
更广义地说
something doesn’t have to be actual to be impactful.
有些事情不一定要实际才能产生影响
Wait, doesn’t this bring us back to full-on hedonism?
等等 这是否会使我们重返享乐主义?
Didn’t we say like two minutes ago
我们大约两分钟前不是说过
that a good life is a true life with true experiences?
“美好的生活就是具有真实经历的真实生活”吗?
[SIGHS DEEPLY] How do we reconcile all of this?
[深思] 我们如何协调所有这些?
Well, Sumner has an idea.
好吧 萨姆纳有个主意
He writes, “The lesson of the Experience Machine
他写道:“体验机器教会我们的
may be not that mental state theories are deficient as accounts of the nature of welfare
可能不是 心理状态理论不足以说明“幸福”的性质
but that welfare attracts only one dimension of the value of life.”
而是“幸福”仅包含了生活价值的一个维度”
In other words,
换句话说
a good life is not comprised of only pleasurable experiences.
美好的生活不只是愉悦的经历
Pleasurable experiences are just one part of a good life.
愉悦的经历只是美好生活的一部分
The other parts– well,
至于其他部分 好吧
I’ll let you figure out what those are in the comments.
我会让你在评论中给出答案
But if you need some help,
但如果你需要提示
think about what you would worry about
想一想 如果你准备踏入体验机
if you were getting ready to step into the Experience Machine
享受一生超然而适度的快乐
for a lifetime of detached and temperate pleasure.
你会担心什么?
Let us know in the comments.
让我们在评论中知道
I’ll respond to some of them in next week’s comment response video.
我将在下周的评论回复视频中回答其中一些问题
In this week’s comment response video,
在本周的评论回复视频中
we talked about your thoughts regarding
我们谈到了你对
the ruiners of all things, millennials.
万物破坏者——千禧一代的看法
If you want to watch that one,
如果你想观看
you can click here or find a link in the Doobly-Doo.
可以点击此处或在Doobly-Doo找到链接
We have a prep thread going
我们有一个准备帖
for the next thing we’re reading for the Idea Channel Book Club,
为创意频道读书俱乐部准备下一本书
which is “The Library of Babel” by Jorge Luis Borges.
即Jorge Luis Borges的《通天塔图书馆》
We’re going to be discussing that on the subreddit next week.
我们下周将在subreddit上进行讨论
If you want to go check out the prep thread,
如果您想查看准备帖
it has some awesome supplementary material,
它有一些很棒的补充材料
some sort of preliminary ideas.
和一些初步的想法
It’s really good, already super interesting.
这真的很好 已经很有趣了
We’ll put a link to that in the description, too.
我们也将在视频简介中添加一个链接
And in case you missed it, I was on the most recent episode
以防错过 我在《艺术任务》的最新一集中
of The Art Assignment talking to Sarah about five of my favorite works of art,
与莎拉谈论了我最喜欢的五件艺术作品
Including some Robert Ashley stuff, Agnes Martin,
包括罗伯特·阿什利的一些作品 还有阿格尼丝·马丁的
this punk rock show that I went to this one time in 1999.
还有1999年我去过的一次朋克摇滚表演
We’ll put a link to that in the description, too.
我们也将在视频简介中添加一个链接
And if you aren’t already subscribed to The Art Assignment,
如果您还没有订阅《艺术任务》
you gotta. You just– you gotta.
那就订阅吧 你只需订阅
We have a Facebook and IRC and a subreddit.
我们有Facebook IRC和subreddit账号
Links to those also in the Doobly-Doo.
这些链接也在Doobly-Doo里
And the tweet of the week comes from theodinspire,
还有来自theodinspire的一周推文
who points us towards the Chrome extension
它提到了我们的谷歌扩展程序
that I meant to mention in last week’s episode
我本想在上周视频中提及的
but totally forgot that turns the word “millennials” into “snake people”
但完全忘记将“千禧一代”一词转换为“蛇人”
because that’s what we are.
因为我们就是“千禧一代”
And last but certainly not least,
最后但同样重要的是
this week’s episode would not have been possible or good
如果没有这些名副其实的享乐主义者的辛勤工作
without the very hard work of these card-carrying hedonists.
本周的节目将不可能完成或者成功
[WHOOSHING]
[呼嘶]
[DING]
[叮]
[MUSIC PLAYING]
[音乐响起]

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